Data based question practice



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DATA BASED QUESTION PRACTICE


Hint: review your formulas from IGCSE!

Bone mineral density (BMD) gives an estimate of bone mass. Several longitudinal studies in the US measured fracture risk, BMD and annual change in BMD at the neck of the femur. This paper presents results from these studies and examines if there were any racial differences in these measures.






Black females

White females

Black males

White males

Mean BMD (g/cm2)

0.75

0.65

0.86

0.75

Annual change in BMD (%)

-0.19

-0.51

-1.1

-2.1

Fracture risk (per 1000)

4.1

10.1

3.1

4.3

Source Hochberg, M.C. 2007 “Racial differences in bone strength.” Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association. Vol 118 Pp305-15

1. Compare the risk of fracture between blacks and whites.

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2. Analyse the link between mean BMD and fracture risk using the data provided..

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3. Suggest two ways in which the annual change in BMD could be decreased

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