Decades of Darkness Footnotes #1: Seeds of Division
 This clause was primarily included in the OTL Hartford Convention because of the existing war and demands that the militias operate under state command, not national. A similar clause was included in this convention because the secessionists foresaw the need to raise militias if secession went ahead.
#3: The Gathering Storm Clouds
 In OTL, Governor Christopher Gore, a Federalist, was defeated by Elbridge Gerry, a Democratic-Republican, in the 1809 election. Here, the stronger Federalist sentiment over the prolonged Embargo has seen Gore retain the Governorship.
 This address is closely based on a letter which Pickering wrote to George Cabot, head of the Essex Junto, and who presided over the Hartford Convention in both OTL and the ATL. In this TL, I have him reusing the contents of that letter, and modifying them in the light of later developments, to form his address. Some of the paragraphs of the letter have been used verbatim, some with slight modifications, and new paragraphs have been added to suit the nature of a spoken address rather than a letter.
#5: The Florida Question
 I haven’t been able to find out whether Rhea travelled to Washington in person to plead his case or not – my sources vary. It seems plausible that he might visit in an ATL, though. Either way, Madison turned him down in OTL, and he would be even more likely to do so in this TL, I think.
 Henry Clay was under thirty when he was admitted to the U.S. Senate, below the Constitutionally-mandated age.
#6: The British Answer
 This is contrary to what British leaders thought later, during the ACW. By then, it had become apparent just how much land there was in North America, and how easily it could be filled up with people. At this time, it was far from obvious what a colossus the United States would become, and the British were more prepared to do things which weakened the Americans (e.g. supporting the American Indians).
#7: The War Drums Sound
 James E. Howard has been denigrated by some professional historians as being a populist historian, trying to inject controversy into undisputed areas, of “glossing over” controversial areas in favour of telling the version which he thinks sounds the most exciting to his readers, and of having a distinct anti-American bias (and to a lesser extent, anti-British bias). Nevertheless, his history of the war is one of the most entertaining books on the subject.
#8: Echoes in the Mist
 George Clinton was a New Yorker, but he merely became Acting President, not President. Madison is the 4th President.
 This refers to the British claims to part of Maine, which at this time was still part of the state of Massachusetts.
 Broome died in 8 August 1810 in OTL; here the desire to do something about secession meant that he clung on to life for a while longer. 
 Although he wasn’t necessarily in a fit state to do much about it anyway, which was another reason New York was so confused.
#12: Winter of Discontent
 Peter B. Porter was prominent during the lead-up to the Second War of Independence, as a “War Hawk” and supporter of the frontier development, which developed in him a firm hatred of the British. During the war, he led volunteers around Buffalo and the Niagara frontier against the British, distinguishing himself reasonably well, and preventing any major incursions into Buffalo from British North America. But like so many others, he was handed a poisonous choice on the conclusion of the war, whether to abandon his home and go to the United States, or remain in a New York which was to become part of New England, thus living in the land of his recent enemies.
 In OTL, Porter supported war with Britain but thought that the declaration of war should be delayed, even in 1812, on the grounds that the defenses were not yet ready. Here, the crisis of secession meant that war broke out earlier despite his objections.
 Louisiana was admitted as a state in October 31, 1812 in this TL, giving it enough time to participate in the presidential elections of that year. This is later than it was admitted in OTL (April 30), and Louisiana is now a smaller state. Baton Rogue and the surrounding areas are part of the state of West Florida (indeed, Baton Rogue is the capital of that state). Louisiana now has its capital at New Orleans. It’s still admitted, though, because the USA has a desire to add more stars to the flag, to make up for those that are being lost.
#16: The Butterfly’s Wings
 In this TL, Napoleon accepted Marshal Davout’s advice to take a different route on the retreat from Moscow, avoiding already-plundered Smolensk. The result was still a massive disaster for France, but more of the army survived.
 This battle was fought later in the year than in OTL, but given the strategic position of the city, it still seems reasonable to me that, despite the different details of the campaign, that a battle would be fought at Leipzig.
 Napoleon ignored the rain here and attacked earlier in the day. It was enough to gain a (temporary) victory over Wellington.
 This is meant to be French for “I have returned.” (Shades of Douglas “MacArthur” Bonaparte here).
 Mostly out of guilt for forcing the Spanish to give up West Florida, the British allow them to retain Trinidad. Since they no longer have Trinidad, they also judge Tobago is not worth having, and return it to France.
 Due to more money spent in the Americas, and the defeat of Wellington, British influence at the Congress was reduced. This meant that the Prussians got much less of the Rhineland: the rest was divvied up between Nassau, Bavaria and the Netherlands. The Prussians got Saxony instead. The reduction of British influence also meant that the Congress did not adopt an official resolution condemning the slave trade, although the French did agree to do what they could to reduce it, and Spain and Portugal to begin steps in that direction.
