Cuba Neg A2 Democracy Adv



Download 388.33 Kb.
Page7/10
Date12.05.2016
Size388.33 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

Hardliners DA



1NC Hardliners DA

Sanctions are marked as failure of hardliners – removing it provides clout for the totalitarian model


Bandow 2012 (Doug Bandow, Doug Bandow is a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute. A former Special Assistant to President Ronald Reagan, he is the author of several books, including Foreign Follies: America's New Global Empire, 12-11-12, “Time to End Cuba Embargo”, nationalinterest.org/commentary/the-pointless-cuba-embargo-7834
Cuban human rights activists also gen erally oppose sanctions. A decade ago I (legally) visited Havana, where I met Elizardo Sanchez Santa Cruz, who suffered in communist prisons for eight years. He told me that the "sanctions policy gives the government a good alibi to justify the failure of the totalitarian model in Cuba." Indeed, it is only by posing as an opponent of Yanqui Imperialism that Fidel Castro has achieved an international reputation. If he had been ignored by Washington, he never would have been anything other than an obscure authoritarian windbag. Unfortunately, embargo supporters never let reality get in the way of their arguments. In 1994, John Sweeney of the Heritage Foundation declared that “the embargo remains the only effective instrument available to the U.S. government in trying to force the economic and democratic concessions it has been demanding of Castro for over three decades. Maintaining the embargo will help end the Castro regime more quickly.” The latter’s collapse, he wrote, is more likely in the near term than ever before. Almost two decades later, Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, chairwoman of the House Foreign Relations Committee, retains faith in the embargo: “The sanctions on the regime must remain in place and, in fact, should be strengthened, and not be altered.” One of the best definitions of insanity is continuing to do the same thing while expecting to achieve different results. The embargo survives largely because of Florida’s political importance. Every presidential candidate wants to win the Sunshine State’s electoral votes, and the Cuban American community is a significant voting bloc.

Turns the aff - democracy improves lives of citizens: (1) decreases corruption; (2) fosters human rights; (3) boosts economy


Minxin Pei, Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, “Implementing the Institutions of Democracy,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON WORLD PEACE v. 19 n. 4, December 2002, p. 3+.
The establishment of democratic institutions may also produce practical benefits for the countries that adopt them. Such benefits may come in various forms, such as less corruption in government, better protection of human rights, and greater economic prosperity. The work by Amartya Sen has made a powerful case that political rights protected under democratic institutions can drastically improve the well-being of average citizens. (19) The argument that democratic governance, which fosters political competition and public participation in the political process, should help contain corruption seems quite persuasive. The world's most corrupt regimes in recent years, which include Marcos in the Philippines, the Duvaliers in Haiti, Mobutu regime in the former Zaire, and Suharto in Indonesia, were all dictatorships that had degenerated into kleptocracies. Theory and evidence both support the view that democracies, which have by definition real opposition forces, organized civil society groups, and a watchful press , are unlikely to allow such predatory regimes to survive for so long and plunder their countries so thoroughly. Researchers who have used extensive data to analyze various factors that may contribute to or curb corruption conclude that civil liberties and their institutional manifestations (such as a free press and vigorous civil society) play an important role in explaining the variations in the degree of corruption across nations: countries with higher degrees of civil liberties are found to have less corrupt government. (20) Of course, there are significant variations in the level of good governance achieved by democracies across countries. Generally speaking, however, established democratic regimes are perceived to be less corrupt than newly democratized ones. (21)

2NC Link Exts – Emboldens Hardliners/Crushes Reformers



Removing sanctions funds hardliners iron grip over the peoples


Cuba Standard 2012 (6-25-12, “Cuban American Corporate Execs Urge to Stay Hardline”, http://www.cubastandard.com/2012/06/25/cuban-american-corporate-execs-urge-to-stay-hardline/)
Calling Cuba’s economic reforms “cosmetic,” 15 mostly Cuban American corporate executives urged the United States to maintain a hard line against the Cuban government. In their letter, titled “commitment to freedom” and datelined Washington, the signers reject any business ties with Cuba. “We … wish to convey our great concern regarding the Castro regime’s deceptive campaign aimed at securing much-needed financial resources to prolong its iron grip over the people of Cuba,” the document says. Reconciliation efforts with Cuban émigrés by the Cuban government and Catholic Church are a “smokescreen,” the signees contend.


Sanctions are key to constrain hardliners


Democracy Digest 2012 (11-20-12, “Dissidents Pushing Demand for Another Cuba”, http://www.demdigest.net/blog/2012/11/dissidents-pushing-demand-for-another-cuba/)
The sanctions on the regime must remain in place and, in fact, should be strengthened, and not be altered,” says Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen. “Responsible nations must not buy into the facade the dictatorship is trying to create by announcing ‘reforms’ while, in reality, it’s tightening its grip on its people.” While Raúl “has a freer hand to advance needed economic reforms, and possibly even to seek improved relations with the United States,” notes one observer, “he has only cautiously departed from the sacred Fidelista policies of the past, constrained by hard liners devoted to his brother and by corruption and bureaucratic intransigence.”

