Curriculum framework 2008 Virginia and United States History Board of Education Commonwealth of Virginia



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History and Social Science Standards of Learning

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK 2008

Virginia and United States History

Board of Education

Commonwealth of Virginia

This version of the Virginia and United States History Curriculum Framework for the History and Social Science Virginia Standards of Learning has been modified to include links to resources from the Library of Virginia's digital collections Web site, VirginiaMemory.com.


Some useful links on Virginia Memory include:
Online Classroom: Guide for Educators: http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/guide_for_educators
Online Classroom: Lesson Plans: http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/lesson_plans
Shaping the Constitution: Resources from the Library of Virginia and the Library of Congress: http://www.virginiamemory.com/shaping
Exhibitions: http://www.virginiamemory.com/exhibitions/exhibitions_by_topic



History and Social Science Standards of Learning

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK 2008

Virginia and United States History

Board of Education

Commonwealth of Virginia
Copyright © 2008

by the


Virginia Department of Education

P. O. Box 2120

Richmond, Virginia 23218-2120

http://www.doe.virginia.gov
All rights reserved. Reproduction of these materials for instructional purposes in public school classrooms in Virginia is permitted.


Superintendent of Public Instruction

Billy K. Cannaday, Jr.


Chief Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction

Patricia I. Wright


Assistant Superintendent for Instruction

Linda M. Wallinger


Office of Elementary Instructional Services

Mark R. Allan, Director

Betsy S. Barton, History and Social Science Specialist
Office of Middle and High School Instructional Services

Felicia D. Dyke, Director

Beverly M. Thurston, History and Social Science Coordinator

Edited by the CTE Resource Center



http://CTEresource.org


NOTICE

The Virginia Department of Education does not unlawfully discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, or disability in employment or in its educational programs or services.





INTRODUCTION
The History and Social Science Standards of Learning Curriculum Framework 2008, approved by the Board of Education on July 17, 2008, is a companion document to the 2008 History and Social Science Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools. The Curriculum Framework amplifies the Standards of Learning by defining the content understandings, knowledge, and skills that are measured by the Standards of Learning assessments. The Curriculum Framework provides additional guidance to school divisions and their teachers as they develop an instructional program appropriate for their students. It assists teachers in their lesson planning by identifying the essential content understandings, knowledge, and intellectual skills that should be the focus of instruction for each standard. Hence, the framework delineates with greater specificity the content that all teachers should teach and all students should learn.
The Curriculum Framework consists of at least one framework page for every Standard of Learning. Each of these pages is divided into FIVE columns, as described below:
Essential Understandings

This column includes the fundamental background information necessary for answering the essential questions and acquiring the essential knowledge. Teachers should use these understandings as a basis for lesson planning.


Essential Questions

In this column are found questions that teachers may use to stimulate student thinking and classroom discussion. The questions are based on the standard and the essential understandings, but may use different vocabulary and may go beyond them.


Essential Knowledge

This column delineates the key content facts, concepts, and ideas that students should grasp in order to demonstrate understanding of the standard. This information is not meant to be exhaustive or a limitation on what is taught in the classroom. Rather, it is meant to be the principal knowledge defining the standard.


Essential Skills

This column enumerates the fundamental intellectual abilities that students should have—what they should be able to do—to be successful in accomplishing historical and geographical analysis and achieving responsible citizenship.


VaMem

This column lists hyperlinked resources available on Virginia Memory, that correspond to at least one of the Essential Understandings, Questions, or Knowledge, and which could be used by an educator to teach that particular SOL.

The Curriculum Framework serves as a guide for Standards of Learning assessment development; however, assessment items may not and should not be verbatim reflections of the information presented in the Curriculum Framework.


All of the lessons and teaching materials created by the Library of Virginia Education and Outreach Division are fashioned to encourage and facilitate primary source teaching, fulfilling some of the requirements of VUS. 1. We stress the importance of inquiry-based primary source study, using manuscripts, posters, letters, diaries, photographs, artwork, newspapers, and maps, as well as audio and video clips.
Any of the primary sources found on Virginia Memory can be analyzed using one of our Historical Source Analysis Sheets. These sheets are designed to be inclusive and can be used with any source to begin exploration and open classroom discussion and understanding.
ATTACK the Source (Elementary)

You are CLEVER enough to examine a historical source (Middle)

Historical Source Analysis Sheet (Middle)

Historical Source Analysis Sheet (High)
STANDARD VUS.1 a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i
The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to

a) identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents, records, and data, including artifacts, diaries, letters, photographs, journals, newspapers, historical accounts, and art, to increase understanding of events and life in the United States;

b) evaluate the authenticity, authority, and credibility of sources;

c) formulate historical questions and defend findings, based on inquiry and interpretation;

d) develop perspectives of time and place, including the construction of maps and various timelines of events, periods, and personalities in American history;

e) communicate findings orally and in analytical essays or comprehensive papers;

f) develop skills in discussion, debate, and persuasive writing with respect to enduring issues and determine how divergent viewpoints have been addressed and reconciled;

g) apply geographic skills and reference sources to understand how relationships between humans and their environment have changed over time;

h) interpret the significance of excerpts from famous speeches and other documents;

i) identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, including the consequences, both intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nations responded to positive and negative incentives.


