Curriculum framework 2008 United States History to 1865 Board of Education Commonwealth of Virginia



Download 209.51 Kb.
Page2/4
Date conversion16.05.2016
Size209.51 Kb.
1   2   3   4

STANDARD USI.4a

The student will demonstrate knowledge of European explorations in North America and West Africa by

a) describing the motivations for, obstacles to, and accomplishments of the Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English explorations.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

Major European countries were in competition to extend their power into North America and claim the land as their own.


Why did European countries compete for power in North America?


What were the obstacles faced by the explorers?
What were the accomplishments of the explorations?
What regions of North America were explored and settled by France, England, and Spain?
What regions were explored by Portugal?


Motivations for the explorations

  • Economic—Gold, natural resources, and trade

  • Religious—Spread Christianity

  • Competitions for empire and belief in superiority of own culture


Obstacles to the explorations

  • Poor maps and navigational tools

  • Disease and starvation

  • Fear of the unknown

  • Lack of adequate supplies


Accomplishments of the explorations

  • Exchanged goods and ideas

  • Improved navigational tools and ships

  • Claimed territories (see countries below)


Regions of North America explored by Spain, France, and England

  • Spain: Francisco Coronado claimed the Southwest of the present-day United States for Spain.

  • France: Samuel de Champlain established the French settlement of Québec. Robert La Salle claimed the Mississippi River Valley for France.

  • England: John Cabot explored eastern Canada.


Regions explored by Portugal

  • The Portuguese made voyages of discovery along the coast of West Africa.

Identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history. (USI.1a)


Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (USI.1d)
Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events. (USI.1f)

STANDARD USI.4b

The student will demonstrate knowledge of European explorations in North America and West Africa by

b) describing cultural and economic interactions between Europeans and American Indians that led to cooperation and conflict, with emphasis on the American Indian concept of land.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

The interactions between American Indians and Europeans sometimes led to cooperation and other times resulted in conflict.


How did the American Indians and Europeans interact with each other?




Cultural interaction

  • Spanish

  • Conquered and enslaved American Indians

  • Brought Christianity to the New World

  • Brought European diseases to American Indians

  • French

  • Established trading posts

  • Spread Christian religion

  • English

  • Established settlements and claimed ownership of land

  • Learned farming techniques from American Indians

  • Traded with American Indians

  • American Indians


Areas of cooperation in economic interactions

  • Europeans brought weapons and metal farm tools.

  • Trade

  • Crops


Areas of conflict

  • Land

  • Competition for trade

  • Differences in cultures

  • Diseases

  • Language differences

Identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history. (USI.1a)


Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (USI.1d)

STANDARD USI.4c

The student will demonstrate knowledge of European explorations in North America and West Africa by

c) identifying the location and describing the characteristics of West African societies (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai) and their interactions with traders.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

Ghana, Mali, and Songhai each dominated West Africa in sequence from 300 to 1600 a.d.


African people and African goods played an important role in European interest in world resources.

What was the importance of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai?


Where were the empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai located?
When did the empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai exist in Africa?
How did West African empires impact European trade?

Ghana, Mali, and Songhai dominated West Africa one after another from 300 to 1600 a.d.


Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were located in the western region of Africa, south of the Sahara Desert, near the Niger River.
Ghana, Mali, and Songhai became powerful by controlling trade in West Africa.
The Portuguese carried goods from Europe to West African empires, trading metals, cloth, and other manufactured goods for gold.

Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (USI.1d)


Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, and historical events. (USI.1f)
Distinguish between parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. (USI.1g)

STANDARD USI.5a

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial America by

a) describing the religious and economic events and conditions that led to the colonization of America.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

Colonies in North America were established for religious and economic reasons.


Why did Europeans establish colonies in North America?




Colonies and the reasons they were established

  • Roanoke Island (Lost Colony) was established as an economic venture.

  • Jamestown Settlement, the first permanent English settlement in North America (1607), was an economic venture by the Virginia Company.

  • Plymouth Colony was settled by separatists from the Church of England who wanted to avoid religious persecution.

  • Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled by the Puritans to avoid religious persecution.

  • Pennsylvania was settled by the Quakers, who wanted freedom to practice their faith without interference.

  • Georgia was settled by people who had been in debtors’ prisons in England. They hoped to experience economic freedom and start a new life in the New World.

Identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history. (USI.1a)


Sequence events in United States history. (USI.1c)
Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (USI.1d)

STANDARD USI.5b

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial America by

b) describing life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies, with emphasis on how people interacted with their environment to produce goods and services, including examples of specialization and interdependence.

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

Life in the colonies was shaped by the geographical features of the settlements.


Economic specialization and interdependence existed among the colonies in the production of goods and services.

How did climate, geographic features, and other available resources distinguish the three regions from each other?


How did people use the natural resources of their region to earn a living?
What are the benefits of specialization and trade?
How did political and social life evolve in each of the three regions?


Terms to know

  • resources: natural, capital, or human

  • specialization: Focusing on one or a few products

  • interdependence: Two or more people depending on each other for goods and services

Specialization caused the colonies to be interdependent.


(See chart below.)

Identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history. (1a)


Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (1d)
Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events. (1f)




Essential Knowledge

Colonies

Resources

Geography and Climate

Specialization

Examples of Interdependence

Social/Political

New England

Natural resources: e.g., timber, fish, deep harbors

Human resources: e.g., skilled craftsmen, shopkeepers, shipbuilders

Capital resources: e.g., tools, buildings


Appalachian Mountains, Boston harbor, hilly terrain, rocky soil, jagged coastline
Moderate summers, cold winters

Fishing, shipbuilding, naval supplies, metal tools and equipment

The New England colonies depended on the Southern colonies for crops such as tobacco, rice, cotton, and indigo, and for forest products such as lumber, tar, and pitch. They depended on the Mid-Atlantic colonies for livestock and grains.

Villages and churches were centers of life. Religious reformers and separatists
Civic life: town meetings

Mid-Atlantic

Natural Resources: e.g., rich farmlands, rivers

Human resources: e.g., unskilled and skilled workers, fishermen

Capital resources: e.g., tools, buildings


Appalachian Mountains, coastal lowlands, harbors and bays
Mild winters and moderate climate, wide and deep rivers

Livestock, grains, fish

The Mid-Atlantic colonies traded with the Southern and New England colonies to get the products they did not produce. The Mid-Atlantic colonies depended on the Southern colonies for tobacco, rice, cotton, indigo, and forest products. They traded with the New England colonies for metal tools and equipment.

Villages and cities, varied and diverse lifestyles, diverse religions
Civic life: market towns

Southern

Natural resources: e.g., fertile farmlands, rivers, harbors

Human resources: e.g., farmers, enslaved African Americans

Capital resources: e.g., tools, buildings


Appalachian Mountains, Piedmont, Atlantic Coastal Plain, good harbors and rivers
Humid climate with mild winters and hot summers

Tobacco, rice, cotton, indigo, forest products (lumber, tar, pitch)

The Southern colonies depended on the New England colonies for manufactured goods, including metal tools and equipment. They depended on the Mid-Atlantic colonies for grains and other agricultural products not plentiful in the South.

Plantations (slavery), mansions, indentured servants, fewer cities, fewer schools, Church of England
Civic life: counties
STANDARD USI.5c

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial America by

c) describing colonial life in America from the perspectives of large landowners, farmers, artisans, women, free African Americans, indentured servants, and enslaved African Americans.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

The colonies were made up of different groups of people whose lives varied greatly depending on their social position.


How did people’s lives vary among different social groups in colonial America?




Large landowners

  • Lived predominately in the South

  • Relied on indentured servants and/or enslaved African Americans for labor

  • Were educated in some cases

  • Had rich social culture


Farmers

  • Worked the land according to the region

  • Relied on family members for labor


Artisans

  • Worked as craftsmen in towns and on plantations

  • Lived in small villages and cities


Women

  • Worked as caretakers, house-workers, and homemakers

  • Were not allowed to vote

  • Had few opportunities for getting an education


Free African Americans

  • Were able to own land

  • Had economic freedom and could work for pay and decide how to spend their money

  • Were not allowed to vote


Indentured servants

  • Were men and women who did not have money for passage to the colonies and who agreed to work without pay for the person who paid for their passage

  • Were free at the end of their contract

Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (USI.1d)



STANDARD USI.5c (continued)

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial America by

c) describing colonial life in America from the perspectives of large landowners, farmers, artisans, women, free African Americans, indentured servants, and enslaved African Americans.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills






Enslaved African Americans

  • Were captured in their native Africa and sold to slave traders; then were shipped to the colonies where they were sold into slavery

  • Were owned as property for life without any rights.

  • Were often born into slavery (Children of enslaved African Americans were born into slavery.)



STANDARD USI.5d

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial America by

d) identifying the political and economic relationships between the colonies and Great Britain.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

Great Britain established and attempted to maintain control over the colonies.


England became Great Britain in the early 1700s.


How did Great Britain impose political and economic control over the colonies?




Economic relationships

  • Great Britain imposed strict control over trade.

  • Great Britain taxed the colonies after the French and Indian War.

  • The colonies traded raw materials for goods made in Great Britain.


Political relationships

  • Colonists had to obey British laws, which were enforced by governors.

  • Colonial governors were appointed by the king or by the proprietor.

  • A colonial legislature made laws for each colony but was monitored by the colonial governor.

Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (USI.1d)


Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, and historical events. (USI.1f)

STANDARD USI.6a

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes and results of the American Revolution by

a) identifying the issues of dissatisfaction that led to the American Revolution.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

As Great Britain expanded control over the American colonies, many colonists became dissatisfied and rebellious.


What steps did Great Britain take to increase control over its colonies?


Why did many colonists become dissatisfied with Great Britain’s control over the colonies?


Great Britain’s reasons for controlling the colonies

  • Great Britain desired to remain a world power.

  • In the American colonies, Great Britain’s desire to remain a world power resulted in a conflict with the French known as the French and Indian War.

  • Great Britain imposed taxes, such as the Stamp Act, to raise necessary revenue to pay the cost of the French and Indian War.


Great Britain’s reasons for taxation

  • To help finance the French and Indian War

  • To help finance the maintenance of British troops in the colonies


Sources of colonial dissatisfaction

  • The colonies had no representation in Parliament.

  • Some colonists resented the power of the colonial governors.

  • Great Britain wanted strict control over colonial legislatures.

  • The colonies opposed the British taxes.

  • The Proclamation of l763, which followed the French and Indian War, restricted the western movement of settlers.

Make connections between the past and the present (USI.1b)


Sequence events in United States history. (USI.1c)
Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (USI.1d)
1   2   3   4


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page