Decades of Darkness Footnotes

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[1] This is partly based on what happened to Italy in OTL, although for different reasons. The last major German modernisation of 1926 took considerable time to plan and conduct. There are new prototypes and designs in German manufacturing which would be models close to what is being produced in the Bouclier nations, but these will take time to approve and develop.
[2] HPO stands for high-pressure oil, TTL’s equivalent of diesel.
Decades of Darkness #163b: Rescue Me
[1] Assembly camps are the closest ATL equivalent to concentration camps of the Second Boer War vintage. The ATL assembly camps were not places of deliberate death, but where many of the inhabitants died due to lack of knowledge about adequate nutritional requirements and an unfortunate disease environment. (See post #104b.) With this reference, Bautista is comparing Fierro’s tactics to the similar (although less brutal) British tactics which the *United States condemned during TTL’s Anglo-Boer War.
Decades of Darkness #164: Sweet Sacrifice
[1] “Ayer”, from the Spanish for “yesterday”, is come to be used in a more general sense in *American English to mean something that’s outdated or no longer relevant.
[2] In OTL, this town was known as Queenstown at that time.
[3] The John Calhoun is actually a battlecruiser, by older standards, but one which obsolete enough that it is easily mistaken for a more modern heavy cruiser.
[4] The International Funksender Conference of 1913, held in Den Haag, Germany, had assigned call-signs to each nation and promulgated a standard list of signals and phrases to be used by ships and shore stations. The German Reich was assigned all call signs beginning with D and M; France, F; the United Kingdom, G and B; the United States, U and S, and New England, N. The letter Q was reserved for standard phrases, and QAS (for General Au Secours) was reserved for distress calls. 600 meters was reserved for maritime traffic, including distress calls, while 750 meters was used as an alternate, ship-to-ship wavelength.
[5] Strictly speaking, Ireland should have been represented by the British delegates at this conference, since it fell under the purview of “foreign affairs” for a Kingdom within the Empire. But by this time, the various Kingdoms were starting to act more independently.
[6] Larry Blundell, Jr. is the renamed version of James Blundell, Jr. from post #126d. I thought that the latter name was too reminiscent of a certain contemporary fictional character, so I picked a different name.
Decades of Darkness #165a: Highway to Hell
[1] Like many commentators, MT Dombeck Jr blames the economic panic on the effects of the stock market crash. In fact, it was the simultaneous banking crises which produced economic chaos; the stock market collapse itself was merely a symptom.
Decades of Darkness #165b: Crossing the Rubicon
[1] Fion O’Neil would later go on to have a legendary career amongst the Republicans. Many a biography would be written about him in later years, but sadly, there isn’t yet time to go into this.
[2] The rather aptly named Princeton Small is a rather colorless Jacobite who rose to the leadership of the Canadian Party following the retirement of the previous prime minister and the disgrace of the expected successor, Lord Savage. Once in power, Mr Small acts as a mouthpiece for James II’s policies, rather than generating many policies of his own.
[3] Thomas Dombeck assumes (as do many others) that the Republic of Brazil is effectively controlled by the military. He believes that while the Canadian Republicans need to have armed force of their own to match the government, they need a political wing too, lest they become entirely controlled by the military even if they win control.
[4] TTL’s Kingdom of Canada has a House of Lords established on a broadly British model, with a small assortment of hereditary peers and a large number of life peers. As in the British House of Lords, the Canadian equivalent also acts as the final court of appeal. This power is delegated to the Lords of Session. In normal circumstances, the Lords of Session are experienced trial judges who have been granted a life peerage. Canada in the early 1920s, however, is not operating in normal circumstances.
[5] The Republican Guard is the most organised of the street armies, and loosely associated with the National Republican Party. Their actions had never been officially condoned by Thomas Dombeck or any of the party leadership, although they had not been convincingly condemned, either. With the Last Winter Night, the Guard took on more of a paramilitary bent. In time, they would become the largest and influential of the paramilitary organisations associated with the Republican movement.
