Cuba I. Introduction



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60 A copy of the complaint of November 19, 2012 presented to the Office of the Attorney General of the Republic was provided to the Commission by the Centro de Investigación Legal CUBALEX. Diario de Cuba, Abogados denuncian ante la Fiscalía las detenciones 'arbitrarias' y 'violentas' de Rodiles y otros activistas, 26 November 2012. Available at: http://www.diariodecuba.com/derechos-humanos/14184-abogados-denuncian-ante-la-fiscalia-las-detenciones-arbitrarias-y-violentas-d


61 Nuevo Herald. Liberan a disidente cubano Antonio Rodiles tras 19 días de detención. November 27, 2012.

62 Directorio Democrático Cubano. Novia de Antonio González Rodiles, Ailer González Mena brinda testimonio acerca de la situación del activista encarcelado. November 14, 2012.

63 IACHR: IACHR condemns arbitrary arrests of human rights defenders in Cuba, November 9, 2012. Available at: http://www.oas.org/es/cidh/prensa/comunicados/2012/132.asp

64 Directorio Democrático Cubano: Allanan vivienda y arrestan ejecutivo del Frente Nacional de Resistencia Cívica y su familia por realizar Marcha opositora en Palma Soriano, September 6, 2012. Available at: http://www.directorio.org/comunicadosdeprensa/note.php?note_id=3316

65 IACHR. Hearing on complaints regarding attacks on women human rights defenders in Cuba. 144th period of sessions, March 23, 2012.

66 IACHR. Hearing on reports of attacks against women human rights defenders in Cuba. 144th period of sessions, March 23, 2012.

67 The Ladies in White are an organization of women family members of Cuban political prisoners established in 2003 in response to the detention and imprisonment of more than 70 political dissidents who are calling for political prisoners to be freed. Cubanet. February 9, 2012. Golpean a Dama de Blanco. Available at: http://www.cubanet.org/noticias/golpean-a-dama-de-blanco-2/; El Nuevo Herald. February 10, 2012. Informe: 631 detenciones arbitrarias en enero. Available at: http://www.elnuevoherald.com/2012/02/09/1124006/informe-631-detenciones-arbitrarias.html

68 Cuba. Arrestan y golpean a disidentes en Cárdenas. November 8, 2012.

69 Human Rights Watch, Cuba: Dissident’s Death Highlights Repressive Tactics. Stop Threats against Villar Mendoza Family, January 20, 2012, available at: http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/01/20/cuba-dissident-s-death-highlights-repressive-tactics

70 Movimiento por los Derechos Civiles Rosa Parks, Testimony of Damaris Moya Portieles on threats directed against her young daughter, May 13, 2012. Available at: http://movimientofemeninorosapaks.wordpress.com/2012/05/13/testimonio-desgarrador-de-damaris-moya-portieles-sobre-amenazas-contra-su-pequena-hija/

71 Human Rights Watch, Cuba: Halt Repression in advance to Pope’s Visit, March 23, 2012, available at: http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/03/23/cuba-halt-repression-advance-pope-s-visit

72 The preparation of this part of the report was assigned by the Commission to the Special Rapporteurship on the Freedom of Expression.

73 Infobae. February 21, 2012. Un arzobispo salvó de la represión a un grupo de Damas de Blanco; InfoCatólica. February 22, 2012. Mons. García Ibáñez impidió que las Damas de Blanco fueran golpeadas por la policía de la dictadura cubana; El Nuevo Herald. February 21, 2012. Arzobispo de Santiago de Cuba salva de paliza a mujeres disidentes.

74 El Universal/Notimex. February, 23, 2012. Bloquean sede de Damas de Blanco en Cuba; AFP/Noticias Univisión. February 24, 2012. Damas de Blanco son repudiadas por oficialistas cuando homenajeaban a Zapata; Cubanet. February 23, 2012. 41 Damas de Blanco continúan sitiadas en la casa sede del grupo.

