Decades of Darkness Footnotes

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[5] Being born a few years after the POD, this Bismarck is not quite OTL Bismarck. He has more loyalty to the idea of Germany as a whole, rather than to Prussia in particular, and he is less inclined to see war as the best solution to a diplomatic problem (although he is quite willing to use it when necessary). He has the same formidable diplomatic talents, however.
[6] The combined armies of the German Confederation, which includes virtually all of the armed forces from the minor German states, and some contributions from each of the great German powers. The Deutschleger is trained and organised along Prussian lines.
[7] i.e. keep Lombardy and Venetia, which were integral parts of the German Confederation. The other Habsburg possessions in Italy were not.
[8] Designed by Matthew Spencer, who is similar to but not identical to OTL’s Christopher Spencer.
[9] The electorate of Hanover is still a possession of Great Britain ITTL, as there is a male ruler in Britain and thus no need for the province to diverge as happened in OTL when Victoria took the throne in Britain.
[10] And the sounds of Bismarck’s laughter could probably have been heard across Europe.
[11] Yes, poor Uri, but better than rejoining Austria.
#64a: Amidst The Gathering Dark
[1] Roughly equivalent to an early Civil War rifle-musket.
[2] West Florida has some of the best cotton and sugar land in the mainland United States, and is thus very wealthy.
#64b: Through Sun And Fire And Sea
[1] Not quite the Spencer carbine of OTL, but a roughly equivalent weapon made by a Mark Spencer of New England.
[2] Something of an exaggeration on Huntington’s part, but the Spencers that New England and Britain sold to the Italian troops caused considerable discomfort to the Austrian and Prussian troops during the Swiss and Italian War.
[3] Would someone with a better knowledge of Spanish mind verifying this translation?
[4] In English, blanco was adopted to mean those former Cubans (or Mexicans, or any other applicable former nationality) who were wealthy enough to get classed as white. The poorer ones were politely classed as non-citizens, or, more usually, “greasers”.
[5] People who specialise in buying up intractable or otherwise rebellious slaves relatively cheaply, breaking their will through diverse means, then selling them on again for a profit.
[6] Cuba was not completely ‘plugged in’ to the broader American slave market for some time after its conquest. But the export of considerable numbers of Cuban slaves – and illegal imports from Africa shipped through Cuba and Puerto Rico – was a considerable factor in the stabilisation of slave prices in the 1860s and even, from the 1870s on, a slight real (i.e. after inflation) decline in prices. This was enhanced by the matching decline in cotton prices from the 1870s on, and the increased availability of non-slave bonded labour.
[7] Some of the omitted sections describe his two battlefield promotions.
#65: Taiping Away
[1] ITTL, Hong Xiuquan has had somewhat better access to Christianity, and adopted more of its tenets. He also has a slightly different view of his relationship to Christ.
[2] OTL Beijing, China. Xinjing means “new capital”.
[3] Not the same person as Frederick Townsend Ward of OTL, but a character intended to show what might have happened if someone like him with similar military experience had joined the Taipings.
[4] Yes, Hong Xiuquan had crowned himself previously. But this was official.
[5] And yes, this makes life more complicated for the European powers. Particularly with the Taipings’ opposition to opium.
#66: Whistle-Stops On The Global Tour
[1] Napoleon III’s desire for ‘la gloire’ in overseas colonies saw the French move into these areas earlier than OTL, although further expansion was delayed by the Swiss and Italian War.
[2] Which had already existed as a separate region, but which was given formal recognition during the Second Congress of Vienna.
[3] Francisco Solano López of Paraguay was not born in TTL, and thus there has been no War of the Triple Alliance, although Uruguay is in an increasingly uncomfortable position, sandwiched between the objectives of Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil.
[4] See the Matthias Baldwin entry in DoD #53a.
[5] Who has the same name but not the same personality as in OTL.
#68: Domino Theory
[1] This name is different from the President mentioned for this period in post #64b – I’ve altered it.
[2] Alexandra Samotsova, and her companion and English translator Alyssa Sherman, writing about the history of influential men came as about as much of a shock as, say, OTL’s Germaine Greer would. Their choice of which historical figures have been most influential is unorthodox, to say the least.