[6] The Dearborn Daily Herald has the largest circulation in Dearborn and, by extension, Wisconsin. It has a generally pro-Republican slant, although with care taken to avoid writing anything actionable.
Decades of Darkness #165c: In the Court of the Crimson King
[1] James II had enjoyed a wild youth before assuming the throne. Following the death of his father he had attempted to lose himself in pursuit of the age-old pursuits of wine, women and song. The Kingston Rising had finally broken him of that attitude and convinced him that he should play the primary role in repairing Canada. He had devoted more of his attention to politics and strengthening the powers of the monarchy.
Persuading James II to marry had been a chore, and his advisors had only done so by linking it to political considerations. The choice was Princess Charlotte of a cadet branch of the Hohenzollerns (Prussian royal family). With Canada forced into official neutrality by the Treaty of Washington, James had hoped to strengthen informal ties with Germany.
What began as a marriage of convenience soon blossomed into a love affair. Charlotte has been credited by many Jacobites for forcing James to abandon most of his remaining vices. She is beloved by the rank and file of the party, and popular with large parts of the broader country, although the Republicans hate her almost as much as her husband.
[2] Wisconsin’s northern reaches, particularly the Upper Peninsula, are a hotbed of Republican support, producing a number of influential leaders such as Thomas “Dynamite” Dombeck and his son Matthew T. Dombeck.
[3] The Republicans still lack a national leadership, a problem which the Jacobites certainly do not face.
[4] The Royal Protection Service, who are effectively bodyguards, although they are gradually acquiring some other duties.
[5] The pamphlets all read “Some Dynamite In Memory of Dynamite.” The reference was clearly to the death of Thomas Dombeck in prison several months before. The message was a blatant confirmation that the assassination had been conducted by Republicans, although it did not confirm which of the many factions was responsible.
[6] In other words, when the Minute Men were still American, not New Englanders – a detail which they usually try to gloss over.
Decades of Darkness #165e: Summertime Blues
[1] This is equivalent to the M1922 version of the Browning Automatic Rifle.
[2] Named for a British hero of the second burning of Washington DC in 1834.
[3] A female delegates have attended the First Canadian Congress. The most noted of those would be Virginia Sheppard of Covington, Ontario, since she had attended from the heart of Jacobite country. Sheppard would also attend the later constitutional convention and play a large role in its proceedings.
[4] Wisconsin is one of the provinces worst-affected by the Troubles. Republicans control the northern portion of the province, including the volatile Upper Peninsula. In recent months they have solidified their control of the westernmost parts of the provinces, especially along the Mississippi. However, the Jacobites retain control of their heartland of the Fox Valley, and most of the other coastal population centres along Lake Michigan, such as Belfast [Milwaukee]. The population of Dearborn [Chicago] is mostly pro-Republican since Teutoberg, but it is occupied by the Canadian military; an occupation which has become increasingly difficult to supply due to the recent falling out with New England meaning that men and materiel cannot be sent via Michigan. To make matters even more confusing, following the forced dissolution of the original provincial parliament, there are now two parliaments reassembled and claiming to be the government of Wisconsin; a Jacobite-controlled one in Green Bay and a Republican one in Marquette.
[5] The National Republican Convention established in 1912 was an electoral coalition, not a unified party. Its leading figures had managed a suitable level of cooperation amongst themselves about working to win control of the national government, but this fell apart with the arrest of the national leadership and the effective abandonment of democratic government at the national level. Since then, the level of cooperation amongst Republican groups has been decidedly mixed. In the central and eastern provinces, especially Wisconsin, the immediate threat of Jacobite assault has kept the disagreements more on the level of argument and non-cooperation. In the western provinces, with a limited Jacobite presence, the fighting instead became a case of jockeying for power amongst rival groups who all called themselves Republicans of one form or another.
