Critical Race Theory



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Impact – Value to Life



Racism outweighs all other impacts: there is no value to life in a world of racism


Mohan ‘93 (Brij, Professor at LSU, Eclipse of Freedom: The World of Oppression, Praeger Publishers p. 3-4)

Metaphors of existence symbolize variegated aspects of the human reality. However, words can be apocalyptic. "There are words," de Beauvoir writes, "as murderous as gas chambers" (1968: 30). Expressions can be unifying and explosive; they portray explicit messages and implicit agendas in human affairs and social configurations. Manifestly the Cold War is over. But the world is not without nuclear terror. Ethnic strife and political instabilities in the New World Order -- following the dissolution of the Soviet Union -- have generated fears of nuclear terrorism and blackmail in view of the widening circle of nuclear powers. Despite encouraging trends in nuclear disarmament, unsettling questions, power, and fear of terrorism continue to characterize the crisis of the new age which is stumbling at the threshold of the twenty-first century. The ordeal of existence transcends the thermonuclear fever because the latter does not directly impact the day-to-day operations if the common people. The fear of crime, accidents, loss of job, and health care on one hand; and the sources of racism, sexism, and ageism on the other hand have created a counterculture of denial and disbelief that has shattered the façade of civility. Civilization loses its significance when its social institutions become counterproductive. It is this aspect of the mega-crisis that we are concerned about


Impact – White Supremacy is Police



White supremacy ideology is engrained deeply in law enforcement—it’s a national issue: Charleston, Birmingham, San Diego prove


Kleiner 10 (Yevgenia S. associate chair of the Firm’s Women’s Affinity Group and representative of Stroock's Pro Bono Project “Racial Profiling in the Name of National Security: Protecting Minority Travlers' Civil Liberties in the Age of Terrorism” Boston College Third World Law Journal Volume 30 Issue 1 Article 5 11-1-2010 lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1012&context=twlj , cayla_)

