Date History and Culture



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History and Culture

Art and Architecture

1888

Nicaraguan poet Rubén Dario launches Modernismo, a literary phenomenon that has great resonance in all of Latin America.

 

1889

Exposition Universelle – The world’s fair celebrates the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution.

 

1895

Upon his return from Germany, the Mexican symbolist artist Julio Ruelas (1870-1907) becomes the art editor for the literary magazine Revista Moderna (1898-1911) in Mexico City.

 

1900

 

The Mexican sculptor Jesús F. Contreras (1866-1902) wins the grand prize at the Paris Universal Exposition for his work Malgre Tout (1898).

1901

The United Fruit Company begins its economic control of Guatemalan ports and territory with the support of Guatemalan President Manuel José Estrada Cabrera (1857-1924).

 

1902

 

Argentine Martin Malharro (1865-1911) returns to Buenos Aires and exhibits his landscape paintings at the famed Galería Whitcomb including the iconic Nocturne (ca. 1910).

1909

 

Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1877-1944) publishes the Futurist Manifesto. The manifesto stated that Futurism was a celebration of speed, machinery, violence, youth and industry.

1910-1920

The Mexican Revolution. Social uprising against the thirty-five year dictatorship of military officer Porfirio Díaz, known as “El Porfiriato,” 1876-1911. After the defeat of Díaz, civil unrest continued due to lack of a viable, representative government.

Mexican artist Gerardo Murillo (Dr. Atl, 1875-1964) organizes the exhibition Society of Mexican Painters and Sculptors to showcase the work of young avant-garde artists.

1911

Agrarian leader Emiliano Zapata (1879-1919) gains prominence among the working class after drafting the Plan de Ayala, which demanded land reform in Mexico. Zapata is betrayed and killed in 1919 in a conspiracy by Mexican President and revolutionary leader José Venustiano Carranza.

Uruguayan artist Rafael Barradas (1890-1929) develops an artistic style mixing aspects of Cubism and Futurism, which he calls Vibracionismo (Vibrationism).

1912

The U.S. occupies Nicaragua (1912-1933) to prevent them from building the Nicaraguan Grand Canal that would connect the Pacific Ocean with the Atlantic Ocean.

French artists Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger write the Cubist Manifesto titled "Du 'Cubisme'. Illustrated by the leading exponents of Cubism like Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Pablo Picasso, and Georges Braque, the treatise explains Cubism’s concept of multiple abstraction and simultaneity.

1913

 

José Guadalupe Posada creates the iconic image of La Calavera Catrina.

1914

The Panama Canal is completed.

 

1914-1918

World War I. Following the assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria, war breaks out between the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire) and the Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy and Japan). The War was a battle of hegemony and imperialism.

 

1915

Due to local political turmoil the U.S. military occupies Haiti to protect the interest of American corporations. The occupation lasts until 1934.

Argentine artist Emilio Pettoruti (1892-1971) paints Dynamic of Wind evoking the movement and speed that defines Futurism.

1915




Diego Rivera paints the Zapatista Landscape – his most important cubist painting. Mastering different modernist styles while in Europe, Rivera’s Zapatista Landscape is a great example of Synthetic Cubism.

1916

The Dominican Republic is occupied by the U.S.military from 1916 to 1924.

German author Hugo Ball (1886-1927) recites the first Dada manifesto at Cabaret Voltaire. Later in 1918 the second Dada manifesto is published in the journal Dada by the Romanian poet Tristan Tzara (1896-1963).

1917

The Uruguayan artists Rafael Barradas (1890-1929) and Joaquín Torres-García (1874-1949) exhibit together at the Galería Dalmau in Barcelona.

Joaquin Torres-Garcia publishes the revolutionary manifesto Art Evolució in the magazine Un enemic del poble.

1920

Álvaro Obregón (1880-1928) is elected president of Mexico, signaling the end to the Mexican Revolution.

 

1921

Mexican artist Diego Rivera (1886-1957) returns to Mexico City after spending 14 years living and studying in Europe.

Poet Manuel Maples Arce (1900-1981) created "Estridentismo," an artistic movement inspired by the modernization of Mexico, for which elements of Cubism, Futurism and Ultraismo are utilized.

1921-1924

 

Álvaro Obregón appoints José Vasconcelos (1882-1959), the former director of the Universidad Nacional de Mexico, as Secretary of Education.

1922

Semana de Arte Moderna. Art festival that brings the impetus of Modernism to Brazil. The festival is organized by the painter Emiliano di Cavalcanti (1897-1976), and the poets Oswald de Andrade (1890-1954) and Mario Andrade (1893-1945).

Brazilian painter Tarsila do Amaral (1886–1973) returns to São Paulo after pursuing artistic training in Europe.