75 Centro de Información Hablemos Press. April 9, 2012. Informe mensual de violaciones de derechos humanos – Marzo 2012; Primavera Digital. March 22, 2012. Reprimen a Damas de Blanco en el noveno aniversario de la primavera negra.

76 Centro de Información Hablemos Press. May 2, 2012. Informe mensual de violaciones de derechos humanos – Abril 2012; Cuba Blog Spot. April 19, 2012. Cuba ve peligro en “Te literario” de las Damas de Blanco”; La voz del destierro. April 23, 2012. Más de dos docenas de mujeres arrestadas para impedirles asistir a la misa dominical.

77 Cuba Jutia. May 29, 2012. Logran asistir a misa más de 90 damas de blanco; Desde Cuba. Un portal de periodismo ciudadano. May 29, 2012. Noticias Semana del 26 al 31 de mayo: Arrestadas Damas de Blanco.

78 El Nuevo Herald. June 15, 2012. El régimen cubano arresta a al menos 30 damas de blanco; La Nación. June 15, 2012. Damas de Blanco denuncian el arresto de al menos 31 activistas en Cuba.

79 Damas de Blanco.com. July 19, 2012. Detenidas unas 30 Damas para impedirles que asistan a un te literario; La voz del destierro. July 18, 2012. Detienen a Damas de Blanco para impedirles asistir a un te literario.

80 Amnesty International. September 25, 2012. Urgent Action. Dozens of Cuban Opposition Activists Detained; Centro de Información Hablemos Press. September 23, 2012. Más de 50 Damas de Blanco detenidas este fin de semana; Amnesty International. October 2, 2012. Urgent Action. Human Rights Activists Released in Cuba.

81 Centro de Información Hablemos Press. November 13, 2012. Más de 40 damas de blanco detenidas, el domingo; Puente Informativo. November 13, 2012. Mas de cuarenta Damas de Blanco detenidas el Domingo.

82 Cubanet. October 5, 2012. Juicio de Carromero motiva detenciones de opositores y periodistas; Miami Herald. October 6, 2012. Cuban dissident blogger Yoani Sanchez released after hours-long detention; International Press Institute (IPI)/IFEX. October 10, 2012. Cuban blogger released after 30 hours in custody.

83 See Comisión Cubana de Derechos Humanos y Reconciliación Nacional. November 5, 2012. Algunos Actos de Represión Política en el Mes de octubre de 2012.

84 Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. November 9, 2012. Press Release No. 132/2012. IACHR Condemns Arbitrary Arrests of Human Rights Defenders in Cuba. Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). November 9, 2012. Cuban reporter Flores arrested on anti-state charges; El País. November 9, 2012. La bloguera Yoani Sánchez es puesta en libertad tras varias horas de arresto

85 Centro de Información Hablemos Press. June 4, 2012. Informe mensual de violaciones de derechos humanos- Mayo de 2012; El Nuevo Herald. June 27, 2012. SIP denuncia acoso a periodistas independientes en Cuba; La voz del Destierro. July 14, 2011. Detenido violentamente foto reportero de Hablemos Press; Misceláneos de Cuba. July 30, 2012. Cinco periodistas de hablemos press son detenidos en una semana; Penúltimos días. PD en Cuba. May 14, 2012. ¿Observadores críticos?

86 BBC. July 25, 2012. Police Free Cubans Detained at Oswaldo Paya’s Funeral; La Razón. July 24, 2012. Guillermo Fariñas y varios opositores cubanos detenidos en el velatorio de Oswaldo Payá; Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas. July 24, 2012 Two Cuban journalists arrested during activist Oswaldo Payá’s Funeral.

87 Comisión Cubana de Derechos Humanos y Reconciliación Nacional. September 2012. Cuba: Algunos actos de represión política durante el mes de agosto; German Press Agency (DPA). September 4, 2012. Cuba: más de 500 arrestos políticos en agosto.