 This is the same number of member states as in OTL, but the members are different: there is no longer a Kingdom of Saxony, and the Netherlands have been included.
 Since the French retained Tobago, the Swedes were permitted to keep Guadeloupe.
#17: In The Aftermath Of War
 Yes, I know this is similar to the wording of the OTL Twenty-Fifth Amendment (and the Twentieth). There are, however, a couple of important differences. It seems logical to me that after having first a President, then a Vice-President die in office, such an amendment would be devised that much sooner.
 This amendment also included a Section 4 and Section 5, whose effective wording is identical to that of Sections 3 and 4 of the OTL Twenty-Fifth Amendment. They’ve been omitted here to avoid repetition.
 This amendment, which was proposed as part of the original Bill of Rights, took rather a long time to be ratified in OTL (until 1992, to be precise). The reduced number of states saw it ratified earlier here. 
 This amendment replaced, and added to, Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution. I’ve only included those sections which were added or modified.
 The legislators would be getting really, really tired of having to meet in Washington every summer.
 The earlier, war-time flag of New England was a striped flag with a rattlesnake on it. (Thanks to Ernest Cline for his input on flag designs for New England).
 The southern boundaries of these states end at West Florida’s northern border, they have no Gulf Coast. Other boundaries are essentially identical to OTL.
 Monroe did not get the same prestige during the War of 1811 as he did during the OTL War of 1812. Wilkinson was popular as a war hero, particularly with his anti-Indian credentials, and thus carried most of the states which were worried about Indians in their boundaries (which was most of the United States).
 The other proposed amendment, regarding the number of Representatives, still failed of ratification. 
 There is no footnote 10.
#18: The Next Generation
 Abraham Lincoln was born on 12 February 1809, after the POD (6 January 1809), but was conceived before it, and was thus safe from any potential butterflies, except perhaps from some minor ones on his exact birthday.
 This not the child who died in infancy in OTL. It’s another child, conceived after the POD, but the Lincolns still liked the name.
 Joseph Smith’s family moved out of New York in the aftermath of the War of 1811 in this TL. But most Pennsylvanians still thought of them as Yankees.
 Technically, Saxony had not yet been assigned to Prussia, as the Congress of Vienna had not yet finalised things. But it was clear by then that this would be the outcome, so people were by then getting used to the idea of being part of Prussia.
 Yes, I know Bismarck was born after the POD, but it’s not that much after. Given that Europe wasn’t affected by significant butterflies for a couple of years, I don’t think it’s impossible that someone like Bismarck might be born so soon after it. Strictly speaking, he’s an analogue rather than the same Bismarck, but he’s going to be close enough personality wise for most purposes.
#19: My Fellow New Englanders
 In the New England Constitution, it is necessary to be born there (or to have been a naturalised citizen at the time of the Republic’s formation) to be granted any government office, not just the presidency. Needless to say, this is likely to cause a problem with future immigration.
 Historians have often interpreted this remark to mean that Pickering recognised the future problems that New England would face, as a small neighbour to a United States which, even by his time, was growing much larger.
 Pickering had been advocating this as a possibility for years; since at least 1804. Here, though, he is expressing more of a wish than a realistic opportunity for New England to grow. The Loyalist populations in the maritime provinces may be friendlier to New England than to the United States (since both have departed from it), but the Federalist character of New England is hardly one they find attractive. Not to mention that Great Britain would be reluctant to let them go, to say the least.
 As with some of the earlier remarks in Pickering’s farewell address, this hint has been interpreted in many ways. The most common view is that Pickering saw the Indian Confederation as a short-lived entity, and that he expected New England to acquire some of its land. Others suspect that he was referring to the Canadas, or to the ‘border states’ of Pennsylvania, Delaware and Ohio.
 The Maine-New Brunswick border is approximately the same as that arranged in OTL (it’s actually closer to the border devised by the failed arbitration of the King of the Netherlands in OTL). The New Hampshire border is as per OTL.
-- #20: The Three James’s
 Dolly Madison’s antislavery sentiments have been claimed by some OTL authors to have had an influence on Madison’s own views of slavery. In OTL, he favoured gradual emancipation, but believed that blacks and whites could not readily live alongside each other if freed. The changing circumstances in this TL, including the early death of his wife, have given him slightly different sentiments, although he continues to regard it as a necessary evil.
 The Treaty of Halifax had not yet been signed at the time of this discussion.
 Based on Madison’s views in OTL, but modified in line with his new sentiments.
 Madison expressed similar views about turning slaves to manufacturing in OTL.
#22: A Matter Of Trade
 Absent the issue of a Missouri crisis, this issue took longer to become important than it did in OTL.
