The War of 1833 saw some of the advances in medical organisation, such as the development of specialised nurses, effective army hospitals, and a trained medical corps, which were not seen in the OTL USA until the American Civil War. The mobilisation of large numbers of people in this war meant that the need was recognised sooner. There were also some advances in treatment, such as using bromine to prevent gangrene, and recognition of the problems of childhood diseases, which developed earlier than in OTL. Medicine is thus somewhat more advanced ITTL. The Pirate Wars will also give some recognition of the problems of tropical disease (although cures for most tropical diseases are beyond the current tech level).
 Adhemar is a post-POD character, born in 1811, and thus just enough older than Grant to think of him as young.
 This is, of course, not the Ulysses Grant of OTL, but a “brother”, born ITTL, and who is somewhat different than the Grant of OTL.
 The USA purchased the Virgin Islands (Danish West Indies) from Denmark in 1844. Slavery was still legal there (Denmark did not abolish it there in OTL until 1848) and, naturally, will continue to be so under U.S. rule.
#42b: The North American Tour
 The 1850 U.S. census did not include the population from the incorporated territories (Wilkinson, Nevada, Kansas, and Indian Territories) or the unincorporated territories (Caribbean, Oregon Territory). It also did not include the substantial numbers of U.S. citizens living within Mexico's northwestern provinces, particularly Upper California (an estimated 10,000 people at this time) and the Nephites around the Great Salt Lake.
 Notable emigration: a total of 220,602 free blacks went to Liberia by 1850, including 159,824 from USA and 60,778 from New England.
 The pre-statehood populations of Coahuila and West Texas are measured through the Greater Texas Census.
 Unlike their counterparts across the border, the Canadian and British censuses did not separate out Negroes during 1850.
 Includes British Columbia, Northwest Territories, British-Canadian portions of Oregon Country.
 Nova Scotia and New Brunswick received considerable New Englander immigration since around 1820 (approximately 50,000 each), and New Brunswick also saw considerable emigration of its francophone population to Quebec after Canadian unification. By 1850, approximately 22% of New Brunswick's and 15% of Nova Scotia's population is of Yankee descent.
#43a: Revolutions – Islands in a Sea of Crime
 Not quite the Karl Marx of OTL, but similar in most aspects of his personality. There are some important differences, e.g. Karl Marx does not explicitly deny religion in TTL.
 Some pedantic historians have noted that, despite the claims here, several European countries within these limits were untouched by the revolutions of 1849, e.g. Spain and Sweden.
 For a very low value of “reform”.
 And, of course, a Venetian republic with a fleet to back it up will be a challenge for the Austrians to recapture.
 Readers who are perplexed by the change in Visscher’s usual academic tone are invited to note his country of origin and, importantly, publication.
#43b: Revolutions – Against The Tired Of Years
 William II of the Netherlands died on 17 March 1849 in both OTL and TTL. His son, Willem Alexander, is not genetically the same son as in OTL, but is even more reactionary and absolutist than his OTL equivalent. And, in TTL, he has no 1848 constitution to restrain him.
 OTL Belgium, which here has twice failed of revolution. William II, a more moderate man than his father, made some concessions toward autonomy for the French-speaking provinces, although not the Flemish-speaking areas even where there was a French speaking component.
 The Netherlands in TTL still include the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (larger than in OTL because none has been conceded to Belgium), and a stretch of land on the west bank of the Rhine, up to but not including Cologne.
 An earlier, bloodily defeated Polish revolt in 1842 has taken away a lot of the Polish desire for uprising.
#43c: Revolutions – On The Oceans Of Enmity
 The Chartists were delayed as a movement because they were largely generated in response to working-class exclusion from electoral reform. They have been similarly excluded in TTL – indeed, the Great Reform Act of 1840 had a more limited franchise than its OTL equivalent – but the delay in instituting this reform means that the Chartist disturbances were similarly pushed back.
