Date History and Culture



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Date

History and Culture

Art and Architecture

1469

Isabella I of Castille marries Ferdinand II of Aragon. They become known as Los Reyes Católicos.

 

1474

Isabella inherits the throne of Castile.

 

1479

Ferdinand inherits the throne of Aragon. The shared rule of the Catholic Monarchs means that most of Spain is now finally reunited.

 

1492

Italian navigator and explorer Christopher Columbus arrives in Hispaniola (Dominican Republic/Haiti).

 

1493

Ferdinand and Isabella secure from Pope Alexander VI, a papal bull stating that all lands west of Tordesillas line (traced 300 miles west of the Cape Verde islands) shall belong exclusively to Spain.

 

1496

Foundation of Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic), the first permanent Spanish settlement in the Americas.

 

1499-1502

The Florentine navigator Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) explores the northern coast of Brazil.

 

1500

Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral (1467-1520) led the colonization of Brazil after the Tordesillas treaty was signed.

 

1502-1509

Administration of Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres – the founding governor of Hispaniola.

 

1503

Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) was founded in Seville to oversee the exploration and conquest of the New World.

 

1504

Isabella I of Castille dies.

 

1506

Phillip I is crowned King of Castile, initiating the rule of the Habsburgs in Spain.

 

1507

German scholar Martin Waldseemüller christens the new continent “America” in honor of Amerigo Vespucci.

 

1510

Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos begins battle against Amerindian slavery.

 

ca. 1511

First African slaves are brought to America.

 

1515

With the conquest of Cuba and the founding of Havana, the islands of the Caribbean are under Spanish control.

 

1516

Ferdinand II dies and is succeeded by his Habsburg grandson who becomes Charles I of Spain (from 1519, he is also the Holy Roman emperor Charles V).

 

1517

Martin Luther begins the Protestant Reformation.

 

1519

Hernán Cortés lands in the Yucatan and first encounters the Aztec empire.

 

1520

La Noche Triste (June 30) - Hernán Cortés’ army and his native allies engage in battle to scape Tenochtitlan after killing the Aztec king Moctezuma II.

 

1521

Hernán Cortés conquests the Aztec empire, taking the city of Tenochtitlan is renamed Mexico City and the whole territory is renamed New Spain.

 

1523

Religious orders (Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians) arrive in New Spain.

Franciscan Friar Pedro de Gante founds the first college of the New World in Texcoco (Mexico).

1525

The Caribbean coastal city of Santa Marta was established as the first Spanish settlement in Colombia.

 

1531

Portugal establishes the first feudal captaincies in Brazil.  

Virgin of Guadalupe appears in the cloak of the Indian Juan Diego de Cuauhtlatoatzin.

1532-1534

Francisco Pizarro led the conquest of the Inca Empire.

 

1533

The first attempt at colonizing Brazil is made by King John III of Portugal.

 

1535

The Viceroyalty of New Spain is established.




1536

The Indians rebel against the abuse of the Spanish invaders and attack Cuzco.

 

1537

Pope Paul II passes the papal bull Sublimis Deus forbidding the enslavement of indigenous people in the Americas.

 

1538

The city of Santa Fe (Later renamed Bogotá) was founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (1495-1579).

 

ca. 1540

King John III of Portugal brings Brazil under direct royal control and appoints a governor general.

 

1541

Civil war breaks out among Spanish settlers in Peru and Francisco Pizarro is killed.

 

1542

Founding of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with Lima as its capital. The Viceroyalty encompasses Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and north-central Argentina and Chile.

 

1545

Establishment of the Council of Trent.

 

1549

The first governor of Brazil arrives and makes Bahia (Salvador) the capital of Portuguese Brazil until it is replaced by Rio de Janeiro in 1763.

 

ca. 1550

 

The Church of San Francisco in Popayán was built but destroyed in 1736 after an earthquake. The church was rebuilt in Baroque-style architecture ca. 1765.

1551

The Spanish soldier Pedro de Cieza de León (1518–1554) writes the first extensive history of the native peoples entitled Crónica del Perú.

The Colegio de San Juan Evangelista, later renamed Colegio de San Andrés was built. This is one of the earliest art schools in Quito.

1553

The University of San Marcos opens in Lima. It is the first university founded in South America.

 

1557 -1566

 

Church of San Francisco, the oldest surviving colonial church in Bogotá, was built.

1555

 

Guilds are established in Lima to organize the production of art, the training of artists, and the setting of quality standards.

1563

Quito (Ecuador) became an Audiencia, first of the Viceroyalty of Peru, and later, in 1719, of the Viceroyalty of New Granada.