[6] The provincial governments of Saskatchewan and Caroline were held in poor regard by most Republicans until recently. They remained nominally loyal to James II following the dissolution of the national parliament, and refused to disband even when ordered to do so later. Many of their opponents condemned them as moderates and opportunists who sought to reach an agreement with the king. As such, the paramilitary organizations and local bosses wielded most of the power in those two provinces. Internal struggles within the parliamentary factions and some judicious cooperation with chosen paramilitary groups saw this trend reversed, and new leaders emerged in the parliament who were untainted by former association with the king. Governor Blackwell has become the most prominent of those in Saskatchewan; Haraldson was the most eloquent of several in Caroline. The parliamentary groups have taken control of the western provinces, but some bad blood remains between them and the eastern Republicans.
[7] Quebec is currently divided between Jacobites, Republicans, and a growing number of Separatists. ‘Separatist’ is actually a misnomer given by their enemies. They mostly want autonomy for Quebec, believing that it will be more and more neglected as the political centre of gravity moves west, and that any replacement for the monarchy will be more inclined to meddle in Quebecois affairs than the monarchy has been. For now, the Republicans and Separatists are making common cause, but agitators – including some apparent foreigners – have become louder of late.
Decades of Darkness #166: The Day You Went Away
[1] This is not an indication of any lack of talent on Arendt’s part; the much-reduced New England Army after the war meant that promotion opportunities were extremely limited.
Decades of Darkness #167a: Blood Is Thicker Than Water
[1] Sea wolves were involved in the sinking of a couple of battleships during the North American War, but not alone. A British battleship, the Repulse, was damaged by a sea wolf during the Battle of the Dragon’s Mouths (off Venezuela), but it took another battleship to finish it off.
[2] The Marlborough-class battleships are based on OTL’s planned G3 class of battlecruisers. Although actually superior to any contemporary ship classed as a battleship, the G3s were designated as battlecruisers when compared to the even more heavily-armed N3 class, which was also planned but never built. ITTL, the Marlboroughs are seen as a new class of battleships in their own right, and not as secondary to a larger class of battleships. The equivalent to an N3 class would not be developed for several more years.
[3] The history of naval development in the DoD TL is fundamentally different to that of OTL because there has been no analogue of the Treaty of Washington restrictions on naval development. This means that the equivalent of the British G3 and N3 very large battleship designs were built, and the other navies have been forced to respond in one way or another. Many nations cannot afford to match them; battleships being such expensive propositions, after all. Even those who can still have to limit themselves in the number they build. But there are still some extremely large battleships on the world’s oceans by the end of the 1920s. They aren’t quite as large as the Yamato, but they’re bigger than most other battleships which were ever built historically.
[4] The Providence was so-named by New England President John Dewey, who remarked that it was “divine Providence that the United States lets us build any carriers.”
Decades of Darkness #167b: Still Waters Run Deep
[1] i.e. the North Sea and the Mediterranean.
[2] The Yamashiro-class battleships are slightly larger than the historical Iowa-class; armed with 16.5-inch guns and displacing around 50,000 tons. By ATL standards, they are well-armed and armoured long-range battleships, but with smaller guns than the newest German and British battleships (which use 18-inch guns).
[3] Blau Stieg (OTL Taitung City, Taiwan) has been deliberately chosen as a remote area of Formosa to occupy. Both in OTL and ATL, this is one of the most remote areas of Formosa itself, cut off by mountains from the more populous areas. Nippon has chosen this area as a landing site because it is relatively easy to acquire and use as a naval and skycraft base for attacks on the rest of Formosa. It is not intended to be a base for the land occupation of Formosa, although there will likely be raids from the area.
Decades of Darkness #168: Tears and Glory
[1] Goliaths are similar to KV-1s, and Sans-Tourelles are turretless arlacs which are not much use in an attack, but very handy for setting up a defensive line.
Decades of Darkness #170a: Under The Eagle’s Wings
[1] Coal gas (or syngas), developed through the gasification of coal, and thanks to wartime necessity pressed into service as a fuel, despite the safety risks.
[2] ATL Germans – especially children – rarely make a distinction between England and Britain.
[3] Seewolf is a Neudeutsch word for submarines.
