Course syllabus



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COURSE SYLLABUS

Foreign Policy Analysis

with Case Studies from the Middle East

Instructor

Hannes Černy

Visiting Professor, IRES

The objective of this course is to provide students with an in depth introduction to the field of foreign policy analysis (FPA) at the theoretical and empirical levels, focusing on the foreign policy of key players and significant foreign policy issues in one of the world’s most geo-strategically important and contested regions, the contemporary Middle East.

FPA here is understood as the systematic study of the management of the external relations of states and other actors in the international system. Conceptually, FPA is identified as an actor-centric sub-discipline of political science and international relations (IR), at the same time distinct from but also part of these overarching disciplines. The course will at first focus on the contributions and significance of the main paradigms of IR for FPA and their individual impact on issues central to FPA. Here ample room will be given to concepts such as the nature of the state, balance of power considerations, the security dilemma, democratic peace theory, the international interventions regime, the significance of norms, identities and interests in the international system and foreign policy as a discursive field. The insights gained from these discussions will be carried over into an examination of methods, frameworks, models, and levels of analysis specific to FPA, in particular looking at how domestic factors influence the international conduct of players. Attention will be given to the impact of systems of governance, bureaucratic regimes, public opinion, the media, and special interest groups on the foreign policy decision making process as well as to the rational actor model versus the analysis of cognitive and psychological restraints on the performance of individual decision makers as well as institutions affected by groupthink.

While these theoretical discussions during the first half of the course will already draw on historic cases, the second half is dedicated to the analysis of empirical case studies from the contemporary Middle East. Here students will be given a tour d’horizon of the foreign policy of key players – the US, Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States, and Israel – as well as a wide range of foreign policy issues, such as regional and outside players’ roles in Iraq, Turkey’s EU accession negotiations, the Sunni-Shi’a divide, Iran’s nuclear program, the soft power of Qatar’s hosting of the 2022 FIFA world cup, the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, and the international recognition of emerging states.



Course format

The structure of the course is distinctly contextual and will be adapted to the nature of each individual issue discussed with an incremental progression of student-centered learning, employing a wide range of interactive teaching methods. The traditional division of lectures and seminar discussions involving textual analysis will be supplemented by a number of interactive exercises including student poster presentations, formal debates, and finally a two-week role play simulation exercise.



Learning outcomes:

By the end of the course students are expected to:



  1. possess a sound understanding of what factors set FPA apart from but at the same time render it a sub-discipline of IR and political science and what individual conceptual and methodological contributions it adds to these disciplines and the social sciences in general

  2. be conversant with the contributions and limitations of the main IR paradigms to FPA

  3. demonstrate comprehension of the distinct approaches, frameworks, methods and levels of analysis FPA bring to the study of the international system and actors’ behavior in it,

  4. be able to apply these to the analysis of key foreign policy actors and issues in the contemporary Middle East,

  5. to carry out actor-specific foreign policy analysis in the context of real world scenarios and demonstrate the ability to see issues from actors’ perspectives, worldviews and identities in order to gain better understanding of their positionalities,

  6. be able to independently apply the insights gained from this course both at the theoretical and empirical level to future cases in their careers.

Course requirements:

  1. Presentation (20%): Students will be required to give a 15 minutes presentation in pairs of a single or a selection of texts dealing with a specific FPA issue, to put that issue into the context of the region as well as the foreign policy of involved players, to apply specific FPA methods, frameworks and approaches discussed previously to their analysis as well as to independently identify additional sources that help them accomplishing these objectives. Assessment will be based on students’ individual presentation skills, their preparation, and how well they worked together as a team.

  2. Simulation exercise (30%): Students will be divided into groups asked to adopt the role of a party to negotiations on a unilateral declaration of independence of a Kurdish state in Iraq. Roles will be assigned at the beginning of the course and in the subsequent weeks students are expected to prepare for their role, identify literature that permits them to do so, and prepare a three-page position paper that will be discussed in class. In the final weeks students will independently negotiate the possible recognition of an independent Kurdish state. Assessment will not be based on the political outcome of the negotiations but on how well students prepared for their role and how well they managed to apply various methods, frameworks, and approaches of FPA to the analysis of the position and decision makers of their respective player.