White supremacy ideology suffused law enforcement from the colonial period onward. White supremacists have been and continue to be embedded in law enforcement. A. Colonial to Post-Civil War Periods White supremacy and law enforcement have a long, intertwined history. As early as 1671, South Carolina established a watch consisting of regular constables and rotating citizens to guard Charles Town against potential problems including slave gatherings.14 In the 1700s, South Carolina established slave patrols, i.e., slave police, to control and police slaves.15 By 1785, South Carolina incorporated the slave patrols into the Charleston Guard and Watch, the first modern police department because this force was authorized by Charleston to use force, had enforcement responsibilities, was the primary law enforcement agency for Charleston, and had a chain of command consisting of a captain and subordinates.16 Throughout the pre-Civil War period, the slave patrols and police’s primary task was to control slaves.17 States passed laws allowing local officials to create slave patrols to control the slave population and suppress slave insurrections.18 As one slave patroller recounted, they were directed to search “the negro cabins, & take every thing which we found in them, which bore a hostile aspect,” especially firearm material.19 They were also instructed to “apprehend every negro who we found from his home” and capture or shoot any who resisted.20 Slaveholders justified white supremacy over blacks based on “racial ideologies” derived from laws of nature or laws of God.21 “Racism was literally postulated as a belief system to justify slavery,” explains Randall Robinson, founder of the advocacy group TransAfrica.22 The Civil War ended de jure slavery, but white anxieties about losing racial control remained.23 Southern city and county police forces continued to harass and threaten blacks.24 In the post-slavery South, the Ku Klux Klan’s strategy of white dominance included Klan members serving on police forces.25 Southern white police officers helped reassert white control by enforcing the pass system requiring blacks to carry a pass and present it on demand.26 As explained by one white officer who arrested a black stablekeeper, “[A]ll ni[ ][ ]ers that did not have a paper from their master, showing that they were employees, must be taken to jail and hired out for 5 dollars per month.”27 The police often participated in or led white mobs to attack black individuals or assemblies.28 For example, in 1866 in New Orleans, the police led an attack against a convention of black Union loyalists.29 White police officers fired into the group of black delegates.30 When blacks fired back, a massacre ensued.31 White attackers clubbed and shot the black delegates.32 The police led white vigilantes around the city beating blacks and shooting blacks who fled.33 A Congressional committee later concluded the massacre had been planned by white police members and assisted by police Sergeant Lucien Adams and Sheriff Harry T. Hays.34 B. Twentieth-Century Period White supremacy and law enforcement remained intertwined in the twentieth century. In the period between World War I and World War II, right-wing groups, like the Ku Klux Klan, formed the primary domestic threat because they adhered to principles of racial supremacy, or embraced antigovernment and antiregulatory beliefs in favor of individual freedoms.35 William J. Simmons, an Imperial Wizard of the Klan, stated that “there is never a stand taken unless an officer of the law supervise[s]” Klan violence.36 Rooting-out Klan influence by prosecuting those who engaged in Klan violence was difficult for officials because Klan members penetrated all levels of local governments including police departments.37 For example, in one North Carolina town in the 1960s, it was widely known in the community that Pittsboro police officials were Klan members.38 In 1965, one North Carolina State Highway Patrol officer admitted, while chuckling and motioning toward a Klan rally, “Hell, I’m on their side.”39 In 1979, police officer William Rayfield, a Klan member, was indicted by a federal grand jury for firing shots into black leaders’ homes.40 Additional instances of racism in law enforcement included the Birmingham police chief, Theophilus Eugene “Bull” Connor, turning fire hoses and police dogs on black schoolchildren and other peaceful protesters during a Civil Rights march in 1963.41 In the 1970s, a San Diego police chief provided the following answer when queried about running for mayor: “Can’t do it. I don’t like the ni[ ][ ]ers and the Mexicans don’t like me.”42 Additionally, the “Southeast Investigation” of the San Diego Police Department in 1976 by then-Police Captain Norm Stamper revealed rampant racism.43 Thirty of the thirty-one San Diego police officers interviewed, including a lieutenant and two sergeants, admitted using racial slurs.44 African Americans were called ni_ _ers, boys, splibs toads, coons garboons, groids (derived from “negroid”), Sambos, Buckwheats, Rastuses, Remuses, jigaboos, jungle bunnies, and spooks. Latinos were called greasers, wets, wetbacks, beans, beaners, bean bandits, chickenos, and spics.45 Most officers said they used racial slurs among themselves and less often with the public.46 In public, however, the officers explained they used racial slurs “only jokingly,” to “defuse a tense situation,” or because they were “really pissed” at someone.47 The police officers dehumanized citizens of color in other ways. For example, white officers who encountered blacks would say, during radio calls, “No humans involved” and “just an 11-13—ni[ ][ ]er” (11-13 being code for an animal followed by an identification of the animal).48 Before police officers improperly stopped black suspects for DWB (“driving while black”), officers improperly stopped blacks for BBN (“busy being a ni[ ][ ]er”). A San Diego police officer interviewed in the 1976 Southeast Investigation admitted that he witnessed and made busts based on the racist BBN profile.49 Also, during the Southeast Investigation’s examination of racial discrimination in the San Diego police force, seventy-one percent of the San Diego police officers admitted using or witnessing excessive force.50 In the 1980s in Richmond, California, some white police officers who called themselves the “Cowboys” were convicted by a federal court jury of civil rights violations including beating African Americans.51 Also in the 1980s, a Klan police officer in Jefferson County, Kentucky, had a post office box in the name of the Confederate Officers Patriotic Squad (“COPS”) to receive Klan material. 52 He admitted having a list of approximately forty Klan members with probably more than half being law enforcement officers.53 In 1989, a part-time police officer in Newfields, New Hampshire, was terminated for being a recruiter for the Klan.54 In 1990, the Tarrant County Sheriff’s Department discharged a reserve deputy because of his Klan connections.55 He was the chief recruiter (Kleagle) for the Klan in Texas.56 Shortly thereafter, he began working as a police officer in Century, Florida. 57 The Century Police Department also discharged the officer after learning of his previous membership in the Klan.58 In a 1991 case, a federal district court judge found a group of deputies known as the “Vikings” in the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department to be a “neo-Nazi, white supremacist gang.”59 Decades later in 2013, two deputies filed suit against the L.A. County Sheriff’s Department alleging the Vikings group still exists and that an “inappropriate relationship exists between certain LASD [Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department] personnel and various inmate jail gangs, especially white supremacists.”60