 It is, I presume, clear what sort of agenda Pedro E. Hanford is pushing in his analysis of these events.
 Viz, the second Belgian revolution, and the combined German operations to suppress it.
 He died a year earlier than in OTL, due to a different illness.
 The child who would have been Christian IX of Denmark was born female ITTL, and due to various other mishaps has no surviving male siblings.
 Prussia has owned all of Saxony since 1815 in TTL. The royal family of Saxony were given a new kingdom in Bologna-Ferrara in Italy.
 Not the Franz Josef of OTL, but an ATL child of Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and Princess Sophie of Bavaria, born in 1828 and with a different personality to OTL.
 Marie Coburg is exaggerating somewhat; Germany is in no sense a united nation in 1850. But its appearance is still quite threatening to other powers, no matter how friendly it acts.
#44: Greece on the Wheels of Revolution
 In OTL, Lord Byron died of “marsh fever” – probably pneumonia. Here, he recovers from it, as his initial infection was less severe.
 In OTL, in one of the more blatant examples of price-gouging, these frigates ran late and were charged at double the agreed price. This is not what happens in TTL.
#45: Too Much To Bear
 California has seen somewhat more U.S. emigration in 1850 than it received in the early days in OTL, roughly 5,000 citizens, but it has not yet seen the boost of a gold rush.
 Kit Carson is still famous as a guide in TTL, but he leads Travis further north, not through the Rockies.
#46: Down Mexico Way
 Alexandra Samotsova, and her companion and English translator Alyssa Sherman, writing about the history of influential men came as about as much of a shock as, say, OTL’s Germaine Greer would. Their choice of which historical figures have been most influential is unorthodox, to say the least.
#47: South of the Border
 Although originally a New Jerseyan, Kearney was one of those who shifted to the USA during the post-war migrations.
 Grant, of course, is not entirely up to speed on the differences between “Spanish-speaking” and “Spanish”, or, for that matter, the difference between “blanco” and “mestizo”, or many other subtleties of Yucatan culture.
#48: The Treaty of the Monarch Butterfly
 This treaty is based quite closely on the OTL Treaty of Guadalupe-Hildago, but with appropriate changes made to indicate the change in the character of the United States in TTL.
 Strangely enough, most of the artillery, munitions and apparatus of war which the Mexicans thought had been in their fortifications when captured by the Americans had, in fact, mysteriously vanished shortly before said captures, and could not be located despite the most vigorous searching by American troops.
 I’d appreciate commentary on the plausibility of the selected borders; basically, I’m assuming that the USA wants a line at roughly the 25th parallel, but including the Gulf coast down to Tampico. What boundaries they’d specify is an interesting question, however. The maps I can find don’t make it very easy to specify what a realistic border would be – I suspect it would involve an appropriate river as the westernmost portion of the border.
 The OTL equivalent article in this treaty allowed Mexican inhabitants of the former territories to have the option of become U.S. citizens. In this treaty, they are not afforded that option.
 Again, the OTL article to this treaty specified that Mexicans who were waiting to be admitted to the US as citizens would in the meantime include all rights of liberty, property, and freedom in exercise of religion. These clauses are not included in the ATL treaty.
 The OTL treaty made some commitments about not dispossessing Indian inhabitants of the former Mexican territories. No U.S. government in TTL would make such a commitment.
#49: A House Divided
 New Englanders date their independence from the day when the delegates from the Boston Convention returned to that city and issued writs calling for elections.
 The events of 1845 have been retconned so that New England purchased Nova Scotia (after a plebiscite), but not southern Ontario or New Brunswick.
 The Radical Party is an outgrowth of the Republican Party. It consists of the merger of certain elements of the Republican Party who left after the War of 1833, when the Republicans were tainted with accusations of being pro-American, and a more recent split led by advocates of more dramatic reform than even most Republicans can countenance.