1922

 

Upon invitation from José Vasconcelos, the artists José Clemente Orozco (1883-1949), Diego Rivera and later David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974) begin work on the first state-sponsored public art murals at the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria.

1922-1923

The Mexican artist Diego Rivera, Xavier Guerrero and David Alfaro Siqueiros form the “Union of Technical Workers, Painters, and Sculptors,” based on the manifesto baring the same name.

 

1923

Mexican revolutionary leader Francisco "Pancho" Villa (1878–1923) is assassinated in Chihuahua.

Italian photographer Tina Modotti (1896-1942) moves to Mexico. Modotti is exiled from Mexico in 1930 due to her involvement with the Communist party.

1923




 Cuban artist Wilfredo Lam pursues artistic training in Paris. Lam returns to Cuba in 1941.

1924

Members of the Ultraist movement, including the renowned writer Jorge Luis Borges (1899–1986), publish the literary journal Martin Fierro.

French artist André Breton (1896-1966) publishes the groundbreaking Surrealist Manifesto.

1924

Brazilian artist Oswald de Andrade (1890–1954) publishes a book of poetry entitled Pau-Brasil (Brazilwood).

Argentine-born artist Xul Solar (1888–1963) returns to Argentina and associates with the "Grupo Martín Fierro." That same year he paints the watercolor Mystics.

1924

 

Emilio Pettoruti holds the first exhibition of Cubist paintings in Argentina.

1924-1945

German politician Adolph Hitler (1889-1945) rises to power and becomes Führer of the Nazi Party in Germany. Hitler commits suicides in 1945 before being captured by the Allied powers marking the end of WWII.

 

1925

José Vasconcelos writes the iconic essay The Cosmic Race.

Peruvian journalist and political philosopher José Carlos Maríategui (1893-1930) defines and coins the term “Indigenism” in Peru.

1926

José Carlos Mariátegui founds the influential journal Amauta.

Ecuadorian artist Camilo Egas (1899-1962) establishes the first journal on art in Ecuador called Hélice.

1927

Nicaraguan revolutionary leader Augusto Cesár Sandino (1895-1934) launches first Sandinista uprising against the U.S military occupation of Nicaragua.

 

1928

The Mexican group known as “Los Contemporáneos” publishes the journal baring the same name. The journal is in circulation until 1931.

Oswaldo de Andrade writes the Anthropophagite Manifesto.

1929

The Great Depression. The U.S. stock market crashes on October 24 triggering a worldwide economic collapse, also known as "Black Thursday."

Diego Rivera begins working on an ambitious mural titled The History of Mexico from the Conquest to the Future at the National Palace in Mexico City.

1929

Ecuador is the first country in Latin America to grant women the right to vote.

 

1930

The Dominican Military General Rafael Leónidas Trujillo leads a coup d’état against president Horacio Vásquez stabling a dictatorship (1930-1961) in Dominican Republic.

Joaquin Torres-Garcia and Belgian painter Michel Seuphor (1901-1999) found the group “Cercle et Carré” in Paris and launch a publication baring the same name.

1931-

The Museum of Modern Art, New York opens a solo exhibition of Diego Rivera – the first retrospective exhibition of a Latin American artist in the U.S.

New School Director Alvin Johnson (1874-1971) commissions four murals by Mexican artist José Clemente Orozco.

1932

La Matanza. An uprising of Indian workers in the coffee plantations of El Salvador claims the lives of thousands, and a military regime is established until the 1970s.

Ecuadorian artist Camilo Egas (1899-1962) paints Ecuadorian Festival at the New School for Social Research, NY.

1932

Camilo Egas is named instructor at the New School for Social Research. Later in 1935, Egas is appointed director of the Art Department.

Mexican artists Rufino Tamayo (1899-1991) and Frida Kahlo (1907-1954) participate in the Surrealist exhibition at the prestigious Julian Levy Gallery in New York.

1933

Peruvian painter and theorist José Sabogal (1888–1956) heads the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes (School of Fine Arts) in Lima (1933-1940).

Mexican muralist Diego Rivera (1886–1957) is commissioned by Nelson Rockefeller (1908–1979) to paint Man at the Crossroads at Rockefeller Center. However, the mural is destroyed when Rivera refuses to remove the image of Russian Communist leader Vladimir Lenin.

1934

Joaquín Torres García returns to Montevideo after forty-three years abroad. The following year, he founds the Asociación de Arte Constructivo

Argentine artist Antonio Berni (1905-1981) paints in a social realist style his iconic Demonstration. Berni’s social realism proposed as an alternative visual language to Abstraction in Argentina.

1935

Colombian artist and member of the Bachué Movement Pedro Nel Gómez, paints the mural Life and Work: The Dance of Coffee (1935-1938).