88 BBC Mundo. August 27, 2012. Liberado el disidente cubano José Daniel Ferrer; Radio Televisión Española (RTVE). August 27, 2012. En Cuba prosiguen los arrestos y liberaciones de disidentes del régimen de Raúl Castro; German Press Agency (DPA). September 4, 2012. Cuba: más de 500 arrestos políticos en agosto.

89 El Nuevo Herald. September 1, 2012. Detienen cerca de 9 horas a bloguero cubano Orlando Luis Pardo; Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas. September 3, 2012. Cuban dissident Blogger released alter nine hours of detention.

90 Cubanet. October 1, 2012. Arrestado por pintar a Fidel Castro con penacho de plumas; Sampsonia Way. October 15, 2012. Reproducir a Fidel Castro

91 Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. November 9, 2012. Press Release No. 132/2012. IACHR Condemns Arbitrary Arrests of Human Rights Defenders in Cuba. Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). November 9, 2012. Cuban reporter Flores arreste don anti-state charges; Cubanet. November 8, 2012. Liberada la periodista de Cubanet Yaremis Flores

92 Cubanet. February 1, 2012. Amenazan con machetear a periodista independiente; Ciudadanos. February 2, 2012. Amenazan de muerte al periodista independiente Odelín Alfonso Torna; Cubanet. February 10, 2012. Cita Seguridad del Estado a periodista independiente.

93 El Nuevo Herald. November 14, 2012. Condenan por espía a periodista del diario oficialista cubano “Granma”; Martí Noticias. November 14, 2012. Condenado a 14 años excorresponsal de Granma en Santiago; Diario de Cuba. November 14, 2012. Santiago de Cuba: Condenado a 14 años un excorresponsal de “Granma” acusado de “espionaje”

94 Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas. January 24, 2012. Reporter for official Cuban newspaper faces 10-year prison sentence on corruption charge; Red Protagónica Observatorio Crítico. January 23, 2012. Periodista oficialista podría recibir 10 años de cárcel; International Press Institute (IPI). January 27, 2012. Cuban Journalist Faces Decade in Prison; The Miami Herald. July 18, 2012. Cuban journalist who wrote exposé of bungled aqueduct project reportedly faces espionage charges; Cubanet. July 18, 2012. Piden 15 años de cárcel para ex periodista de Granma.

95 Inter-American Press Association (IAPA)/IFEX. September 21, 2012. Journalist charged after writing about cholera and dengue in Cuba; Martí noticias. August 22, 2012. Acusarán de ”desacato” a reportero estrella de Hablemos Press; Reports Without Borders. September 24, 2012. RSF pide la puesta en libertad de Calixto Ramón Martínez Arias.

96 Hablemos Press. December 4, 2012. Hablemos Press: El periodista Calixto Ramón sigue en huelga de hambre; Martí Noticias. November 30, 2012. Periodista independiente cumple 20 días en huelga de hambre

97 Reporters Without Borders. May 15, 2012. Hablemos Press journalist awaits 10th deportation to home town; Pinceladas de Cuba. June 1, 2010. Calixto Ramón Martínez Arias se declara en huelga de hambre.

98 EFE/Noticias Univisión. February 3, 2012. Gobierno cubano deniega a Yoani Sánchez permiso de salida para viaje a Brasil; El País. January 26, 2012. Rousseff da un visado para Brasil a Yoani Sánchez antes de visitar Cuba; Yoani Sanchez/ @yoanisanchez. February 3, 2012. #Cuba; Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas. February 6, 2012. Cuba denies critical Blogger Yoani Sánchez’s travel to Brazil.

99 Inter-American Press Association (IAPA-SIP). April 2012 Information by Country: Cuba; CubaEncuentro. March 30, 2012. Activistas reclaman a ETECSA por interrupción del servicio telefónico; Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas. March 28, 2012. Cuba denies visas to foreign press, arrests journalists during Pope’s visit.

