Curriculum framework 2008 United States History to 1865 Board of Education Commonwealth of Virginia



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H

istory and Social Science Standards of Learning


CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK 2008

United States History to 1865
Board of Education

Commonwealth of Virginia

Copyright © 2008

by the

Virginia Department of Education



P. O. Box 2120

Richmond, Virginia 23218-2120



http://www.doe.virginia.gov
All rights reserved. Reproduction of these materials for instructional purposes in public school classrooms in Virginia is permitted.

Superintendent of Public Instruction

Billy K. Cannaday, Jr.


Chief Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction

Patricia I. Wright


Assistant Superintendent for Instruction

Linda M. Wallinger


Office of Elementary Instructional Services

Mark R. Allan, Director

Betsy S. Barton, History and Social Science Specialist
Office of Middle and High School Instructional Services

Felicia D. Dyke, Director

Beverly M. Thurston, History and Social Science Coordinator

Edited by the CTE Resource Center



http://CTEresource.org

NOTICE

The Virginia Department of Education does not unlawfully discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, or disability in employment or in its educational programs or services.



INTRODUCTION
The History and Social Science Standards of Learning Curriculum Framework 2008, approved by the Board of Education on July 17, 2008, is a companion document to the 2008 History and Social Science Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools. The Curriculum Framework amplifies the Standards of Learning by defining the content understandings, knowledge, and skills that are measured by the Standards of Learning assessments. The Curriculum Framework provides additional guidance to school divisions and their teachers as they develop an instructional program appropriate for their students. It assists teachers in their lesson planning by identifying the essential content understandings, knowledge, and intellectual skills that should be the focus of instruction for each standard. Hence, the framework delineates with greater specificity the content that all teachers should teach and all students should learn.
The Curriculum Framework consists of at least one framework page for every Standard of Learning. Each of these pages is divided into four columns, as described below:
Essential Understandings

This column includes the fundamental background information necessary for answering the essential questions and acquiring the essential knowledge. Teachers should use these understandings as a basis for lesson planning.


Essential Questions

In this column are found questions that teachers may use to stimulate student thinking and classroom discussion. The questions are based on the standard and the essential understandings, but may use different vocabulary and may go beyond them.


Essential Knowledge

This column delineates the key content facts, concepts, and ideas that students should grasp in order to demonstrate understanding of the standard. This information is not meant to be exhaustive or a limitation on what is taught in the classroom. Rather, it is meant to be the principal knowledge defining the standard.


Essential Skills

This column enumerates the fundamental intellectual abilities that students should have—what they should be able to do—to be successful in accomplishing historical and geographical analysis and achieving responsible citizenship.


The Curriculum Framework serves as a guide for Standards of Learning assessment development; however, assessment items may not and should not be verbatim reflections of the information presented in the Curriculum Framework.





S

TANDARD USI.1a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i



The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to

a) identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history to 1865;

b) make connections between the past and the present;

c) sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1865;

d) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;

e) evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing;

f) analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events;

g) distinguish between parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude;

h) interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents;

i) identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, including the consequences, both intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nations responded to positive and negative incentives.
The skills identified in this standard are cited, as applicable, in the “Essential Skills” columns of the charts throughout this curriculum framework, with the exception of skill “e.” Students should have opportunities to practice speaking and writing, but these skills will not be assessed on the Standards of Learning test. All other skills listed above will be assessed on the Standards of Learning test, and teachers should incorporate these skills into instruction throughout the year.
STANDARD USI.2a

The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, or tables to

a) locate the seven continents and five oceans.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

Continents are large land masses surrounded by water.


What are the seven continents?


What are the five oceans?


Continents

  • North America

  • South America

  • Africa

  • Asia

  • Australia

  • Antarctica

  • Europe*


Oceans

  • Atlantic Ocean

  • Pacific Ocean

  • Arctic Ocean

  • Indian Ocean

  • Southern Ocean

*Note: Europe is considered a continent even though it is not entirely surrounded by water. The land mass is frequently called Eurasia.


Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms and water features. (USI.1f)


Distinguish between parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. (USI.1g)

STANDARD USI.2b

The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, or tables to

b) locate and describe the location of the geographic regions of North America: Coastal Plain, Appalachian Mountains, Canadian Shield, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Basin and Range, and Coastal Range.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

Geographic regions have distinctive characteristics.


Where are the geographic regions of North America located?


What are some physical characteristics of the geographic regions of North America?


Geographic regions’ locations and physical characteristics

  • Coastal Plain

  • Located along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico

  • Broad lowlands providing many excellent harbors

  • Located west of the Coastal Plain, extending from eastern Canada to western Alabama; includes the Piedmont

  • Old, eroded mountains (oldest mountain range in North America)

  • Canadian Shield

  • Wrapped around the Hudson Bay in a horseshoe shape

  • Hills worn by erosion and hundreds of lakes carved by glaciers

  • Interior Lowlands

  • Located west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Great Plains

  • Rolling flatlands with many rivers, broad river valleys, and grassy hills

  • Great Plains

  • Located west of the Interior Lowlands and east of the Rocky Mountains

  • Flat lands that gradually increase in elevation westward; grasslands

  • Rocky Mountains

  • Located west of the Great Plains and east of the Basin and Range

  • Rugged mountains stretching from Alaska almost to Mexico; high elevations

  • Contains the Continental Divide, which determines the directional flow of rivers

  • Basin and Range

  • Located west of the Rocky Mountains and east of the Sierra Nevadas and the Cascades

  • Varying elevations containing isolated mountain ranges and Death Valley, the lowest point in North America

  • Coastal Range

  • Located along the Pacific Coast, stretching from California to Canada

  • Rugged mountains and fertile valleys

Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms. (USI.1f)


Distinguish between parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. (USI.1g)

STANDARD USI.2c

The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, or tables to

c) locate and identify the water features important to the early history of the United States: Great Lakes, Mississippi River, Missouri River, Ohio River, Columbia River, Colorado River, Rio Grande, St. Lawrence River, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

The United States has access to numerous and varied bodies of water.