Peruvian poets César Moro (1903-1956) and Emilio Adolfo Westphalen (1911-2001) organize the first Surrealist exhibition in Peru and in Latin America.

1937

 

Brazilian artist Cândido Portinari is commissioned to paints several murals at the Ministry of Education in Rio de Janeiro including the one titled: Azulejo. Portinari becomes a leading figure of the muralist movement in South America.

1936

Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The Republicans fought against the Nationalist party led by the fascist dictator and military general Francisco Franco (1892-1975). Franco won the war and ruled until his death in 1975.

David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896–1975) runs the Experimental Workshop in New York, attracting American artists including Jackson Pollock (1912– 1956).

1937

President Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (1883–1945) institutes Estado Novo in Brazil perpetuating his rule and assuming dictatorial power.

The Taller de Gráfica Popular (People's Graphics Workshop) is founded in Mexico City.

1938

André Breton travels to Mexico as cultural commissioner of the French government.

David Alfaro Siqueiros paints the controversial mural Tropical America in Los Angeles.

1939 -1945

World War II. The Allies (Britain, France and Russia) declare War on Germany to stop the rising power of Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party from invading Europe.

 

1939

Peruvian poet César Moro (1903-1956) arrives in Mexico City

David Alfaro Siqueiros paints Portrait of the Bourgeoisie (1939-4) at the Mexican Electricians’ Syndicate in Mexico City.

1940

David Alfaro Siqueiros attempts the assassination of the Russian Marxist Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) while he sought exile in Mexico.

André Breton organizes the International Surrealist Exhibition at Galeria de Arte Mexicano in Mexico City with the support of gallery owner Inés Amor.

1940

The Museum of Modern Art in New York presents the exhibition: Twenty Centuries of Mexican Art.

In Ecuador Camilo Egas establishes “Galéria Egas,” and Eduardo Kingman (1913-1997) founds “Galería Caspicara.”

1941

Attack on Pearl Harbor. The Japanese Navy stroke against the military base in Hawaii to prevent the U.S from interfering on Japan’s imperialist mission to invade South East Asia.

British artist Leonora Carrington (1917-2011) arrives in Mexico.

1941

Brazilian muralist Cândido Portinari (1903-1961) paints Discovery of the Land at the Library of Congress in Washington D.C.

Ecuadorian artist Eduardo Kingman paints The Haulers at Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana in Quito.

1942

 

Wolfgang Paalen founds the Surrealist magazine Dyn.

1943

Argentine artist Antonio Berni (1905-1981) establishes the Mural Art Workshop gaining public art commissions.

Frida Kahlo paints Self-Portrait With Cropped Hair after her divorce from Diego Rivera.

1943

 

Wilfredo Lam paints The Jungle – his first work upon returning to Cuba from Europe.

1944

Cuban art critic José Gómez Sicre (1916-1991) co-curates the exhibition Modern Cuban Painters at the Museum of Modern Art, New York.

American artist and educator Dewitt Peters (1865-1948) establishes the Art Centre in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

1944

 

Joaquin Torres-Garcia opens in his own studio, the Taller Torres-García.

1945

American Air Forces dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bombs over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last stages of World War II.

 

1946

Populist leader Juan Perón (1895–1974) is elected president of Argentina. Perón wins a second term in 1952 but is deposed in 1955 and is forced into exile.

 

1947

 

The Haitian artist Hector Hyppolite’s painting A Prostitute is featured in the French Surrealist magazine Le Surrealisme et la Peinture, and at the UNESCO exhibition in Paris.

1948

The Cold War begins. Tension between the U.S. and the USSR arise culminating in the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.

Founding of the Organization of American States (OAS), formerly known as the Pan American Union.

1948–1958

Leader of the Popular Movement in Colombia, Jorge Eliécer Gaitán (1902–1948), is assassinated triggering The Civil War ("La Violencia"), which leaves hundreds of thousands dead.

 

1950

 

Mexican architects Enrique del Moral (1906–1987) and Mario Pani (1911–1993) reveal the plan for the expansive Ciudad Universitaria of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma (UNAM) in Mexico City.

1951

The São Paulo Biennale is inaugurated, the first of its kind in Latin America.

Venezuelan architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva (1900–1975) invites international artists to collaborate in the design of the new Ciudad Universitaria in Caracas.

1952

Puerto Rico becomes a U.S. Commonwealth.

Mexican artist and architect Juan O’Gorman (1905-1982) creates the mosaic mural The Colonial Past.

1953-1957

Colombian Lieutenant General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (1900-1975) organized a coup d’état against President Laureano Gómez Castro and establishes a military dictatorship until forced into exile.

 

1953-1959

The Cuban Revolution. Revolutionary leader Fidel Castro (b.1926) conducts an armed revolt against President Fulgencio Batista instituting a socialist state.

 


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