100 Primavera Digital. March 28, 2012. Detenido y posteriormente deportado a la capital el periodista Julio Aleaga Pesant

101 Centro de Información Hablemos Press. June 4, 2012. Informe mensual de violaciones de derechos humanos- Mayo de 2012.; Penúltimos días. PD en Cuba. May 14, 2012. ¿Observadores críticos?

102 Cubanet. September 27, 2012. El régimen advierte que impedirá concierto en Estado de SATS; Estado de SATS. September 27, 2012. Nota sobre amenazas de la Seguridad del Estado; Por otra Cuba. September 30, 2012. Realizado ayer primer concierto Por otra Cuba; BBC Mundo. February 28, 2008. Cuba firma pactos de DDHH de la ONU.

103 American Declaration, Article XIV.

104 Id., Article XXI.

105 Id., Article XXII.

106 International Labor Conference, 97th Meeting 2008. Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations. General Report and Observations concerning particular countries. Cuba: pp. 105-107.

107 Article VIII of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man.

108 IACHR. Ten Years of Activities 1971-1981, Secretariat General of the Organization of American States, Washington, D.C., 1982, page 325.

109 IACHR. Ten Years of Activities 1971-1981, Secretariat General of the Organization of American States, Washington, D.C., 1982, page 325.

110 IACHR, Annual Report 1983, Chapter VIII, Right of Residence and Movement.

111 Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, Article 43(6).

112Council of Ministers, Decree No. 217 of 1997, Aprli 22, 1997. Available at: http://www.gacetaoficial.cu/html/regulacionesmigratoriasparaC.H.html [Consulted on December 7, 2012].

113 Human Rights Watch, World Report 2012. Available at: http://www.hrw.org/world-report-2012/world-report-2012-cuba [Consulted on December 7, 2012].

114 Council of Ministers, Decree No. 293 of 2011, published in the Gaceta Oficial of November 16, 2011.

115 Council of Ministers, Law No. 1312, Law on Migration, September 20, 1976, Article 1.

116 Journal La Tercera. Reforma Migratoria en Cuba, 16 January 2013. Radio Cooperativa, La Esperanza de Rosa María Payá, 22 December 2012. Available at: http://blogs.cooperativa.cl/opinion/internacional/20121222091017/la-esperanza-de-rosa-maria-paya/. CNN, Adiós a la Cubana, 15 January 2013. Available at: http://blogs.cooperativa.cl/opinion/internacional/20121222091017/la-esperanza-de-rosa-maria-paya/

117 See, Criminal Code of Cuba (1987), Articles 216 and 217:

Article 216(1) One who leaves the national territory or performs acts aimed at leaving the territory without complying with legal formalities may be deprived of liberty for one to three years, or subjected to a fine of 300 to 1,000 quotas.

(2) If in order to carry out the act referred to in the previous section one uses violence or intimidation of persons or force in respect of things, the sanction is the deprivation of liberty for three to eight years.

(3) The offenses provided for in the foregoing sections are sanctioned independent of whether they are committed in order to carry it out, or on occasion of carrying it out.

Article 217(1) One who organizes, promotes, or incites the unlawful exit of persons from the national territory shall be subject to a penalty of deprivation of liberty for a period ranging from two to five years.

2. One who provides material support, offers information, or facilitates in any other way the unlawful exit of persons from the national territory shall be subject to a penalty of deprivation of liberty for a period ranging from one to three years or a fine of 300 to 1,000 quotas.



118 IACHR, Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 2010. Chapter IV. Cuba. OEA.Ser.L/V/II. Doc. 5 corr. 1, March 7, 2011, paras. 369 and 366-374.

119 See Criminal Code of Cuba (1987), Articles 347 and 348:

Article 347(1) One who, without being legally authorized to do so, organizes or promotes, for profit, the entry to the national territory of persons for the purpose of their emigration to third countries shall be subject to a sanction of deprivation of liberty for a period from seven to 15 years.