2NC Impact Exts – Turns the Aff




Sanctions enable cooperation and benefits reformer efforts


CBC 2012 (Capitol Hill Cubans, June 25, 2012, “Commitment to Freedom,” http://cubanexilequarter.blogspot.com/2012/06/commitment-to-freedom.html)
Furthermore looking beyond Cuba to China, Vietnam and Burma one is presented with a cautionary tale on lifting sanctions unconditionally. In China and Vietnam the United States lifted sanctions unconditionally and have de-linked human rights considerations from economic considerations. The result has been a deterioration of human rights standards in both countries. On the other hand in Burma where sanctions were maintained the military junta, after years of trying to manipulate its way out from under them has had to recognize the political opposition and provide a space for them in Burma's parliament. Things are still far from perfect but there is hope that serious and permanent reforms are underway. The ability of Aung San Suu Kyi to travel in and out of her country and run for public office is a positive sign. The ability for an independent press to begin to operate in Burma following decades of systematic censorship and control is another positive sign. Aung San Suu Kyi has been clear about the importance of sanctions and of confronting those that would engage the dictatorship of Burma at the expense of the human rights of the Burmese people: Investment that only goes to enrich an already wealthy elite bent on monopolizing both economic and political power cannot contribute toward égalité and justice — the foundation stones for a sound democracy. I would therefore like to call upon those who have an interest in expanding their capacity for promoting intellectual freedom and humanitarian ideals to take a principled stand against companies that are doing business with the Burmese military regime. Please use your liberty to promote ours.What have we witnessed in Cuba over the past four years? The death under suspicious circumstances of national opposition figures such as Laura Inés Pollán Toledo on October 14, 2011 and Oswaldo José Payá Sardiñas on July 22, 2012. Increased violence and detentions of nonviolent activists. An American citizen arrested and sentenced to 15 years in a Cuban prison for attempting to provide internet access to the local Jewish community in Cuba. The Obama Administration has continued its policy of extending a hand to the Cuban regime and has little to show for it except more repression and the deaths of high profile activists. There is no reason to suppose that further unilateral concessions will lead to a different outcome.

Authoritarian regimes are ruled by force--apply this to their external relations, making them more aggressive


Rudolph J. Rummel, Professor Emeritus of Political Science, University of Hawaii, “Chapter 7: Freedom is a Solution to War,” SAVING LIVES, ENRICHING LIFE: FREEDOM AS A RIGHT AND A MORAL GOOD, 2001. Available from the World Wide Web at: http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/WF.CHAP7.HTM.

Then why do nondemocracies--or rather, the dictators who control them, since by definition the people have little to say--make war on each other? Do not they see each other as of the same kind, sharing the same coercive culture? Yes, and that is exactly the problem for them. They live by coercion and force. Their guns keep them in power. They depend on a controlled populace manipulated through propaganda, deceit, and terror. Commands and decrees are the working routine of dictators; negotiations are a battleground in which one wins through lies, subterfuge, misinformation, stalling, and manipulation. A dictator's international relations are no different. They see them as war fought by other means. They will only truly negotiate in the face of bigger and better guns, and they will only keep to their promises as long as these guns remain pointed at them. This is also how one dictator sees another--and, incidentally, how they see democracies. This is not to say that war necessarily will happen between two countries if one or both is not democratic. They may be too far away from each other, too weak, or too inhibited by the greater power of a third country. It is only to say that the governments of such countries lack the social and cultural inhibitions that would prevent armed conflict between them, and that their dictatorial governments inherently encourage war. War may not happen, but it can, and the more undemocratic the governments, the more likely it will.


A2 no uniqueness- embargo gives power for crackdowns

Crackdowns on reformers high now


Democracy Digest 2012 (11-20-12, “Dissidents Pushing Demand for Another Cuba”, http://www.demdigest.net/blog/2012/11/dissidents-pushing-demand-for-another-cuba/)

Despite the fierce repression of political dissent and a culture of fear in which ordinary people and independent-thinking Cubans are afraid to speak up, a wide spectrum of organizations and individuals continue to advance democracy and human rights at great personal risk. Pro-democracy activists are routinely imprisoned, detained, denied or dismissed from employment, and otherwise harassed. Under a “dangerousness” provision in Cuba’s penal code, the state can imprison individuals on suspicion that they may commit a crime in the future.



A2 aff solves – aids reformers




Lifting restrictions on sanctions doesn’t aid reformers – empirically denied


CBC 2012 (Capitol Hill Cubans, June 25, 2012, “Commitment to Freedom,” http://cubanexilequarter.blogspot.com/2012/06/commitment-to-freedom.html)
The thesis put forth by Mr. Saladrigas is that lifting sanctions would weaken and dissuade hardliners while helping reformers. Over the past four years the Obama Administration has loosened economic sanctions in Cuba. If Mr. Saladrigas's argument is correct then one should see that reformist elements in the regime are asserting themselves and winning policy discussions. That has not been the case. On the human rights front the situation has deteriorated.

Lifting restrictions on sanctions doesn’t aid reformers – empirically denied


Democracy Digest 2012 (11-20-12, “Dissidents Pushing Demand for Another Cuba”, http://www.demdigest.net/blog/2012/11/dissidents-pushing-demand-for-another-cuba/)
Any easing would be a gamble. Free enterprise may not necessarily lead to the embargo’s goal of free elections, especially because Cuba has said it wants to replicate the paths of Vietnam and China, where the loosening of economic restrictions has not led to political change. Indeed, Cuban officials have become adept at using previous American efforts to soften the embargo to their advantage, taking a cut of dollars converted into pesos and marking up the prices at state-owned stores.




Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page