 A reference to an alt-Denmark Vesey revolt. This was slightly more successful than in OTL, and increased the U.S. unease about having freed slaves kept around. The responses to the revolt, however, vary considerably. Some are using it to press for gradual emancipation, but more are arguing that slaves need to be kept as slaves forever, since it was a freed slave who organised the revolt.
#23a: Monarchs and Slavers
 In TTL, Castlereagh has not committed suicide, and remains as Foreign Secretary for a few more years yet.
#23b: Historians and Dreamers
 This settlement is both earlier and more numerous than the first settlers who entered Texas in OTL, due to the axis of settlement being much more southwest than west in TTL.
 This is the replacement for West Point, which is now a New England military academy. It was not named Wilkinson Military Academy until after the President’s death.
 OTL Auckland, New Zealand.
 Similar, but more racist, equivalent to OTL Social Darwinism.
#24: On The Road to War
 Readers are warned that Malcolm Davis III, like his famous grandfather, had a tendency to prefer controversy to veracity.
 OTL Melbourne, Australia
#25: Days of Infamy
 A historical figure, if a relatively minor one, born around 1780.
 The winter of 1816-1817, which was notoriously cold and had snow falling in June in North America. It was caused by the eruption of Mt Tambora.
 i.e. slave-trading.
#26: The Stars and Strikes
 Wellington’s defeat at Waterloo means that he never rose to a prominent position, and thus never became Prime Minister. This has delayed the push for Catholic Emancipation, and the process of parliamentary reform in the UK.
 Born in November 1810 in OTL, Briscoe has just managed to be born in TTL.
#29: Wars and Rumours of Wars
 In OTL, Patrick Matthew published an obscure and largely unnoticed precursor to Darwin and Wallace’s theory of natural selection. Matthew’s theory of natural selection had much in common with Darwin’s and Wallace’s, including the idea of a struggle for existence, but it also had some important differences. In particular, he emphasised the action of natural selection as an agent of stasis, and thus keeping populations where they are now. He also remained convinced for the importance of keeping a divine being in the process. His theory of natural selection is thus more acceptable to the religious sections of the United States, and can be readily converted to an ideology of being a God-favoured race which deserves to dominate the other, fixed inferior races of humanity.
 In OTL, the Russians fought an earlier war (in 1828-1829) against the Ottomans after the Greek War of Independence and were stopped from going further, partly, by a Polish revolt. This war happens later than in OTL, and the Russians extract much more substantial gains from the Ottomans, although as in OTL, they still prefer to leave a weakened Ottoman Empire than a power vacuum which would invite other nations to step in.
#30: Crows and Jackals
 The Hartford Sentinel is the oldest surviving paper in New England. It was then, as now, the paper most sympathetic to the propertied classes (at that time, the Federalist Party), including both the genuinely rich and the social aspirants. In this era, it was much more conservative than in the present day, although of course it remains the paper of the social conservatives. During the War of 1833, it was the most pro-war newspaper – although few people dared voice anti-war sentiments in any event – and the most staunchly pro-British.
 As in OTL, Commodore is not yet a permanent commissioned rank in the New England Navy (or the U.S. Navy), but a rank assigned to a captain commanding a group of vessels. Although the New England Navy has close ties to the Royal Navy, it has retained the distinction in rank. The New England Navy has, as yet, no admirals either.
 Naturally, the paper made no mention of the New England and Royal Navy losses in conducting the raid.
 The formal name for the residence of the New England President. Informally, it was even then most commonly referred to as “Pickering’s Cottage” for its modesty, but the Hartford Sentinel would hardly deign to use such a name.
 This is the earliest source that can be found for the origins of the unflattering New Englander nickname for the Americans.
 This is a reference to the operations against privateers. In the OTL War of 1812, and in TTL’s War of 1811 and War of 1833, privateers were a major nuisance, and Scapa Flow was one of the main bases for the ships fighting them. Albright is, of course, exaggerating about the number of ships deployed there.
#31: Active Negotiations
 OTL Austin, Texas. ITTL, named for Peter Buell Porter, the “Father of Texas”, who moved into Texas in 1820 along with the rest of the founding families.
 Similar to what Forey did in Mexico in OTL. Then, he was unfortunate enough to get rebuked by Napoleon III for it. Here, at least he isn’t being similarly told off by the U.S. forces, although he’s still looked at strangely for it.
#32: The Descent Begins
 OTL Auckland, New Zealand
 Much like the comparable shift in attitudes between 1810 and 1850 in the Southern states of the OTL USA, only more so.
#33: The Year Of Revolutions
 TTL equivalent to Social Darwinism. See DoD #29, footnote 1.
 The pseudonym adopted by a virulent satirist who corresponded with a variety of newspapers and other publications. Real name unknown.
 Internal Belgian (and Dutch) politics have changed considerably from OTL during the 1810s-1830s, mostly due to the inclusion of some German-speaking areas in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. One effect of these changes was a greater distrust of monarchy than in OTL, and thus Belgium was initially proclaimed as a republic. It probably would have become a constitutional monarchy soon if it had survived, however.
