Decades of Darkness Footnotes



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[4] The Jäger-Doter series (models I to V) were the most numerous German panzers built in the period 1909-1929. The JD-Vs were state of the art in 1926 when they were first deployed operationally, but Germany’s rivals developed heavier arlacs which would be taken into the Great War. The JD series were replaced in 1930-1 by heavier designs, most notably the Lion (heavy) and Lynx (medium) panzers.
[5] Literally, Armoured Engineer’s Vehicle. An ATL equivalent of the AVRE (Armoured Vehicle, Royal Engineers) used in the D-Day landings.
[6] Or 884, depending on which source you ask.
[7] i.e. pirates and enemies fought in colonial wars, such as China.
[8] i.e. the USS Vanguard, TTL’s equivalent to HMS Dreadnought.
[9] Speck would usually be translated as ‘Bacon’, but unlike the code-names for the other invasion beaches, this name is traditionally left untranslated in history texts written in English.
[10] More accurately, inflict enough losses that the surviving German warships can do a reasonable job of holding off naval raids.
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Decades of Darkness #184: Much Ado About Everything
[1] A reference to the “fire squads” which the *USA used to suppress guerrillas and their civilian support in the former Colombia. See post #163a.
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Decades of Darkness Interlude #7: Sharing All The World
[1] Yosemite National Park, established in 1872, covers a similar area to OTL’s Yosemite. Three Rivers National Park covers most of the area of OTL’s Sequoia and King Canyon National Parks. Yellowstone National Park is somewhat larger than the OTL equivalent, including some nearby areas such as Hebgen Lake. Grand Delta is a national park which includes most of the Colorado River Delta.
[2] Redwood Lodge is a lobby group formed to protect environmental interests in the United States, similar to the OTL Sierra Club. It received its name because its first meetings were held in a redwood lodge on Muriel Hayden’s ranch.
[3] Buffalo are properly called American bison, but most ATL sources prefer the first name. ATL American bison were hunted out for much the same reasons as they were hunted historically: to destroy the livelihood of the Great Plains tribes, and to allow ranchers to run cattle without competition. In DoD, American bison were hunted even more vigorously than in OTL, because of the greater persecution of the Amerindians, and the species was eventually driven to extinction.
[4] As in OTL, passenger pigeons were commercially hunted as a cheap source of meat for slaves and poor whites. With continued slavery and a larger slave population, this has meant that the passenger pigeon was hunted more vigorously, and was driven extinct eight years before this happened historically.
[5] The National Heritage Service is roughly equivalent to the OTL National Parks Service. It oversees national parks, national monuments, and a variety of other heritage properties.
[6] The Stirling Star is one of the main tabloid newspapers of Stirling [Perth, Western Australia]. Column 11 is a regular feature which appears on the eleventh page of every Sunday edition. It focuses on external stories (i.e. outside Stirling, whether national or international) which are about light-hearted, humorous, exotic or unusual events.
[7] Who probably just liked the idea of being able to hunt big cats.
[8] Cassius Marcellus Clay was a would-be Kentuckian abolitionist who led an armed uprising which was intended to force an emancipation program in Kentucky. He failed and was killed, although he took a lot of Kentucky legislators with him. See post #53b.
[9] This is a reference to the Second Congress of Vienna, which reached a diplomatic resolution to the end of the Turkish War and the Swiss and Italian War. See post #63.
[10] The Eastern states is the *American name for most of the states along the Atlantic coast, stretching from OTL Delaware to Florida.
[11] The Liverpool Star is the main daily broadsheet newspaper of Liverpool [Melbourne, Australia].
[12] Wayne Maclean is the shadow treasurer of the Christian Socialists, the main opposition party in Australia. As such, he is responsible for making statements on economic policy.
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Decades of Darkness #185: All Under Heaven
[1] Xinjing is OTL Beijing, China. Xinjing means “new capital.”
[2] Nippon and Abyssinia both escaped colonial control during this period.
[3] The Qing Dynasty were originally Manchu invaders who conquered China during the seventeenth century. Although they have been mostly assimilated into Chinese culture, they still retain a few distinctive elements, and are still perceived as foreigners.
[4] The Pobyeda(Victory) formed the mainstay of the Russian strategic bombing force during the Great War. It had an operating radius of up to 5000km, depending on its bomb load. The Pobyeda is a four-engine bomber which is slightly superior to an Avro Lancaster.