Bodies of water support interaction among regions, form borders, and create links to other areas.

What are the major bodies of water in the United States?


What are some ways bodies of water in the United States have supported interaction among regions and created links to other areas?


Major bodies of water

  • Oceans: Atlantic, Pacific

  • Rivers: Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Columbia, Colorado, Rio Grande, St. Lawrence River

  • Lakes: Great Lakes

  • Gulf: Gulf of Mexico


Trade, transportation, exploration, and settlement

  • The Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts of the United States have provided access to other parts of the world.

  • The Atlantic Ocean served as the highway for explorers, early settlers, and later immigrants.

  • The Ohio River was the gateway to the west.

  • Inland port cities grew in the Midwest along the Great Lakes.

  • The Mississippi and Missouri rivers were used to transport farm and industrial products. They were links to United States ports and other parts of the world.

  • The Columbia River was explored by Lewis and Clark.

  • The Colorado River was explored by the Spanish.

  • The Rio Grande forms the border with Mexico.

  • The Pacific Ocean was an early exploration destination.

  • The Gulf of Mexico provided the French and Spanish with exploration routes to Mexico and other parts of America.

  • The St. Lawrence River forms part of the northeastern border with Canada and connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.

Identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history. (USI.1a)


Sequence events in United States history. (USI.1c)
Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, and historical events. (USI.1f)

STANDARD USI.2d

The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, or tables to

d) recognize key geographic features on maps, diagrams, and/or photographs.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

It is important to recognize key geographic features on maps, diagrams, and/or photographs.


Landforms and water features set the stage for and influence the course of events in United States history.

What are some important categories of geographic features?


What do these important geographic features look like when they appear on maps, globes, and diagrams?
What do these important geographic features look like when they appear in pictures and photographs?
Why are geographic features important in United States history?


Key geographic features

  • Water-related

  • Lakes

  • Rivers

  • Tributaries

  • Gulfs and bays

  • Land-related

  • Mountains

  • Hills

  • Plains

  • Plateaus

  • Islands

  • Peninsulas


Geographic features are related to

  • patterns of trade

  • the locations of cities and towns

  • the westward (frontier) movement

  • agricultural and fishing industries.

Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events (USI.1f)



STANDARD USI.3a

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how early cultures developed in North America by

a) describing how archaeologists have recovered material evidence of ancient settlements, including Cactus Hill in Virginia.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

Archaeology is the recovery of material evidence remaining from the past.


Archaeological discoveries of early Indian settlements have been made in southeastern Virginia.

Why is archaeology important?


Where is one of the oldest archeological sites in the United States located?

Archaeologists study human behavior and cultures of the past through the recovery and analysis of artifacts.


Scientists are not in agreement about when and how people first arrived in the Western Hemisphere.
Cactus Hill is located on the Nottoway River in southeastern Virginia. Evidence that humans lived at Cactus Hill as early as 18,000 years ago makes it one of the oldest archaeological sites in North America.

Make connections between the past and the present. (USI.1b)


Sequence events in United States history. (USI.1c)
Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (USI.1d)

STANDARD USI.3b

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how early cultures developed in North America by

b) locating where the American Indians lived, with emphasis on the Arctic (Inuit), Northwest (Kwakiutl), Plains (Lakota), Southwest (Pueblo), and Eastern Woodlands (Iroquois).


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

Prior to the arrival of Europeans, American Indians were dispersed across the different environments in North America.


In which areas did the American Indians live?


Where do American Indians live today?

American Indians lived in all areas of North America.



  • Inuit inhabited present-day Alaska and northern Canada. They lived in Arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing much of the year.

  • Kwakiutl homeland includes the Pacific Northwest coast, characterized by a rainy, mild climate.

  • Lakota people inhabited the interior of the United States, called the Great Plains, which is characterized by dry grasslands.

  • Pueblo tribes inhabited the Southwest in present-day New Mexico and Arizona, where they lived in desert areas and areas bordering cliffs and mountains.

  • Iroquois homeland includes northeast North America, called the Eastern Woodlands, which is heavily forested.

Members of these tribes live in their homelands and in many other areas of North America today.


Sequence events in United States history. (USI.1c)


Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events. (USI.1f)


STANDARD USI.3c

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how early cultures developed in North America by

c) describing how the American Indians used the resources in their environment.


Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

Geography and climate affected how the various American Indian groups met their basic needs.


Resources influenced what was produced and how it was produced.

How did geography and climate affect the way American Indian groups met their basic needs?


How did American Indians use natural, human, and capital resources?

In the past, American Indians fished, hunted, and grew crops for food. They made clothing from animal skins and plants. They constructed shelters from resources found in their environment (e.g., sod, stones, animal skins, wood).


Types of resources

  • Natural resources: Things that come directly from nature

  • Human resources: People working to produce goods and services

  • Capital resources: Goods produced and used to make other goods and services


Natural resources

The fish American Indians caught, wild animals they hunted, and crops they grew were examples of natural resources.


Human resources

People who fished, made clothing, and hunted animals were examples of human resources.


Capital resources

The canoes, bows, and spears American Indians made were examples of capital resources.


Identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history. (USI.1a)


Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (USI.1d)
Analyze and interpret maps. (USI.1f)
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