(2) The same sanction shall apply to one who, without being legally authorized to do so, and for profit, organizes or promotes the exit from the national territory of persons who are in it on their way to third countries.

Article 348(1) One who enters the national territory using a seagoing craft or aircraft or other means of transportation for the purpose of carrying out the illegal exit of persons shall be subject to a penalty of deprivation of liberty for a period from 10 to 20 years.

(2) The sanction is deprivation of liberty for a period of 20 to 30 years or life in prison when:

(a) the act is carried out while the perpetrator is carrying a weapon or other instrument suitable for an assault;

(b) violence or intimidation of persons or force in things is employed in the commission of the act;

(c) persons’ lives are put at risk or persons are seriously injured or die in the commission of the act;

(ch) if among the persons who are transported anyone is under 14 years of age.


120 Council of Ministers, Decree Law No. 302, October 16, 2012, Article 24(1)(f).

121 Council of Ministers, Decree Law No. 302, October 16, 2012, Article 9(2).

122 American Declaration, Article XVIII.

123 American Declaration, Article XXV.

124 American Declaration, Article XXVI.

125 American Declaration, Article I.

126 American Declaration, Article XXV.

127 American Declaration, Article XXV.

128 American Declaration, Article XXVI.

129 IACHR, Report on Terrorism and Human Rights, 2002, para. 228.

130 Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Independence and Impartiality of the Judiciary, submitted pursuant to Resolution 1994/41 of the Commission on Human Rights, Commission on Human Rights, 51st session, February 6, 1995, E/CN.4/1995/39, para. 34. IACHR, Report on Terrorism and Human Rights, 2002, para. 229.

131 Similarly, the Court indicated that the impartiality of a court means that its members do not have a direct interest, a position taken, or a preference for any of the parties, and that they are not involved in the dispute. I/A Court H.R., Case of Palamara Iribarne v. Chile. Judgment of November 22, 2005. Series C No. 135, para. 146.

132 IACHR, Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Chile, 1985, Chapter VIII, para. 139; Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Haiti, 1995, Chapter V, paras. 276-280; Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Ecuador, 1997, April 24, 1997, Chapter III; Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Mexico, 1998, Chapter V, paras. 393-398. Report on Terrorism and Human Rights, 2002, para. 229.

133 The Inter-American Court has indicated that the right to be tried by an impartial and independent judge or court is a fundamental due process guarantee. In other words, it must be guaranteed that the judge or court in the exercise of its function as trier has the greatest objectivity in handling the trial. Moreover, the independence of the Judicial Branch vis-à-vis the other branches of government is essential for the performance of the judicial function. I/A Court H.R., Case of Palamara Iribarne v. Chile. Judgment of November 22, 2005. Series C No. 135, para. 145; Case of Herrera Ulloa, para. 171.

“[O]ne of the principal purposes of the separation of public powers is to guarantee the independence of judges. Such autonomous exercise must be guaranteed by the State both in its institutional aspect, that is, regarding the Judiciary as a system, as well as in connection with its individual aspect, that is to say, concerning the person of the specific judge. The purpose of such protection lies in preventing the Judicial System in general and its members in particular, from finding themselves subjected to possible undue limitations in the exercise of their functions, by bodies alien to the Judiciary or even by those judges with review or appellate functions.” I/A Court H.R., Case of Apitz Barbera et al. (“First Court of Administrative Disputes”) v. Venezuela. Preliminary Objection, Merits, Reparations and Costs. Judgment of August 5, 2008. Series C No. 182, para. 55.



“Likewise, public officials, particularly the top Government authorities, need to be especially careful so that their public statements do not amount to a form of interference with or pressure impairing judicial independence and do not induce or invite other authorities to engage in activities that may abridge the independence or affect the judge’s freedom of action.” I/A Court H.R., Case of Apitz Barbera et al. (“First Court of Administrative Disputes”) v. Venezuela. Preliminary Objection, Merits, Reparations and Costs. Judgment of August 5, 2008. Series C No. 182, para. 131.