  3. Final exam (35%): The final exam will test students’ understanding on the relevance of IR theories for FPA and on theories, methods, frameworks, and approaches specific to FPA. Hence it can be understood that while presentation and simulation exercise will test students’ ability to practically apply those to real world scenarios, the final exam will be rather theory-focused.

  4. Class attendance and participation (15%): Students are expected to attend and actively participate in all classes. Special attention will be given to participation in the poster presentation and debating exercises.


Course Schedule:

Week 1
Mo, 21. Sep.: Poster Preparation and Presentation
We, 23. Sep.: What is Foreign Policy? Structure/Agency and Levels of Analysis in IR
Carlsnaes, Walter (1992) ‘The Agency-Structure Problem in Foreign Policy Analysis’, International Studies Quarterly 36(3), pp. 245-70

Carlsnaes, Walter et al. (2005) Handbook of International Relations, London: Sage, 2nd edition: chapter 17

Hudson, Valerie (2005) ‘Foreign Policy Analysis: Actor-Specific Theory and the Ground of International Relations’, Foreign Policy Analysis 1(1), pp. 1-30

Singer, J. David (1961) ‘The Levels-of-Analysis Problem in International Relations’, World Politics 14(1), pp. 77-92


Further Reading:

Booth, Ken & Steve Smith (1995) International Relations Theory Today, Cambridge: Polity: chapter 9

Starr, Harvey (1988) ‘Rosenau, Pre-theories, and the Evolution of the Comparative Study of Foreign Policy’, International Interactions 14(1), pp. 3-15.

Hudson, Valerie & Christopher Vore. (1995) ‘Foreign Policy Analysis Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow’, Mershon International Studies Review 39(2), pp. 209-38

Rosenau, James et al. (1991) New Directions in the Study of Foreign Policy, London: Harper Collins, 2nd edition: chapter 2

Smith, Steve (1986) ‘Theories of Foreign Policy: An Historical Overview’, Review of International Studies 12(1), pp. 13-29

White, Brian (1999) ‘The European Challenge to Foreign Policy Analysis’, European Journal of International Relations 5(1), pp. 37-66

Week 2
Mo, 28. Sep.: FPA and IR Theory I: (Neo-)realism and Constructivism
Checkel, Jeffrey (1993) ‘Ideas, Institutions, and the Gorbachev Foreign Policy Revolution’, World Politics 45(2), pp. 271-300

Houghton, David (2007) ‘Reinvigorating the Study of Foreign Policy Decision Making: Toward a Constructivist Approach’, Foreign Policy Analysis 3(1), pp. 24-45

Kaarbo, Juliet (2003) ‘Foreign Policy Analysis in the Twenty-First Century: Back to Comparison, Forward to Identity and Ideas’, International Studies Review 5(2), pp. 156-63

Wivel, Anders (2005) ‘Explaining Why State X Made a Certain Move Last Tuesday: The Promise and Limitations of Realist Foreign Policy Analysis’, Journal of International Relations and Development 8, pp. 355-80


Further Reading:
Donnelly, Jack (2000) Realism and International Relations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Elman, Colin (1996) ‘Horses for Courses: Why not Neorealist Theories of Foreign Policy?’ Security Studies 6(1), pp. 7-53

Katzenstein, Peter (1996) The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics, New York: Columbia University Press

Kratochwil, Friedrich (1991) Rules, Norms, and Decisions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Kubalkova, Vendulka (2001) Foreign Policy in a Constructed World, New York: M. E. Sharpe, chapters 1-4, 9-11

Lapid, Yosef & Friedrich Kratochwil (1995) The Return of Culture and Identity in IR Theory, Boulder: Lynne Rienner

Onuf, Nicholas (1989) World of Our Making: Rules and Rule in Social Theory and International Relations, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press