[4] Luftfeld is Neudeutsch and translates as airfield. Aerodrome has a similar meaning in French (both OTL and ATL). The usual ATL English equivalent would be skyfield.
Decades of Darkness #170b: Where Eagles Soar
[1] Italy in fact stopped claiming Dalmatia quite a while ago, although it was part of the original claims for Italian unification. For Italy to keep claiming Dalmatia would gravely antagonise Croatia, and so the claim has been dropped. However, this doesn’t stop German propaganda from repeating the former claim.
[2] This argument rests on the fact that in German (as in many other languages), there are no two distinct words for heaven and sky. The word Himmel, although usually translated as “heaven” in English, is the realm of the divine, and it is impossible to use the word for man-made actions and machines. Of course, the way Weber uses this translation deliberately blurs this meaning for effect.
Decades of Darkness #171: Deliriant Isti Americani
[1] German colonies which have been occupied by Australian forces are in theory under British control. In practice, however, with British forces committed to Europe, Australian officials and soldiers are responsible for occupying and administering British colonies throughout the Far East. The British Indian Army is responsible for former German colonies bordering on the Indian Ocean (except for the East Indies). The effective separation line runs between Indochina and Siam.
Decades of Darkness #173: Francia Delenda Est
[1] “Retained” is used in this sense similarly to OTL usage of “classified” government records.
[2] Which actually included nearby islands, not just the island of Tierra del Fuego itself.
Decades of Darkness #174: The Truth of an Omen
[1] The terms were actually severe restrictions on the size of the Royal Navy, but this amounted to the same thing.
Decades of Darkness #175: Above Us Only Sky
[1] Caelunautic is the ATL English equivalent of aeronautic, derived from Latin caelum, “sky.”
[2] Literally, this would be Imperial Air Works, but ATL anglophone authors tend to render the German word Luft (air) into the more familiar “sky.”
[3] Lake Marie is OTL’s Dry Lake Rogers, i.e. Edwards Air Force base.
[4] Amidst the rising international tensions of the 1920s, President Porter began his first term in office pledging to create a “Fortress America safe from the ravages of the world.” This policy would eventually quietly be abandoned even before the breakout of war in Europe.
[5] Garbarus Bay is a southward-facing bay in Nova Scotia.
[6] Chief of Procurement is one of those wonderfully vague titles given to Vitalists who are outside the elected government structure of New England. As Chief of Procurement, Oliphant gets a considerable say into which companies are allocated which projects.
[7] i.e. the Cabinet member in charge of Vitalist propaganda.
[8] The earlier LC-1, -2 and -3 have been retroactively renamed as Astor-1, -2 and -3. The Astor program was named for Jacob Astor, who was the leader of the fusion party of United Democrats until his death. Mullins took over that party after Astor’s death and reshaped it as the Vitalists, but he is still inclined to make some placatory gestures to his predecessor. Especially since Astor is safely dead and thus any honour which accrues to him from the move does not threat Mullins’ own position.
Decades of Darkness #176: Ride Through The Night
[1] i.e. General of the Army Timothy Pickering Johnson.
Decades of Darkness #177: Chasing Rainbows
[1] This is in the region of OTL Baja California, where a small amount of cotton is grown today. ITTL, although it requires irrigation, this one region has one immense advantage as a cotton-growing region: the boll weevil has never reached there.
[2] The closest ATL equivalent to the Victoria Cross.
[3] Frederick Morton was an “enlightened” colonial leader who had a habit of pushing for colonial expansion as part of exploiting natural resources, along the line of Cecil Rhodes (see posts #104a and b). Morton Industries is in some ways like De Beers of OTL, although it has other commercial interests and has not quite the same worldwide diamond monopoly of OTL, due to earlier exploitation of Australian diamonds.
[4] In OTL, many Americans were sympathetic to the Boer cause, because of the conflict’s resemblance to the American Civil War. Some state governments even offered to accept the Boers as immigrants. The Boer leaders declined, preferring their own home. ITTL, *America supports the Boers for significantly different reasons. Because of the different *American social structure and increased English settlement in South Africa, Boers have left South Africa for the United States in greatly increased numbers over OTL.