[3] i.e. the War of 1811.
[4] Although Willem Alexander was the first Dutch ruler to be counted as a Kaiser, the dynastic nomenclature includes the previous two Willems as theoretical Kaisers.
[5] To Willem, English and American accents sound awfully similar.
[6] There has been a small retcon here: Britain kept Saint-Pierre and Miquelon after the First Congress of Vienna.
[7] President Griffin is said to have remarked, “Let the Brazilians enjoy ruling the Indians”. Most of the plantations and European settlement were on the coast, and the interior was inhabited by hostile Indian tribes which the United States had no great use for.
[8] Another small retcon: Bismarck’s title is (and has been for some time) Reichskanzler (Reichs Chancellor) rather than Reichsminister.
[9] The leaders of Colombia and Venezuela viewed the Bogota Pact as a deterrent, wishing to avoid war with the United States at all, and they believed (correctly) that including Mexico in the pact would be more likely to provoke a declaration of war they wished to avoid.
#69: An American Miscellany
[1] i.e. non-citizens, all those who fell into the categories of peon, debt-slave, or just don’t have a categorisation yet.
[2] The closest character TTL has to Frederick Douglass.
[3] Although born in Orange County, which was part of Hudson state, Seward had resided in Buffalo for several years.
[4] John Speed is an ATL ‘brother’ of James Speed, who was born in Kentucky and who was Attorney General under Lincoln and Johnson in OTL. John Speed was also born in Kentucky ITTL and had similar anti-slavery views, but had a more militaristic inclination and emigrated to Michigan after the War of 1833. He joined the New England Navy, initially on the Great Lakes, and earned some recognition as one of the leading commanders during the naval war against Russia.
Interlude #1: Gazing Into The Crystal Ball
[1] TTL’s version of environmentalism.
#70: Rayne In Spain
[1] DFS is an acronym for Department of Foreign Security, one of New England’s two main intelligence agencies. It was formed in 1865. The DFS is mainly responsible for diplomatic, political and economic intelligence. Its sister and sometimes-rival agency, the euphemistically-named Technical Classification Board (TCB), is responsible for military and technological intelligence.
[2] i.e. without the withholding of sections deemed classified or inappropriate for public knowledge.
[3] i.e. from the President.
[4] The Central Pacific, with a route similar to the OTL Southern Pacific, was completed in 1866. Without the distraction of the American Civil War, more resources were placed into completing a transcontinental railroad a couple of years ahead of OTL, and the preferred route was a southern one, given the more generally southern focus of the *United States.
[5] Not the same Isabella, personality-wise, as OTL, but royalty tends to stick with the same names...
[6] Another post-POD character with the same name, but who is considerably more militarily competent than his OTL counterpart.
[7] Viz, the Philippines and Guam.
Interlude #2: Bride of the Emerald Aisle
[1] Two Catholic Archbishops, (Armagh and Dublin), Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin, and Lord Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
#71: Eye of the Griffin
[1] Yes, I know the Liberty Bell had nothing to do with the Declaration of Independence. So, for that matter, did Hugh Griffin, but it didn’t stop him making the comparison in a speech.
[2] i.e. aristocratic
[3] machine gun
[4] This class is equivalent to the OTL Devastation-class ironclads, and somewhat superior to both the New Englander and American ironclads.
[5] This class is slightly superior to the Colossus-class of OTL.
#72: La Gloire
[1] Strictly speaking, France did not acquire Andorra; it established a greater Andorra consisting of the entire bishopric of Urgel, which was jointly ruled with that bishop. However, Napoleon III was keen to present this acquisition as a French victory.
[2] The British here are affected in part by their Australian colonies, where the locals are quite determined not to have any French expansion into the South Pacific, and also by sympathy for Spain, which means that the Philippines are kept under Spanish rule for the time being.
[3] Ceuta and Melilla, which are Spanish enclaves in OTL, but which Portugal acquired during the Congress of Versailles in 1872 in TTL.