Rose, Gideon (1998) ‘Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy’, World Politics 51(1), pp. 144-72

Waltz, Kenneth (2001) Man, the State, and War: A Theoretical Analysis, New York: Columbia University Press, 3rd edition

Wendt, Alexander (1992) ‘Anarchy Is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics’, International Organization 46(2), pp. 391-425


We, 30. Sep.: Debating Exercise and Discussion

Week 3
Mo, 5. Oct.: FPA and IR Theory II: Liberalism and Post-structuralism

Blair, Tony (1999) ‘Speech to the Economic Club of Chicago’, transcript available online at: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/international-jan-june99-blair_doctrine4-23/

Brown, Michael et al. (1996) Debating the Democratic Peace, Cambridge: MIT Press: chapter 2, ‘Kant, Liberal Legacies and Foreign Affairs’, pp. 3-57

Burchill, Scott et al. (2001) Theories of International Relations, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2nd edition, chapter 8

Campbell, David (1992) Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity, Manchester: Manchester University Press, chapter 2

Graubart, Jonathan (2013) ‘R2P and Pragmatic Liberal Interventionism: Values in the Service of Interests’, Human Rights Quarterly 35(1), pp. 69-90

Nabers, Dirk (2009) ‘Filling the Void of Meaning: Identity Construction in Foreign Policy after September 11, 2001’, Foreign Policy Analysis 5(2), pp. 191-214
Further Reading:
Bouchet, Nicolas (2013) ‘The Democracy Tradition in US Foreign Policy and the Obama Presidency’, International Affairs 89(1), pp. 31-51

Chandler, David et al. (2011) A Liberal Peace? The Problems and Practices of Peacebuilding, London: Zed Books: chapters 1-2

Deudney, Daniel & John Ikenberry (1999) ‘The Nature and Sources of Liberal International Order’, Review of International Studies 25(2), pp. 179-96

Doty, Roxanne (1996) Imperial Encounters: The Politics of Representation in North-South Relations, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

Grimm, Sonja & Julia Leininger (2012) ‘Not All Good Things Go Together: Conflicting Objectives in Democracy Promotion’, Democratization 19(3), pp. 391-414

Hansen, Lene (2006) Security as Practice: Discourse Analysis and the Bosnian War, London: Routledge, chapter 2

Ikenberry, John (2009) The Crisis of American Foreign Policy: Wilsonianism in the Twenty-First Century, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Keohane, Robert (2005) After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2nd edition

Krasner, Stephen (1999) Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Larsen, Henrik (2005) Foreign Policy and Discourse Analysis: France, Britain and Europe, London: Routledge, chapter 1

Rousseau, David (2005) Democracy and War: Institutions, Norms, and the Evolution of International Conflict, Stanford: Stanford University Press

Weldes; Jutta & Diane Saco (1996) ‘Making State Action Possible: The United States and the Discursive Construction of ‘The Cuban Problem’, Millennium 25(2), pp. 361-95


We, 7. Oct.: Debating Exercise and Discussion

Week 4
Mo, 12. Oct.: Decision Making and the Rational Actor Model
Mintz, Alex & Karl DeRouen (2010) Understanding Foreign Policy Decision Making, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: chapters 1-2, 4

Yetiv, Steven (2004) Explaining Foreign Policy: US Decision Making and the Persian Gulf War, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press: chapter 2


Further Reading:
Allison, Graham & Philip Zelikow (1971) Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, Boston: Harper Collins, chapters 1-2

Green, Donald & Ian Shapiro (1994) Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory: A Critique of Applications in Political Science, New Haven: Yale University Press

Lake, David & Robert Powell (1999) Strategic Choice and International Relations, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Morrow, James (1994) Game Theory for Political Scientists, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Snyder, Glenn & Paul Diesing (1977) Conflict among Nations: Bargaining, Decision Making, and System Structure in International Crises, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Tversky, Amos & Daniel Kahneman (1986) ‘Rational Choice and the Framing of Decision’, Journal of Business 59(4/2), pp. 251-78