The various skills identified in this standard are cited, as applicable, in the “Essential Skills” columns of the charts throughout this curriculum framework, with the exception of skills “e” and “f.” Students should have opportunities to practice communicating orally and in writing, discussing, debating, and persuading, but these skills will not be assessed on the Standards of Learning test. All other skills listed above will be assessed on the test, and teachers should incorporate them into instruction throughout the year.

STANDARD VUS.2

The student will describe how early European exploration and colonization resulted in cultural interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

VAmem

Early European exploration and colonization resulted in the redistribution of the world’s population as millions of people from Europe and Africa voluntarily and involuntarily moved to the New World.


Exploration and colonization initiated worldwide commercial expansion as agricultural products were exchanged between the Americas and Europe. In time, colonization led to ideas of representative government and religious tolerance that over several centuries would inspire similar transformations in other parts of the world.

Why did Europeans settle in the English colonies?


How did their motivations influence their settlement patterns and colony structures?
In what ways did the cultures of Europe, Africa, and the Americas interact?
What were the consequences of the interactions of European, African, and American cultures?


Characteristics of early exploration and settlements in the New World

  • New England was settled by Puritans seeking freedom from religious persecution in Europe. They formed a “covenant community” based on the principles of the Mayflower Compact and Puritan religious beliefs and were often intolerant of those not sharing their religion. They also sought economic opportunity and practiced a form of direct democracy through town meetings.

  • The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and German-speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic opportunity.

  • Virginia and the other Southern colonies were settled by people seeking economic opportunities. Some of the early Virginia settlers were “cavaliers,” i.e., English nobility who received large land grants in eastern Virginia from the King of England. Poor English immigrants also came seeking better lives as small farmers or artisans and settled in the Shenandoah Valley or western Virginia, or as indentured servants who agreed to work on tobacco plantations for a period of time to pay for passage to the New World.

  • Jamestown, established in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London as a business venture, was the first permanent English settlement in North America. The Virginia House of Burgesses, established by the 1640s, was the first elected assembly in the New World. It has operated continuously and is known today as the General Assembly of Virginia.


Interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians

  • The explorations and settlements of the English in the American colonies and Spanish in the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, often led to violent conflicts with the American Indians. The Indians lost their traditional territories and fell victim to diseases carried from Europe. By contrast, French exploration of Canada did not lead to large-scale immigration from France, and relations with native peoples were generally more cooperative.

  • The growth of an agricultural economy based on large landholdings in the Southern colonies and in the Caribbean led to the introduction of slavery in the New World. The first Africans were brought against their will to Jamestown in 1619 to work on tobacco plantations.

Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents, records, and data to increase understanding of events and life in the United States. (VUS.1a)


Formulate historical questions and defend findings, based on inquiry and interpretation. (VUS.1c)
Develop perspectives of time and place. (VUS.1d)

Lesson Plan: The African Kingdom of Mali: Introducing Mali from Mercator's Maps

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/lesson_plans/the_african_kingdom_of_mali:_introducing_mali_from_mercators_maps
Lesson plan: John Smith's Masterpiece and Copyright Nightmare

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/lesson_plans/john_smiths_masterpiece_and_copyright_nightmare
Lesson Plan: Blank Space: Mapping the Unknown

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/lesson_plans/blank_space:_mapping_the_unknown
Lesson Plan: Nova Britannia

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/lesson_plans/nova_britannia
Lesson Plan: Nova Virginia Tabula

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/lesson_plans/nova_virginia_tabula
Lesson Plan: Virginia Indians in the Twentieth Century

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/lesson_plans/virginia_indians_in_the_twentieth_century
Lesson plan: Petition of the Meherrin Indians

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/lesson_plans/petition_of_the_meherrin_indians
Lesson plan: Edith Turner: Nottoway (Cheroenhaka) chief

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/lesson_plans/edith_turner:_nottoway_cheroenhaka_chief
STC: Treaty Between the English and the Powhatan Indians, October 1646. http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/shaping_the_constitution/doc/treaty
STC: Freedom Suit Claiming Indian Descent of an Enslaved Family, 1814.