[4] A nickname given to roughly the last quarter of the nineteenth century, so-called because so many of the leading statesmen and monarchs fitted that name, principally Napoleon IV of France, King Richard IV of the United Kingdom, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick IV, Kaiser Willem IV of the Netherlands, and Tsar Peter IV of the Russias, and also various lesser statesmen during that period such as President John Adams IV of New England.
#73: Amidst The Sands Of Time
[1] The figure for slaves was sometimes inaccurate, particularly in the northern-tier states such as Maryland and Delaware, who tended to mark some of the de facto free blacks as slaves, or just discount them from the census altogether. Legally, of course, blacks cannot be classed as free, although many still have de facto freedom in 1880.
[2] i.e. non-citizens, all those who fell into the categories of peon, debt-slave, or just don’t have a categorisation yet.
[3] The district of St. Martin consists of the former Dutch part of the island of St Martin/Sint Maarten; the former French section is part of the district of Guadeloupe.
[4] Strictly speaking, Caroline is still classified as a district rather than a province in 1880; its borders correspond roughly to the OTL Canadian province of Alberta.
[5] Except, of course, that they are both wealthy and slaveowners. The Patriots, as a party, emphasise more of the struggle so that any white man can pursue the “Great American Dream”, i.e. to earn a lot of money and have other people working for you. Their candidates, however, still need to have money. And, oddly enough, while they find many supporters amongst the up-and-coming, when those people attain wealth, as often as not they switch to the Democrats to support the status quo.
[6] The U.S. state of New Leon includes much of the OTL Mexican state of Coahuila, including most of the cotton lands near the Durango border.
[7] Francisca is Hampton’s second wife; he married her shortly after the First Mexican War.
[8] The Patriots are a much more factional party than the Democrats. Broadly speaking, the Patriots appeal to the middle-classes and the nouveax riche. Their supporters range from the “northern Patriots” of Ohio and the Sylvanias, to the small farmers of the Midwest, the miners of the booming Western territories, cattle-ranchers in West Texas and Chihuahua, and most of the frontier areas. They also tend to be more expansionistic and militaristic. They are supported by some industrialists, mostly those who are “new money”, but many of the more established industrialists are also planters, and thus tend to favour the Democrats.
[9] German historians, in particular (and to a degree, Russian historians as well) tend to describe all forms of American indentured labour as forms of slavery.
[10] Not a large one, but a debt-slave who worked very hard had a chance to earn freedom. Most were unable to do so, but a fraction were successful.
#74: President Wanted (No Experience Necessary)
[1] King James I was born in 1821.
[2] The concept of “working funerals” hasn’t really caught on in New England yet.
#75: Nightfall
[1] Not the Brutus Junius Clay of OTL, but the family had used the name before, so I think it’s reasonable that they would adopt it in ATL for a person who is of distinctly different character.
[2] Which follows a route similar to the OTL Union Pacific, linking Sacramento, North California to Omaha, Nebraska.
[3] OTL Chicago, Illinois, and a very important commerce hub between Canada, New England and the United States.
[4] i.e. Clay’s lobbyists in Columbia.
[5] Clay is obviously not aware of which language the word “guerrilla” comes from.
#76: Going Under
[1] In previous declarations of war (and other official documents), as with this one, it was customary to speak of the “the United States of America and their territories”. The increasing centralisation of the United States since the late 1850s, however, meant that popular usage referred to "the United States" in the singular. This would eventually be eventually reflected in official usage.
#77: The Mexican Assortment
[1] Actually, Astor got this wrong; the quote is usually attributed to Henri Turenne (or sometimes to Comte De Bussy-Rabutin).
[2] Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. See posts #64b and #70.
[3] The building where the German Diet meets.
[4] Neudeutsch is used more widely in Frankfurt than elsewhere, although common military service (except for Prussia and the Netherlands) is helping to broaden its adoption.
[5] The National Assembly, the “lower house” of the Diet, with elected delegates from each member state. The “upper house” consists of one, usually aristocratic representative from each of the member states.