White supremacy and law enforcement remain intertwined


Chin 13 (William Y. Professor of Lawyering at Lewis and Clark Law School and member of the Executive Committee for the Minority Groups Section of the Association of American Law Schools (AALS) and the Award Committee for the AALS Section on Legal Writing, Reasoning, and Research “Law and Order and White Power: White Supremacist Infiltration of Law Enforcement and the Need to Eliminate Racism in the Ranks” LSD Journal Vol. 6, 2013 www.lsd-journal.net/archives/Volume6/WhiteSupremacists.pdf , cayla_)

White supremacy and law enforcement remain intertwined at the advent of the twenty-first century. White supremacists admit they seek employment in law enforcement.61 One white supremacist website explained that although government police forces are “evil institutions,” instead, individual police officers who are “sympathetic to the pro-White cause” and are “the best of our Race” are good.62 Former California grand dragon of the Knights of the Klu Klux Klan and founder of White Aryan Resistance (“WAR”), Tom Metzger, gave a 2004 speech to skinheads exhorting them to advance the white cause through infiltration: “We have to infiltrate! Infiltrate the military! Infiltrate your local governments! Infiltrate your school board! Infiltrate law enforcement!”63 Also in 2004, the Deputy Chief of Police for the Los Angeles Police Department, Michael Berkow, warned of internal threats stating: “Right-wing extremists and members of militia movements and supremacist groups and their sympathizers have infiltrated some local police departments.”64 In 2006, The FBI issued an intelligence assessment, titled “White Supremacist Infiltration of Law Enforcement,” that explained how “white supremacist groups have historically engaged in strategic efforts to infiltrate and recruit from law enforcement communities.”65 The election of Barack Obama as President in 2008 did not signify the end of white supremacist threats. Rather, the election of the first African American president created opportunities for white supremacists to recruit disaffected whites and reinvigorate white supremacists’ cause.66 In 2009, a police officer in Fruitland Park, Florida, James Elkins, resigned while under investigation by the Fruitland Park Police Department for being a Klan official who had distributed fliers promoting the Klan.67 Photos showed the officer dressed in Klan gowns and hoods.68 A letter also named the officer as a recruiter for the National Aryan Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.69 According to a 2010 report by the National Gang Intelligence Center, “White supremacist groups . . . have successfully infiltrated and have made numerous attempts to infiltrate law enforcement . . . agencies and recruit law enforcement personnel . . . .”70 The report mentioned a former police officer with suspected Klan ties being charged with civil rights violations involving death threats against blacks.71 The report also noted that the National Alliance, a white supremacist organization, engaged in recruiting efforts, including recruiting law enforcement officers.72 A later 2011 National Gang Intelligence Center report on various gangs, including white supremacist gangs, states: “Gangs encourage members, associates, and relatives to obtain law enforcement . . . employment in order to gather information on rival gangs and law enforcement operations.”73 According to the 2011 report, “gang members in at least 57 jurisdictions, including California, Florida, Tennessee, and Virginia, have applied for or gained employment within judicial, police, or correctional agencies.”74 In a 2013 civil rights case involving an African American tow company owner filing suit against the town after being denied a place on the town’s tow list, witnesses recounted the town’s Chief of Police’s racist statements, including: “I’m not letting that goddam ni[ ][ ]ger tow for us” and “I’m not going to put that fucking ni[ ][ ]er on the tow list.”75 The Chief of Police conceded making some of these statements and using the term “ni[ ][ ]er.”76 Another witness testified that the Chief used other racial slurs to describe Black, Latino, and Arab residents.77 Although the Seventh Circuit ruled against the Black tow company owner, the court noted that the Chief’s racist language showed enduring racial bias.78 According to the court, We would have liked to believe that this kind of behavior faded into the darker recesses of our country’s history many years ago. When the chief law-enforcement officer of a Wisconsin town regularly uses language like “fucking ni[ ][ ]er” in casual conversation, however, it is obvious that there is still work to be done.79 The one part of the work that still needs to be done includes understanding the threat of white supremacist infiltration of the police force, so that racism in this social institution can be effectively addressed by law enforcement employers.


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