134 IACHR, Case 11,139, Report No. 57/96, William Andrews (United States), Annual Report of the IACHR 1997, paras. 159-161. See also, European Court of Human Rights, Findlay v. United Kingdom, February 25, 1997, Reports 1997-I, p. 281, para. 73. IACHR, Report on Terrorism and Human Rights, 2002, para. 229.

135 See: Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination of the United Nations. April 8, 2011. Available at: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/420/06/PDF/G1142006.pdf?OpenElement

136 http://www.miscelaneasdecuba.net/web/article.asp?artID=37373 http://www.cubanet.org/noticias/tribunal-municipal-de-guantanamo-condena-a-otro-opositor/

137 Cubanet.org. Tribunal Municipal de Guantánamo condena a opositor. October 16, 2012

138 Cubanet.org. Tribunal Municipal de Guantánamo condena a opositor. October 16, 2012.

139 Cubanet.org. Tribunal Municipal de Guantánamo condena a opositor. October 16, 2012.

140 Misceláneasdecuba.net. Condenan en juicio sumario a otro opositor cubano. December 10, 2012.

141 Information provided to the IACHR by the International Group for Corporate Social Responsibility in Cuba (GIRSCC).

142 Information provided to the IACHR by the International Group for Corporate Social Responsibility in Cuba (GIRSCC).

143 Committee Against Torture of the United Nations. 48th Regular Session. May 7 to June 1, 2012, para. 8.

144 Committee Against Torture of the United Nations. 48th Regular Session. May 7 to June 1, 2012, para. 8.

145 Committee Against Torture of the United Nations. 48th Regular Session. May 7 to June 1, 2002, para. 12.

146 IACHR, Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission, 1998, April 16, 1999.

147 IACHR, Report on the Merits No. 68/06, Case 12,477, Lorenzo Enrique Copello Castillo et al. (Cuba), October 21 2006, paras. 87-92.

148 Lineamientos de la Política económica y social aprobados por el Partido y la Revolución, 6th Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba, April 18, 2011.

149 Annual Report 2011, paras. 236 and 237.

150  The measure entered into force with the publication in the Gaceta Oficial Extraordinaria No. 53 of December 11, 2012 of Decree-Laws Nos. 305 and 306 of the Council of State, of November 15 and 17, 2012, respectively; Decree No. 309 of the Council of Ministers of November 28, 2012; and Resolutions Nos. 427/2012 and 570/2012 of the Ministry of Finance and Prices and the Ministry of Economy and Planning, respectively. In this respect see: Granma. Una experiencia favorable para la economía y la sociedad cubanas. December 13, 2012; Cubadebate. Aprueban en Cuba constitución de cooperativas en sectores no agroprecuarios. December 11, 2012.

151 Granma. Una experiencia favorable para la economía y la sociedad cubanas. December 13, 2012.

152 See Report by Cuba on the Millennium Development Goals 2010.

153 United Nations Population Fund, State of World Population 2012, Available at: http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/swp/2012/SP-SWP2012-Report.pdf

154 http://www.bbc.co.uk/mundo/cultura_sociedad/2010/01/100126_1823_unicef_cuba_gz.shtml

155 UN, Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Seventy-eighth session. Summary record of the 2055th meeting Held at the Palais Wilson, Geneva. Consideration of reports, comments and information submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention (continued). Fourteenth to eighteenth periodic reports of Cub.

Available at: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/409/98/PDF/G1140998.pdf?OpenElement



156 UN, Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Combined seventh and eighth periodic reports of States parties, Cuba, April 2011.

Available at: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/423/53/PDF/G1142353.pdf?OpenElement



157 Organización Hombres por la Diversidad. Available at: http://hxdcuba.blogspot.com/2012/02/aprobo-partido-comunista-enfrentar_06.html.