[6] Combined German Army. It consists of units from each of the minor German states. Much of Austria is also included – Galicia, Austria proper, Bohemia, and Italy. Hungary has separate armed forces, as does Croatia, the third leg of the “Triple Monarchy” (consisting of most of the southern Slavic portions of the Austrian Balkans).
[7] Also known as Ouidah, a port in OTL Benin which was a major slave export centre. ITTL, the USA bought the rights to it off Portugal during the 1820s (the Portuguese were willing to sell it mostly because the French had been eyeing it).
[8] This one actually was from Voltaire.
#78: Enemies of the States
[1] General Robert E. Lee, Jr, ATL son of General Robert E. Lee.
[2] ATL equivalent of the Medal of Honor, created during the War of 1833. It has similar status, including the tradition that all other soldiers salute the wearer first.
[3] ATL medal equivalent to an OTL Distinguished Service Cross.
[4] The accounts of the Purple Heart in OTL were lost in Washington DC records until 1932. ITTL, they were discovered as part of the move to Knoxville in 1841, and the military decoration was revived after that time.
[5] i.e. in a first-past-the-post electoral system.
[6] In other words, property tests and religious qualifications are abolished for all participation in federal elections. This is not yet a requirement for state elections; the New England Constitution has no equivalent to Article 1 of the XIVth Amendment to the OTL U.S. Constitution.
[7] i.e. for allowing “blacks” to vote. All other groups were already permitted to vote on becoming citizens.
[8] The Supreme Court determined that establishment of such national laws was constitutionally valid as part of regulation of commerce (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of both the OTL U.S. Constitution and ATL New England Constitution). This decision will have far-reaching implications for the authority of the New England federal government.
#79a: Everybody’s Fool
[1] Gringo is a term which ATL started to be applied to the Americans after the First Mexican War. Rumours suggest that in OTL it was invented during the Mexican-American War of 1848-48. Either way, given its etymology, I think it’s reasonable that a similar term would show up here. ATL, it’s considered mildly derogatory, but nothing like as insulting as chacal (jackal).
#79b: Taking Over Me
[1] OTL English translation:

There is the white (man) in conquest born,

Just got up for dinner, boss?

Oh, you want me to whisper,

He exits, his day’s work done.
“Ai” derives from Spanish “hay” (there is/there are). Anglo refers to white Americans. “Conquist” became the new pronunciation of conquest (from Spanish conquista). “Cen” is a shorting of Spanish “cena” (dinner). “Jefe” (boss) is a straight borrowing from Spanish. “Susure” is an anglicised version of Spanish “susurro” (whisper). “Sally” is an anglicisation/throwback of Spanish “sale” (he/she/it exits).
[2] TTL’s version of Gatling guns.
[3] ITTL, Joshua Norton is somewhat better dressed, due to having spent longer wealthy before he lost his fortune and had to declare himself Emperor.
[4] Napoleon IV ordered the partial restoration of the Château de Versailles and transformation into imperial residence when he took the throne in 1876. This provoked considerable grumbling from several quarters in France.
#80: Have You Ever Seen The Rain?
[1] Elgar is slightly incorrect here; Blaxland et al. didn’t make it all the way across the Blue Mountains either in OTL or ITTL. The first white man to glimpse the “sea of grass”, as far as I can find out, was George Evans, a surveyor who mapped the route as far as OTL Bathurst.
[2] Something which Macquarie worried about even in OTL (about the American South, rather than all of the USA), and which he would be more worried about ATL, as he watched the beginning expansion of a hostile USA.
[3] A relative handful (2-3,000) additional free settlers showed up before 1825 ITTL, who would otherwise have gone to the USA. These didn’t really dilute the Exclusives as Macquarie intended; they just created additional demand for convict labour (which was supplied). But they did boost Australia’s population, including bringing across one Irishman who would be important a few years later.
[4] This was a year earlier than in OTL, due to more colonists pressing into the Australian hinterland.
[5] Governor Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond and Lennox, who in OTL ended up in Canada and died of rabies and got bitten by a fox, here ends up in New South Wales replacing Governor Macquarie after 1821 [20].