[5] This term originates from a Zulu saying, “Umuntu Ngumuntu Ngabantu.” This means that a person is a person through other people. The essence of the philosophy is that someone affirms their own humanity when they acknowledge that of others. It is a central philosophy in OTL’s African National Congress.
[6] More detail about the original founding of South Africa can be found in post #104b. At first South Africa included six provinces; five have since been added. The province of Maputo is located in the southernmost area of OTL Mozambique, including Delgola Bay. The province of Zamebizia includes OTL northern Zimbabwe and a small section of adjoining Mozambique, with is northern border on the River Zambezi. The province of South Mozambique is located in the central coastal regions of OTL Mozambique, and also has a northern border on the Zambezi. The province of Niassa is located on the shores of Lake Malawi, encompassing what in OTL is northern Malawi and eastern Zambia. The province of North Mozambique is located in the OTL region of southern Malawi and northern Mozambique to the River Lurio, south of the OTL border between Mozambique and Tanzania.
[7] The ATL name for the Argyle diamond mine in the Kimberly region of Australia. It produces a third of the world’s diamond supply by volume (less by value).
[8] The ATL equivalent of the Merlin diamond mine in Australia’s Northern Territory, which produces an unusually high proportion of gem-quality diamonds.
Decades of Darkness #178: The One Regret Of My Life
[1] The Luftmacht uses ranks which are directly equivalent to ranks within the German Army, rather than any separate titles.
Decades of Darkness #180: The Cold Light of the Sun
[1] While Ireland has been a separate nation from Britain since 1862, and possesses its own armed forces, a considerable number of poorer Irish enlisted in the British armed forces as well, up until the North American War and even some after that time. These mostly joined the British Army, but a few entered the Royal Navy as well.
[2] In fact, the other main motivation was to avoid any clashes with the remaining German forces gathered in Buenos Aires.
[3] This is an anti-arlac high-explosive shaped-charged warhead delivered by a spigot mortar, much like the British PIAT used in WW2.
Decades of Darkness #181a: Victoria Aut Mors
[1] A non-vitalist would probably describe the two forces driving Mullins as anger and paranoia, rather than just suspicion.
[2] Terry Rundle, the New England Secretary of Public Relations (propaganda).
[3] Many British imports in fact originate in the United States, but these have to be sent via New England.
[4] KSA: Knight of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of Australia, the oldest purely Australian order of knighthood, created in 1850.
[5] The first infamous German autocrat – in Russian eyes – being Otto von Bismarck.
[6] I-Day is the German name for the landings of the first wave on 12 June, which were a strategic feint designed to commit the Royal Navy to battle and destroy most o what remained of Britain’s sky forces.
[7] Conscription was forbidden in New England due to the Washington restrictions. However, Mullins could have gotten around this if he had been inclined to do so. “Volunteers” would have been easily arranged, as indeed they had been in the early days of the war. Some historians (although not Shalamov) argue that the rapid drop-off in New England volunteers after Russian entry into the war was an early sign that Mullins was pessimistic about the prospects for success.
[8] Blitzcraft is the generic name for any non-propeller skycraft. In the 1970s, it is effectively synonymous with jets (flame engines ITTL), although the term is also used to refer to various rocket-powered skycraft, most of which were only experimental.
[9] The Pobyeda [Victory] was the main Russian strategic bomber of the Great War, with an operating radius of up to 5000 km depending on bomb load.
Decades of Darkness #181b: Donatio Mortis Causa
[1] William Joyce is actually of Irish-Yankee descent, but he is not above misstating his origins.
[2] An error on Kazungu’s part: Simon Perles German rank was Generalleutnant, which is equivalent to a Major General.
[3] Germany has developed its military doctrines based on the experiences of the North American War and Brazilian Civil War, where armoured vehicles were not effective on their own, but only when combined with infantry assault.
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