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/shaping_the_constitution/doc/freedomsuit
Digital collection: Virginia Land Office Patents and Grants/Northern Neck Grants and Surveys


STANDARD VUS.3

The student will describe how the values and institutions of European economic and political life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

VAmem

Economic and political institutions in the colonies developed in ways that were either typically European or were distinctively American, as climate, soil conditions, and natural resources shaped regional economic development.


The African slave trade and the development of a slave labor system in many of the colonies resulted from plantation economies and labor shortages.

How did the economic activity and political institutions of the three colonial regions reflect the resources and/or the European origins of their settlers?


Why was slavery introduced into the colonies?
How did the institution of slavery influence European and African life in the colonies?


Economic characteristics of the Colonial Period

  • The New England colonies developed an economy based on shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, small-scale subsistence farming, and eventually, manufacturing. The colonies prospered, reflecting the Puritans’ strong belief in the values of hard work and thrift.

  • The middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware developed economies based on shipbuilding, small-scale farming, and trading. Cities such as New York and Philadelphia began to grow as seaports and/or commercial centers.

  • Southern colonies developed economies in the eastern coastal lowlands based on large plantations that grew “cash crops” such as tobacco, rice, and indigo for export to Europe. Farther inland, however, in the mountains and valleys of the Appalachian foothills, the economy was based on small-scale subsistence farming, hunting, and trading.

  • A strong belief in private ownership of property and free enterprise characterized colonial life everywhere.


Social characteristics of the colonies

  • New England’s colonial society was based on religious standing. The Puritans grew increasingly intolerant of dissenters who challenged the Puritans’ belief in the connection between religion and government. Rhode Island was founded by dissenters fleeing persecution by Puritans in Massachusetts.

  • The middle colonies were home to multiple religious groups who generally believed in religious tolerance, including Quakers in Pennsylvania, Huguenots and Jews in New York, and Presbyterians in New Jersey. These colonies had more flexible social structures and began to develop a middle class of skilled artisans, entrepreneurs (business owners), and small farmers.

Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents, records, and data to increase understanding of events and life in the United States. (VUS.1a)


Formulate historical questions and defend findings, based on inquiry and interpretation. (VUS.1c)
Develop perspectives of time and place. (VUS.1d)
Apply geographic skills and reference sources to understand how relationships between humans and their environment have changed over time. (VUS.1g)
Identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, including the consequences, both intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nations responded to positive and negative incentives.

(VUS.1i)


Lesson plan: Thomas Meade Estate Inventory

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/lesson_plans/thomas_meade_estate_inventory



STANDARD VUS.3 (continued)

The student will describe how the values and institutions of European economic and political life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills











  • Virginia and the Southern colonies had a social structure based on family status and the ownership of land. Large landowners in the eastern lowlands dominated colonial government and society and maintained an allegiance to the Church of England and closer social ties to Britain than did those in the other colonies. In the mountains and valleys further inland, however, society was characterized by small subsistence farmers, hunters, and traders of Scots-Irish and English descent.

  • The “Great Awakening” was a religious movement that swept both Europe and the colonies during the mid-1700s. It led to the rapid growth of evangelical religions, such as Methodist and Baptist, and challenged the established religious and governmental orders. It laid one of the social foundations for the American Revolution.


Political life in the colonies

  • New England colonies used town meetings (an “Athenian” direct democracy model) in the operation of government.

  • Middle colonies incorporated a number of democratic principles that reflected the basic rights of Englishmen.

  • Southern colonies maintained stronger ties with Britain, with planters playing leading roles in representative colonial legislatures.


The development of indentured servitude and slavery

  • The growth of a plantation-based agricultural economy in the hot, humid coastal lowlands of the Southern colonies required cheap labor on a large scale. Some of the labor needs, especially in Virginia, were met by indentured servants, who were often poor persons from England, Scotland, or Ireland who agreed to work on plantations for a period of time in return for their passage from Europe or relief from debts.

  • Most plantation labor needs eventually came to be satisfied by the forcible importation of Africans. Although some Africans worked as indentured servants, earned their freedom, and lived as free citizens during the Colonial Era, over time larger and larger numbers of enslaved Africans were forcibly brought to the Southern colonies (the “Middle Passage”).

  • The development of a slavery-based agricultural economy in the Southern colonies eventually led to conflict between the North and South and the American Civil War.



This Day in Virginia: March 21, 1694:

Thomas Gibson Was Indentured to Thomas Spencer



http://www.virginiamemory.com/reading_room/this_day_in_virginia_history/march/21
Lesson plan: Petition of Phillip Gowen

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/lesson_plans/petition_of_phillip_gowen
STC: Phillip Gowen Petition, June 16, 1675.

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/shaping_the_constitution/doc/gowenpetition
STC: Lesson plan: "Antebellum Freedom"

http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/shaping_the_constitution/STC_Antebellum%20_Freedom_Lesson.pdf
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