[6] In OTL, Governor Brisbane rejected this proposal. It is approved ITTL.
[7] Approval was granted a year earlier than in OTL.
[8] Irish in the USA in the 1830s weren’t actually treated badly, but the rumours were enough to send a proportion of the Irish emigrants to Canada, South Africa, Argentina and Australia instead.
[9] This number of immigrants is considerably lower than in OTL, where 370,000 immigrants arrived in Australia in 1852 alone (the peak year). The lesser transportation technology and the distraction of war means that the Australian gold rush is more spaced out over a number of years, although there will be slightly higher numbers of migrants overall.
[10] In OTL, Koori is a collective name for many of the indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. ITTL, it has been adopted as the preferred name for the indigenous peoples of the Australian mainland (excluding Torres Strait Islanders), although many ATL authors still use the older (and occasionally considered offensive) term Aborigine.
[11] Atapattu is mistaken here; transportation to West Australia ended in 1859, and had been limited in the five years before that. On a more general note about transportation: penal reform in the UK took longer than OTL, due to the delay of the Liberals taking office, and this meant that while the overall numbers of convicts were reduced compared to OTL, there were more in West Australia when it was the sole target of transportation, which built up this colony correspondingly much faster than OTL.
[12] i.e. the American War of Independence
[13] The Legislative Council had previously been appointed by the governor to advise the governor. This had obvious effects on its composition and recommendations.
[14] Wentworth and Macarthur made a similar proposal in 1852 in OTL.
[15] Members of the Australian House of Lords after Kingdom status who are from the other provinces tend to become life peers only.
[16] ITTL, the Dutch never took possession of New Guinea. They were considering it in 1828 when fears of Belgian revolution kept them busy at home. Afterwards, they were generally too busy with European concerns and then focusing northward on Siam and China. By the 1860s, there was enough Australian involvement that the Dutch deemed that any attempt to annex the generally unproductive territory (from a European point of view) would risk unnecessarily antagonising Britain.
[17] ITTL, the system of using “kanakas” in de facto slavery was never allowed to develop in Kingsland, due to the greater distrust of anything that could be called slavery. Instead, lower-caste migrants from India filled those roles, and excluding them would have disastrous economic implications for Kingsland agriculture.
[18] There are a number of differences from OTL which (narrowly) keep immigration restrictions out of Federation. The first is the already-mentioned greater strength of industry ITTL, which has developed quicker in an Australia with a greater population and which had this population a generation earlier (during the 1840s) when shipping from Britain was still quite expensive. The industrialists press strongly for continued open immigration. The second difference is that the labour union movement has been (relatively) short-circuited in Australia, which never had the same labour shortage after the 1830s which made the movements so strong in Australia. (There are still unions, but they have far less power than OTL). This eliminated much of the OTL union advocacy for immigration restrictions. The third difference is that overt racism has become discredited earlier ITTL, at least within the British Empire, with the living example of a powerful country with institutionalised racism. This weakened, although by no means eliminated, the racial attitudes which were the other major reason for immigration restrictions in OTL.
[19] In OTL, Wentworth’s entry placed second. Butterflies have kept the OTL winner from entering Cambridge ITTL.
[20] For those not familiar with OTL Australian history, Lachlan Macquarie was one of the early governors who was an excellent administrator but who had a habit of getting everything named after him. I think it’s reasonable that he would get a colony named after him here; he didn’t so much blow his own trumpet as play his own orchestra.
#81: Riding the Dragon
[1] With apologies to FDR.
#82: The Spear of St. George
[1] Although it turned out to be, “To Moscow and perish”.
[2] At this time, seven cities, Sydney , Liverpool [Melbourne, Victoria], Hobart, Eden [Auckland, New Zealand], Adelaide, Stirling [Perth, Western Australia] and Richmond [Brisbane, Queensland]. The Northern Territory has not yet been included as a province, nor has New Guinea, although settlement in Palmerston [Darwin] is considerably larger than in OTL.
[3] The “First Son of Christ”, also called “The Grandson of Heaven”, the Taiping Emperor of China.
[4] Which they do, but only a token contribution.
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