 The New England Constitution requires the approval of two-thirds of both Houses of Congress before a new state can be admitted. This is often quite difficult to achieve.
#50: For Kaisers and Country
 Who fills a role roughly equivalent to the Speaker of the House in the U.S. House of Representatives.
 The Reichs Chancellor is the head of the largest political party in the Reich – effectively a prime minister, although he is only head of government, not head of state.
 To Branson’s thorough-going British perspective, dominating the Continent meant just that, dominating the mainland of Europe, not the British Isles per se .
 But by the same token, even if Germany did dominate Britain, don’t expect Branson to admit it.
 A proposal delivered as a “suggestion” to the Holy Roman Emperor, whose role was to represent the Reich in foreign affairs, and who duly passed it on, recognising the advantages.
#51a: A Matter of Patriotism
 Some historians are of the opinion that Cass wrote even his private diary in the expectation that it would become publicly viewed some day.
 ITTL, the Democrats showed no great interest in organising federal territory into organised Territories in preparation for statehood (largely because most of their voting base came from the more established states, and many of the western territories were expected to vote Patriot on statehood).
 These were duly organised in 1853 as North California Territory [OTL California], South California Territory [OTL Baja California, Mexico], New Mexico Territory [including OTL New Mexico, Arizona, and the rest of the northern Mexican acquisitions], and Tamaulipas Territory [OTL Tamaulipas, Mexico and the northern parts of Veracruz, around Tampico].
 Viz, until it has more white men in it.
 While the British are still not all that friendly to the United States, they welcome the opportunity to settle what could have been a potential source of friction in the future, especially given that at the time they were worried over events in Europe.
 A reference to a relatively minor slave revolt, but one which was symbolically important because of its location within the federal capital.
 This is, to put it mildly, a swift ratification, but an indication of the level of hostility present in the United States. TTL has already seen massive free black emigration to Liberia (not always voluntary) even before this amendment made it officially required.
 This amendment does not specifically define “negro”; however, expect Congress to provide such a definition based on the “one drop” rule.
#51b: A Matter of Democracy
 These authors, like many others, do not class Texas as ever being a sovereign state.
#52: Over The Fine Dark Sea
 i.e when Elsass/Alsace became a member state of the German Confederation after the end of the Confederation War.
 The Dutch ruled the southern half of Taiwan for a while in OTL, but were expelled in 1662.
 This was the name the Dutch gave to the fort during their previous colonisation attempt in the seventeenth century. They have reinstated it here for reasons of pride.
 The flag of New England is a red Cross of St George on a white background, with a blue canton and white stars in a circle. It currently has nine, to represent the nine states, but is trying to redesign it to include eleven stars in a convenient arrangement. Some have proposed redesigning the flag to have them arranged in a square or lines rather than a circle, which has caused the dispute.
#53a: A Collection of Butterflies
 i.e. slaves. Bonded (or indentured) labour is a catch-all term used by many American writers to include all the varieties of chattel slaves, convicts, peons, serfs, debt-slaves and contracted labour variously employed throughout the United States, but in this period, slaves were the only form of indentured labour.
 This was established during the brief thaw in American-New Englander relations under the Sanford presidency.
 In OTL, Junius Smith introduced tea later, during 1848, and although it was commercially successful, the venture ended with his death. Here, the changed circumstances mean that he introduces it earlier, and it becomes an established part of South Carolina’s industry.
 i.e. slaveowner.
 viz, he did not want them to use the lash. Birney is not quite as vehemently anti-slavery in TTL as he was in OTL – he didn’t marry Agatha McDowell, who had an influence on his anti-slavery sentiments – but he remained a staunch opponent of it.
#53b: Footnotes of History
 In OTL, Audubon had the same doubts, but in March 1810 he was persuaded by the noted ornithological illustrator Alexander Wilson to continue with his drawings. ITTL, Wilson had other calls on his time, and Audubon abandoned his bird drawings.