158 Cubaencuentro, Un transexual es elegido delegado municipal en Caibarién, Villa Clara, 17 November 2012. Available at: http://www.cubaencuentro.com/cuba/noticias/un-transexual-es-elegido-delegado-municipal-en-caibarien-villa-clara-281620; EFE, Transsexual wins local office in Cuba, 17 November 2012. Available at: http://www.efe.com/efe/noticias/english/world/transsexual-wins-local-office-cuba/4/2060/1912261


159 OAS, AG/RES. 2721 (XLII-O/12) “Human Rights, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity,” adopted June 4, 2012, operative paragraph 1.

160 Carsten Balzer and Jan Simon Hutta, Transmurder Monitoring Project, a project of Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide, “List of 265 reported murdered trans persons from November 15th, 2011 to November 14th, 2012 (in chronological order)”, available at: http://www.transrespect-transphobia.org/uploads/downloads/TMM/TvT-TMM-TDOR2012-Namelist-en.pdf

161 OAS, AG/RES. 2721 (XLII-O/12) “Human Rights, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity,” adopted June 4, 2012, operative paragraph 3.

162 In August 2012, the OBCUD LGBT distributed a bulletin entitled “Verdad y Memoria” (“Truth and Memory”) that seeks to vindicate the rights of the LGTBI persons who in 1960 were taken to the Military Units to Help Production (UMAP) where, according to the organization, they were arbitrarily detained and tortured because of their sexual orientation and gender identity. Observatorio Cubano de Derechos LGBT, Verdad y Memoria, Boletín Semanal sobre las Unidades Militares de Ayuda a la Producción (UMAP), No. 1, August 2012. Available at: http://www.cubanet.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Folleto-2-hojas1.pdf.

163 Observatorio Cubano de Derechos LGBT, communiqué of May 14, 2012. Available at: http://observacuba.org/denuncia-del-observatorio-cubanos-de-derechos-lgbt/.

164 OBCUB LGBT. Available at: http://observacuba.org/dossier-obcud-lgtb/.

165 Cubaencuentro, Proyecto LGBT cubano denuncia acoso policial al colectivo y cierre de locales en La Habana, November 20, 2012. Available at:  http://www.cubaencuentro.com/cuba/noticias/proyecto-lgbt-cubano-denuncia-acoso-policial-al-colectivo-y-cierre-de-locales-en-la-habana-281675

166 The information presented by the Government of Cuba to the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination indicated that according to the 2002 census, “Cuba had a total of 11,177,743 inhabitants….Information was collected on a number of personal details, including sex, age, level of education, and skin colour. Where skin colour is concerned, 65 per cent of the population was listed as white, 10.1 per cent as black, and 24.9 per cent as mestizo.” See: United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, January 20, 2010, para. 22. Available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cerd/docs/CERD.C.CUB.14-18.pdf

167 See: IACHR, Report on the Situation of People of African Descent in the Americas. 2011.

168 See: Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. April 8, 2011. Available at: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/420/06/PDF/G1142006.pdf?OpenElement

169 See: Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. April 8, 2011. Available at: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/420/06/PDF/G1142006.pdf?OpenElement

170 The information available indicates the following: 265 are women, 43.37%; 393 are white, 64.32%; 117 are black, 19.15%; 101 are mestizos, 16.53%; and 285 are municipal delegates, 46.64%. Information available at: http://www.cubadebate.cu/cuba/asamblea-nacional-poder-popular/

171 Trabajadores.cu. Constituidas las Asambleas Municipales del Poder Popular. November 25, 2012.

172 Information provided by the State in its 2011 report to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, see paras. 4 and 5. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/420/06/PDF/G1142006.pdf?OpenElement

173 See: IACHR, Report on the Situation of People of African Descent in the Americas. 2011, para. 205.

174 In its 2011 report, the UN Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination encouraged the State to create an independent organ of this nature or “an independent national human rights body, in accordance with the principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights,” para. 13.
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