[5] Esperanza, Sonora is located approximately at OTL Los Mochis, Sinaloa. Founded in 1866 as a new city and port at one end of the South-Central Pacific Railroad (New Orleans to Esperanza – the other main spur of the railroad connected to San Francisco), Esperanza is a major agricultural and tourist centre, as well as the site of Fernan Cortes University.
[6] The Russian-Nipponese border in Choson runs from Anju on the west coast roughly east to the Taedong River. From there it follows the line of the river for most of its length, until it runs east-south-east toward the eastern coast. The OTL cities of Hamhung and Hungnam are part of Nipponese Choson, just south of the border.
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Decades of Darkness #186: Never-Ending Road
[1] German Mozambique consists mostly of territory taken from Portugal, it includes OTL northern and central Mozambique, and extends further inland into OTL Zambia and DR Congo.
[2] To put this in OTL terms, Germany has been granted control of West Africa from roughly OTL Senegal to the Ivory Coast. Portugal now has control of territory stretching roughly from OTL Burkina Faso and Ghana through to Gabon and the Republic of the Congo.
[3] Central Africa was formed from parts of OTL southern Sudan, southern Chad, Central African Republic, and northern DR Congo.
[4] Maguindanao & Sulu comprises most of western Mindanao and neighbouring islands in the Sulu Sea in the OTL Philippines, and most of the modern Malaysian state of Sabah.
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Decades of Darkness #187: When True Night Falls
[1] In terms of OTL Brazilian state borders, the country has been divided into three parts. The restored monarchy has established the Empire of the Equator, consisting of the OTL Brazilian states of Amapa, the northern part of Para, most of Maranhao, Piaui, Ceara, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and most of Bahia. The American military territory consists of the south-eastern corner of Bahia, the north-eastern and south-eastern parts of Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, most of Sao Paulo apart from the north-western corner, Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. The United States has also separately annexed some of the northern portions of Roirama and Amazonas. The Republic of Brazil consists of Tocantins, the south-eastern corner of Maranhao, Goias, the western portions of Minas Gerais, north-western Sao Paulo, Matto Grosso and Matto Grosso do Sul, Rondonia, Acre, most of Amazonas and Roirama apart from the northern regions, and most of Para. Republican Brazil also includes parts of OTL Paraguay and Charcas.
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Decades of Darkness #188a: Sceptered Isle
[1] The Palace of Westminster is very different ITTL, having been burnt down in the late 1820s rather than in 1834. The change in circumstances means that it is rebuilt in a high-Gothic style by the architect Thomas Hopper rather than by Charles Barry, making it even more ornate then OTL.
[2] Thanks to various butterflies, ITTL the symbol of Parliament isn’t the Portcullis adopted by Pugin and Barry, but rather a stylised Mace, based on one of the symbols of Parliamentary supremacy.
[3] This song bears little resemblance to OTL’s “Red Flag”, but both were written in the late 1880s by Irishmen living in London. TTL’s song takes its tune from the Liverpudlian folk ballad “Johnny Todd”, which some readers may recognise as the theme tune from the 1960’s British Police show “Z-Cars.”
[4] TTL’s British slang for the police, after Thomas Spring Rice, the Home Secretary at the time of the Metropolitan Police Act of 1830.
[5] James Hamilton was Prime Minister from 1886-1894, and took the Conservatives in a far more interventionist direction than OTL. This caused a general-re-alignment of the parties relatively similar to OTL’s Home Rule and Tariff Reform Crises, although with a very different outcome; British politics is divided between a protectionist Tory Party and a laissez-faire Liberal Party.
[6] ITTL the word ‘bully’ is used rather as the same period would use ‘jingo’; it also specifically denotes a Nationalist, interventionist Tory.
[7] This result bears some resemblances both to the Liberal wipe-out in 1918 and also the Labour catastrophe in 1931. Both cases saw the party vote split, leading to a disproportionately harsh result for the losing party. Similar mechanics are at work ITTL.
[8] “German Sea” was a popular term for the North Sea until WW1 OTL, when for obvious reasons it fell into disuse. ITTL it becomes the accepted term after the Great War.
[9] There are far fewer Jews in London ITTL, mainly because the more liberal Russian regime from the 1880s has not prompted as much emigration, and many of those who have fled Russia have gone instead to Germany or the United States, two nations with a reputation for being very friendly to Jews.