 In OTL, Beaufort College served as a preparatory college, rather than a full university. Barnwell attended it first, but then went on to Harvard. With Harvard now in another country, a variety of educational institutions like Beaufort College were turned into attempted prestigious universities to match those of Harvard. During the early years, these universities were not particularly successful, as indicated by Barnwell’s (and others) scathing comments.
 One of the few characters who managed to get born so far post-POD within North America.
#53c: Filling the Annals
 In OTL, Darwin was the second choice for travelling companion for Captain Fitzroy on the Beagle. ITTL, the first choice candidate was accepted.
#53f: Mere Details
 Mostly because they have many other people to hate, Americans ITTL are notably less anti-Semitic than they were in OTL during the nineteenth century. Being a Jew can still be a barrier to social advancement in some ways, but much less so than in OTL.
#54: The Charge of the Right Brigade
 Viz, the same “kingdom within Empire” status which was granted to Canada.
 A Neudeutsch phrase which has slipped into English, meaning roughly “the final knife”.
 Europe, Asia, Africa and North America.
#55: New England, Old Problems
 When Michigan and Nova Scotia were admitted, Congress said, in effect, “Thank you very much. Now please send us two Senators and one Representative each, and we’ll reapportion your representation after the 1860 census.”
#56: What Is And What Should Never Be
 A lot of Americans at this point had trouble distinguishing New York State in New England, where Abraham Lincoln resided, from New York City, which was not part of his state. Hammond either shares this misapprehension, or is willing to stretch the truth to make his point.
 A common Germano-Italian name for the War of 1833. German historians often make remarks about Anglo-American relations in the period from 1776-1837 being a drawn three-match series: USA 1, UK 0 (First Anglo-American War/American Revolutionary War), USA 1, UK 1 (Second Anglo-American War/War of 1811), with the decider being a draw.
 The United States had not, in fact, imposed complete order on the Yucatan by this time, or even for some time afterwards. Some of the more outlying areas of the Yucatan, particularly the southeast, remained hostile for quite a few more years yet. But the bulk of the Yucatan had been pacified by this time.
 Strangely enough, this happened most often in areas where the National Guard judged that the serfs were growing rebellious, and making an example of a few of the more abusive landowners was a politic way to calm them.
 Some authors dispute the importance of the Yucatan system to the development of American indentured labour, and ascribe more importance to social trends and developments in the main areas of Mexico annexed during the War of 1833 and the First Mexican War.
 German historians, in particular (and to a degree, Russian historians as well) tend to view all forms of American indentured labour as forms of slavery.
 Including, naturally, the right to lose all your property and having your land seized if you rebel against the United States.
 The Caribbean inhabitants could in practice earn citizenship easily enough if they wanted it, but the United States in 1859 did not want to admit any of the Caribbean islands as states.
#57: Jewels of the Caribbean
 An ATL character with a flair for oratory, inspiration, and possessing absolutely no comprehension of failure. Mark Lansdowne spent two years with the Jaguars in the Yucatan, and is quite experienced at warfare in tropical environments. Since leaving the army, he has acted as a mercenary filibuster, making one failed expedition to Mexico to arrange a filibuster of Veracruz, and failing horribly.
 Not as many abolitionist Cubans as OTL, however. U.S. attitudes have followed the slave routes to Cuba, Puerto Rico and Brazil.
#58: The Call of Liberty
 Not the Lord Lyons of OTL, but a ‘brother’ of the same name.
 An agreement to divide the Balkans into spheres of influence, with the major portion going to Russia, signed by both nations to end the Confederation War earlier in the 1850s.
#59a: The Numbers of the Beast
 The figure for slaves was sometimes inaccurate, particularly in the northern-tier states such as Maryland and Delaware, who tended to mark some of the de facto free blacks as slaves, or just discount them from the census altogether. Legally, of course, blacks cannot be classed as free, although many still have de facto freedom in 1860.
 i.e. non-citizens, all those who fell into the categories of peon, debt-slave, or just don’t have a categorisation yet.