 

1564

 

Andres de la Concha finishes the altarpiece at the Dominican Convent San Juan Bautista Coixtlahuaca.

1565

Spain takes the Philippines. The Manila Galleon starts trade between Manila and Acapulco.

 

1569-1581

Francisco de Toledo (1520–1583) reigns as fifth viceroy of Peru.

 

1570

 

Spanish law restricts the art of guild to European masters.

1571

Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1532–1592) writes Historia de los Incas.

Viceroy Francisco de Toledo commissioned native artists to paint portraits of the twelve Inca kings in the European style for the king of Spain.

1572

Tupac Amaru I, the last of the Inca royal heirs, is executed on Toledo's order. Inca nobles are exiled from Cuzco.




1573

The Potosí Mita (tribute system to draft Indian labor) was instituted by Viceroy Francisco de Toledo for the working of the silver mines and refineries.

 

1576

 

On the site of an Inca ruler's palace in Cuzco, the Jesuits build the Church of Campañía, one of the finest examples of colonial Baroque architecture in the Americas.

ca. 1580

Dominican friars build several missions along the shores of Lake Titicaca.

The History of the Indies of New Spain also known as the Codex Durán, was completed.

1583

The first printing press is set up in Lima. The Jesuits produce dictionaries, grammars, and Bibles in Quechua.

 

1584

Claudio de Arciniega was named lead architect for the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral.

Simon Pereyns and Pedro de Requena begin their construction of the altarpiece for the Franciscan church of San Miguel, Huejotzingo.

1599

 

Andres Sanchez Calque paints the Portrait of the Mulatos of Esmeraldas the oldest dated painting in South America.

1586

Caribbean Raid - Sir Francis Drake (1540-1596) invades Cartagena (Colombia).

 

1605

Runaway slaves in Brazil found the Quilombo dos Palmares, a confederacy ruled according to Central African customs.  

 

1609

African slaves rebel in Veracruz.

 

1615

Fray Juan de Torquemada publishes Monarchía Indiana, a description of Mexico based on sixteenth-century texts.

The Peruvian Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala writes El Primer Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno – a historical account of the Andes from the earliest human beings to the Incas and the Spanish Conquest.

1629–1634

The five-year catastrophic flooding of Mexico City spurs a massive evacuation to Puebla and the north.

 

1630

The Dutch colonize the northeast of Brazil.

Construction of the Fortress of San Felipe. This was Cartagena’s main defense against French, Dutch, and English explorers.  

1639

The Portuguese navigator Pedro Teixeira explores the interior of Brazil and expands its border west of the Tordesillas limit.

Tenure of Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, who was Puebla’s greatest art patron.

ca. 1641

 

Dutch artist Albert Eckhout created the eight ethnographic portraits, among them African Man and Tapuya Woman.

1653

 

Viceroy of New Spain issues ordinance in favor of the new guild of ceramicists in Puebla establishing the Talavera Poblana workshop

1654

The Dutch retreated from Brazil.

 


1673-1699

 

Tenure of Bishop Manuel de Mollinedo y Angulo, Cuzco's greatest art patron.

1687-1688

 

Andean painters accuse Spanish masters of mistreatment and declare intention to form their own guilds, paving the way for the Cuzco School of Painting.

1711

 

Earliest known Casta paintings are made by Manuel Arellano. These paintings established a prototype for the genre, which became popular in the 18th century.

1713

Confirmation of the Bourbon monarch Philip V after the death of Charles II in 1700 - the last Habsburg king of Spain.

 

1717

The Audiencia of Quito, Santa Fe and the captaincy of Venezuela were combined into the New Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada to strengthen territorial control.

 

1720

Portugal establishes the captaincy of Minas Gerais with capital in São Paulo (Brazil).

 

1737

The Virgin of Guadalupe is proclaimed patroness of Mexico.

 

1741

 

Quito’s first guild of painters and Encarnadores is founded.

1760-1763

 

The Church of São Bento in Olinda, (Pernambuco, Brazil) is built by the architect Francisco Nunes Soares.

1763

Viceroyalty of Brazil is founded.

 

1776

Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Bolivia) is founded.

 

1778

Free Trade Edict of the Bourbon Kings permits direct trade with Spain.

Trade with Spain has an enormous impact on the sculpture workshop at Quito and the painting workshop in Cuzco.

1780-1783




The artist Pedro José Diaz (active 1770-1810) painted the Portrait of Doña Mariana Belsunse y Salasar.


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