[10] ITTL the geography of East London is rather different compared with OTL, mainly because in the 1820s the property developer William Rhodes went ahead with his plan to build ‘De Beauvoir Town’ north of the Regent’s Canal.
[11] Just as in OTL, in ITTL Birmingham had a population of around 700,000 by 1910.
[12] John Marshall is one of the leaders of the Labour Party in the period; he has more in common with James Maxton than Keir Hardie, as befits the generally more radical tone of the British Labour movement ITTL.
[13] Corby and Runcorn were both New Towns IOTL, although ITTL the sudden arrival of half a million immigrants has brought forward their development. The same can be said for Wolverton, which OTL was one of the many small villages swallowed up by the creation of Milton Keynes.
[14] Hugh Carswell is a very close analogue of Clifford Douglas, the originator of Social Credit. Distributivism is largely similar to Social Credit, although there are some minor differences. IOTL Douglas' theories became popular in Canada but were largely ignored in his native Britain; ITTL the reverse is true.
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Decades of Darkness #188b: Blessed Plot
[1] With a stronger, and more decentralised British Empire, the concept of Imperial Federation has been far more popular ITTL than in OTL, and the Hamilton Government almost succeeded in enacting it.
[2] The ‘Craftsman Movement’ is TTL’s equivalent of the Arts and Crafts Movement.
[3] Marochetti also contributed a statue to Parliament IOTL; his representation of Richard the Lionheart still stands outside the House of Lords.
[4] Scylding, and Arthur Rasbold, bear some resemblance to the Lord of the Rings and JRR Tolkien respectively. The cycle is more explicitly Anglo-Saxon compared to LOTR; imagine the protagonists as Rohirrim and the story being closer to Wagner’s Ring Cycle.
[5] The expedition was rather similar to Robert Baden Powell’s trip to Brownsea Island in 1907.
[6] IOTL, the Fyrd were the Saxon yeomanry, who were called to serve the King for six month periods.
[7] The Daily Sketch is not the same as OTL’s tabloid of the same name, although it is broadly similar in its populist tone.
[8] This is an actual Morris song and folk tune dating back to Elizabethan times.
[9] ITTL the folk song was taken by troops and turned into a trench anthem; this occurred IOTL during WW1 as well, when the words went; “The Bells of Hell go ting-a-ling-a-ling, for you but not for me/And the little devils have a sing-a-ling-a-ling, for you but not for me/Oh death where is they sting-a-ling-a-ling, oh grave thy victory?/The Bells of Hell go ting-a-ling-a-ling, for you but not for me.”
[10] This is more or less the costume of an Anglo-Saxon nobleman.
[11] Literally, “Strength and Faith!”
[12] “Ladies and Gentlemen!”
[13] It should be pointed out that ITTL the Septennial Act is still in force and so General Elections have to be held once every seven years rather than once every five, as in OTL.
[14] IOTL, in The Importance of Being Earnest Jack Worthing uses a similar line when talking about the Liberal Unionists.
[15] Apologies to fans of obscure post-rock indie music of the early 2000s...
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Decades of Darkness #188c: Seat of Mars
[1] TTL’s “Scottish Party” is rather like its OTL 1930s counterpart, being a moderate party full of “Tartan Tories”, rather than a left-of-centre grouping. ITTL there is a Leftist “National Party of Scotland” as well, but this is marginalised and they have no MPs.
[2] As in OTL, until this point Wales is essentially considered an integral part of England. ITTL, the Welsh Office is an earlier invention because of the greater mainstream acceptance of nationalism.
[3] ITTL the Labour movement gets going around a decade earlier than OTL, so the Party coalesces in the 1890s.
[4] This was the case with OTL’s Lloyd George as well, although ITTL this is not as unusual; there are more Welsh speakers thanks to the Celtic revival of the nineteenth century.
[5] Like Herbert Morrison in OTL, Arnold Cooper controls the Labour party machinery in London.
[6] OTL, a similar act was passed in 1914 and proved just as controversial; FE Smith remarked that the bill “shocked the conscience of every Christian community in Europe,” to widespread ridicule.
[7] This Act has many similarities to OTL’s 1971 Immigration Act.
[8] “Almon” is TTL’s version of Hansard, named after the pioneering eighteenth-century parliamentary reporter John Almon.
[9] The Tory position on the war is very similar that that taken by many on the Right in OTL’s WW2; just as OTL, many on the far right and in the British ‘establishment’ see little reason to fight. Unlike OTL, they may have a point, and this is reflected by the fact that the viewpoint has considerably more support.
[10] Derek Haynes, the Lord Chancellor, was at the Foreign Office in 1920 when he negotiated the partition of the Portuguese Empire between Britain and Germany.
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Decades of Darkness #188d: This England