 The population figures for some of the territories, especially the former Mexican lands, are somewhat less then reliable. Wittgenstein has used the best figures available, however.
 New Leon includes those parts of OTL Coahuila north of the 25th parallel which weren’t swallowed by the USA when they acquired Texas in 1834.
 Influenced by the British-Canadians to the north, the people of Oregon tend to class Indians as white, at least in 1860. (Those who make it onto the census, anyway). Whether this will last into the admission of Oregon as a state is another question entirely.
 Sonora includes the northern quarter of OTL Sinaloa, which was basically not settled in OTL.
 Yucatan was not, strictly speaking, a U.S. territory in 1860. But no-one was in any doubts which way it would end up, it would just be a question of how long until the ‘sovereign’ government of Yucatan requested annexation, and how long before the USA agreed.
 There was no formal census of Cuba in 1860; the military situation was still too volatile. This is an estimate based on later data. The noncitizen population represents those who were mixed-race or otherwise free blacks, and who would have to have their status clarified.
 Nicaragua’s census figure is also an estimate; there is no firm data available. The population was classed as non-citizen for convenience, although a portion of the population was expected to be classed as white eventually.
 The man who in OTL became Colonel Abraham Meyers, Quartermaster-General of the Confederate Army, and who had Fort Myers, Florida named after him. ITTL, Myers took more of a military line, fighting in the Second Seminole War and the First Mexican War, before entering politics.
#59b: The Marks of the Beast
 Unlike their counterparts across the border, the Canadian and British censuses did not separate out Negroes during 1850.
 Includes British Columbia and Northwest Territories, but does not include Alaska, which had not yet been formally annexed in 1860.
 The convenience of the census figures all ending in multiples of five has led some demographic historians to question whether there was some amendment to the census figures. Particularly given the discrepancy between the census figures and the recorded votes for the plebiscites in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island in 1861.
#60: In The Fading Light
 Any similarities to the funeral speech of the OTL 16th President are purely intentional.
 Having taken over from the old militia system, the National Guard acts as both local anti-slavery patrol and military reserves. They are the first units called up when the regular armed forces are deemed to be insufficient, before any calls are placed for volunteers.
 A post-POD character, although with the same name as the OTL Lord Lyons, and with similar political connections through his father which got him into the diplomatic service and to North America.
#61: Jaws of the Jackal
 This is of course a person who is similar in many respects to Porfirio Diaz, although not quite the same person. However, he did have the same sense of the history of Mexico as his OTL counterpart.
 The pseudonym of an Australian author who has published books on a wide variety of topics, including many at or beyond the fringes of contemporary scholarship.
 Except, perhaps, for the Khazars.
 Yes, this means that Mexico has no Caribbean coastline. The transit rights through Veracruz form their only outlet.
#62: Filling In The Blanks
 Barnum returned to political office for the 1860 Congressional elections, representing the Republican Party.
 A post-POD character, who is vigorous in his application of Matthist ideology and the “struggle between the races”.
 The design of the “Black Prince” is roughly equivalent to the “Warrior” of OTL.
 How genuine this request was is debateable, although the ladino inhabitants of the Yucatan do much prefer U.S. backing to Maya raids.
#63: How Many Holes Has A Swiss Cheese?
 Special thanks go to Good Habit for suggesting the revised history of Switzerland.
 The former Kingdom of Bologna has been retconned out, with the royal house of Saxony now established in Switzerland instead.
 The division is similar in some respects to the divisions in the OTL Sonderbundskrieg, but with complications from monarchist factions as well. Some Swiss wanted to keep a monarch with strictly limited powers, using him as a mediating figure between differences in the cantons, while some wanted republics.
 Although France was nominally a republic in this period, it was dominated by Napoleon II, who was hardly averse to the idea of restoring a monarch.