#34: Peace or Pieces?
 OTL Miami.
 Due to a different outcome of the Congress of Vienna, Sweden ended up with Guadeloupe. Outright abolition there proved too difficult, so the Swedish government is currently negotiating a program of gradual emancipation. The expense has delayed it considerably, however, as has the profitability of the sugar exports.
 The U.S. Navy has not yet created a West India Squadron in this TL, and thus pirates remain a menace in the Caribbean. (The British have made some attempts to eradicate them, but it has not been a major priority).
 Stirling is OTL Perth, named in TTL for Captain James Stirling who explored the Swan River and founded the colony. It was not originally named for him, but was rechristened after his death.
#36: God Save The King, Because No-One Else Will
 This had just become the London residence of the House of Brunswick, as it was in OTL. It was much less magnificent than today.
 There has as yet been no Reform Act in Britain, and thus the monarch has somewhat more power than in OTL, although not, realistically, all that much.
 The child who in OTL would have been Queen Victoria was born male in TTL, and has a distinctly different character.
 The Foreign Secretary in TTL as well as OTL, although he started later in the role in TTL.
-- #37: Shooting A Mangum
 An institution which was formed considerably earlier in TTL than in OTL. As in OTL, the National Guard was a replacement and extension of the militia system. The National Guard replaced the old militias which used to be raised, but whose system of incompetent leadership was largely blamed for the U.S. failure to exploit its initial gains during the War of 1833. The National Guard acts as a potential defensive force, but its main duty is to capture would-be runaway slaves and, in practice, to harass free Negroes. Readers of the Knoxville Register would be feeling a strong sense of irony for the National Guard to be deployed to protect “black” men, not to persecute them.
 Needless to say, such sponsorship is not entirely voluntary.
 The same name as the leader of Brazil in OTL, but with a distinctly different (more conservative) personality.
 i.e. slave importation.
 In other words, those damn Mexicans will fight for their country instead of letting us grab as much of it as we want.
 Treaty of Detroit, which settled the border dispute over the boundary between the United States and the Oregon Country. In this treaty, New England mediated between the USA in what was then still British-ruled North America.
 Many free blacks found themselves accused of trivial crimes during this era, and faced transportation to Liberia. Vagrancy was a popular choice. It was speculated that Mangum’s approval of policies in this area where the main motivation for his assassin.
#38: The Sons Of Nephi
 This speech is closely based on Joseph Smith, Jr’s account of the history of the Mormons, as published in “Pearl of Great Price” in OTL, but which has been modified to take into account the different circumstances of the ATL.
 Due to the changed circumstances of Joseph Smith’s migration to Pennsylvania, he met Brigham Young earlier. Oliver Cowdery has not, as of yet, heard of the *Mormons (called Nephites in TTL).
 Mary Ann Angell, who in OTL was Brigham Young’s second wife.
 OTL Chicago, Illinois.
#39: A New King For A New World
 William Miller, who in OTL founded the millennial movement which led to the prediction of the end of the world on 22 October 1844, has been up to the same things in TTL. New York State remains a hotbed of religious revivalism in TTL just as much as in OTL, but the details of the religions are often different.
 In TTL, there has been no Durham Report, and thus no union of Upper and Lower Canada. These remain separate provinces, although unification is being discussed between them as part of the broader question of Canadian unification.
 Because, as in OTL, Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island are reluctant to join any such union. (They stayed out of the original Canadian union in OTL). New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are less keen on the prospect of union on their own, and many of their citizens look to New England instead. They are disinclined to pursue union with the western colonies due being separated from the other English-speaking areas by French-speaking Lower Canada.
 The question of Canadian unification has arisen much earlier in TTL than in our history for several reasons. The first is the greater sense of Canadian nationalism inspired by fighting two wars against the USA. The second is the greater population it has in TTL (more migration from Europe, and less migration to the USA). The third is the rebellions during the last war, which, while not a serious threat to British rule in themselves, made the Liberal governments in the UK more aware of the problems in the colonies and the need for responsible government.
 In OTL, one of the reasons Canada ended up being called the Dominion of Canada rather than the Kingdom of Canada was because of American objections. Not much has changed here about their attitude, although their ability to do something about it is much less.
 The ATL youngest brother of King Edward VII (the Duke of Kent lasted a little longer in TTL, long enough to father another two children).
#40: The Good Doctor
 i.e., despite renewed war, Jackson was not seeking to become “president for life”, as some of his opponents had accused him of doing after he sought a third term during the War of 1833, on the grounds that the necessity of war required it.
 The U.S. capital moved to Knoxville, Tennessee, in time for the inauguration of the next President on 4 March , after Jackson’s attempts to keep it at Washington lasted only as long as his term in office.