[1] ‘Junius’ was the pseudonym of a notorious anonymous polemicist of the eighteenth century. The author (or authors) of this pamphlet has adopted the name to hide their own identity, a sensible move for an English writer in the immediate aftermath of the Great War.


[2] The author is of course referring to Machiavelli at this point, although he neglects to mention that he was not much of a trader himself.
[3] Henry Blackwood was one of the most celebrated Royal Naval commanders of the Napoleonic period, and brought news of Trafalgar back to Britain in 1806. In 1814 he was created ‘Baronet Blackwood of the Navy’.
[4] Essentially Blackwood followed the traditional British strategy of advancing to the ‘scientific frontier’ in Afghanistan and then daring the Russians to attack; unlike many of Blackwood’s campaigns it was not a difficult one, but by this point his fame has grown to make anything seem like a victory of sorts.
[5] The actual evacuation of Brittany did not require any particular military skill on Blackwood’s part; the Germans were willing to let them flee, since at that point they wanted to explore a negotiated peace with Britain, and let the Allied forces withdraw unopposed as a goodwill gesture.
[6] Blackwood and Wood’s working relationship bears many similarities to Alanbrooke and Churchill’s relationship IOTL; however, Wood is not as tolerant of people prepared to answer him back, and so things quickly sour.
[7] OTL, many prominent people (most famously George Orwell), expected the Home Guard to do exactly this. ITTL there is more of a prospect of this because of greater socialist militancy and the fact that there are already organised left-wing street gangs.
[8] Alvorado and Amero were the last Presidents of El Salvador and Colombia respectively, both of whom surrendered their countries to the Americans. Medise is the verb form of TTL’s version of ‘quisling’, based on José María Medina, who was first installed as president of Honduras with the support of American filibusters, and ultimately (under duress) invited U.S. military forces in to support his regime against his own people.
[9] An ATL derogatory term for Scottish Labour, referring to their base of support in Catholic Glasgow.
[10] A reliable source states that this remains the case across timelines, and that even in OTL the Three Stag’s Heads is fantastic.
[11] Blake’s poem of 1804 is not as well known as OTL, mainly as it hasn’t been set to music. (In OTL, it was created into the hymn "Jerusalem" in 1916.)
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Decades of Darkness Interlude #8: Kingdom of the Empty Throne
[1] It has long been a matter of dispute whether Monmouthshire is in Wales or England; all Acts applying only to Wales until 1956 referred to “Wales and Monmouthshire.” ITTL, this is more of a pressing issue...
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Decades of Darkness #189: Shards Of A Broken World

[1] The relatively short-lived Italian Civil War resulted into the division of the country into two new nations. The Republic of Italy consists of the OTL Italian regions of Tuscany, Lazio, Molise, Abruzzo, Marche, and Umbria. It also includes part of the OTL Italian region of Emilia-Romagna; the provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, Ravenna, Forlì-Cesena and Rimini are part of the Republic of Italy, while the provinces of Piacenza, Parma, Reggio Emilia and Modena were annexed to Germany. The Kingdom of Italy consists of the OTL Italian regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Sicily, and Sardinia, as well as the island of Corsica (in OTL France).


[2] Germany annexed northern and eastern France, roughly everything north of the Seine (except for Rouen) and east of the Saone until that joins the Rhone, and then all former French territory east of the Rhone until that river reaches the Mediterranean. Germany also took Lyons and its environs west of the Saone and the Rhone. Paris and its environs were not annexed, but created as the Special Administrative Region of Paris. The remainder of France was divided into a number of puppet states which were based on historical (medieval) divisions of France: Normandy, Brittany, Maine, Anjou, Berry, Poitou, Gascony, Languedoc, Auvergne, and Burgundy. The borders of these new states do not always correspond with the medieval divisions.
[3] Bavaria, Hanover, Wurttemberg and Elsass-Lothringen.
[4] This is because the United States remained at war with Chile until 1935.
[5] The division of Syria and Lebanon was conducted for religious reasons; Muslims were the majority in Syria but non-Muslims formed the majority in Lebanon (only because the Russians considered the Druze as non-Muslim).
[6] The NLPP (National Liberal & Peoples Parties) is the main party in what was then Edmund Schulthess’s coalition government.
[7] The members of the Restored Empire aren’t particularly keen on being automatically committed to a war with Russia, particularly for a nation which has such a long and difficult-to-defend land border.
[8] TTL’s town of Harlow is what is called Old Harlow in OTL; the new town was built post-WW2.
[9] Similar to what happened in WW1 in OTL, the British royal family found it prudent to change the name of their dynasty to Windsor during the Great War. In OTL, the British monarchy was of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. ITTL, the British monarchy remained of the House of Hanover (since it continued in the male line instead of through Queen Victoria), but this was still considered too German-sounding a name during the Great War, so Richard IV changed the family name to the House of Windsor shortly before his death.
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Decades of Darkness #190: New Horizons

[1] Terry Rundle, the New England Secretary for Public Relations (i.e. propaganda).


[2] New England’s presidents are inaugurated on the last Tuesday in January in the year following their election; Mullins was re-inaugurated as president on 31 January 1933. This was a result of the Third Amendment to the New England constitution. Prior to that, New England’s presidents were inaugurated on 4 March, a date which is still maintained in the United States.
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