We, 14. Oct.: State, Government and Bureaucratic Structures
Drezner, Daniel (2000) ‘Ideas, Bureaucratic Politics, and the Crafting of Foreign Policy’, American Journal of Political Science 44(4), pp. 733-49

Garrison, Jean (2003) ‘Foreign Policymaking and Group Dynamics: Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going’, International Studies Review 5(2), pp. 177-83

Mintz, Alex & Karl DeRouen (2010) Understanding Foreign Policy Decision Making, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: chapters 3, 5

Yetiv, Steven (2004) Explaining Foreign Policy: US Decision Making and the Persian Gulf War, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press: chapters 5-6


Further Reading:
Allison, Graham & Philip Zelikow (1971) Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, Boston: Harper Collins, chapters 3-7

Badie, Dina (2010) ‘Groupthink, Iraq, and the War on Terror: Explaining US pOlicy Shift toward Iraq’, Foreign Policy Analysis 6(4), pp. 277-96

Bourdieu, Pierre (1994) ‘Rethinking the State: Genesis and Structure of the Bureaucratic Field’, Sociological Theory, 12(1), pp. 1-18

Halperin, Morton et al. (1974) Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy, Washington: Brookings Institution Press

Janis, Irving (1982) Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascos, Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Jervis, Robert (2010) Why Intelligence Fails: Lessons from the Iranian Revolution and the Iraq War, Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Kowert, Paul (2002) Groupthink or Deadlock: When Do Leaders Learn from their Advisors?, Albany: State University of New York Press

Maoz, Zeev (1990), ‘Framing the National Interest: The Manipulation of Foreign Policy Decisions in Group Settings’, World Politics 43(1), pp. 77-110

McDermott, Rose (2004) Political Psychology in International Relations, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, chapter 9

Singer, Eric & Valerie Hudson (1992) Political Psychology and Foreign Policy, Boulder: Westview Press

Smith, Steve (1980) ‘Allison and the Cuban Missile Crisis: A Review of the Bureaucratic Politics Model of Foreign Policy Decision-Making’, Millennium 9(1), pp. 21-40

Weldes, Jutta (1998) ‘Bureaucratic Politics: A Critical Constructivist Assessment’, Mershon International Studies Review 42(2), pp. 216-25



Week 5
Mo, 19. Oct.: Cognitive and Psychoanalytic Approaches
McDermott, Rose (2004) Political Psychology in International Relations, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, chapters 4-6

Mintz, Alex & Karl DeRouen (2010) Understanding Foreign Policy Decision Making, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: chapter 6

Shapiro, Michael & Matthew Bonham (1973) ‘Cognitive Process and Foreign Policy Decision-making’, International Studies Quarterly 17(2), pp. 147-174
Further Reading:
Axelrod, Robert (1976) Structure of Decision: The Cognitive Maps of Political Elites, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Jervis, Robert (1976) Perception and Misperception in International Politics, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Jervis, Robert (2010) Why Intelligence Fails: Lessons from the Iranian Revolution and the Iraq War, Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Lakoff, George (1991) ‘Metaphor and War: The Metaphor System Used to Justify War in the Gulf’, Peace Research 23(2/3), pp. 25-32

Levy, Jack (1994) ‘Learning and Foreign Policy: Sweeping a Conceptual Minefield’, International Organization, 48(2), pp. 279-312

McDermott, Rose (2001) Risk-Taking in International Politics: prospect Theory in American Foreign Policy, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

McDermott, Rose (2004) Political Psychology in International Relations, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, chapters 1-2

McDermott, Rose (2004) ‘The Feeling of Rationality: The Meaning of Neuroscientific Advances for Political Science’, Perspectives on Politics 2, pp. 691-706

Mercer, Jonathan (2005) ‘Prospect Theory and Political Science’, Annual Review of Political Science 8, pp. 1-21

Paris, Roland (2002) ‘Kosovo and the Metaphor War’, Political Science Quarterly 117(3), pp. 423-450

Singer, Eric & Valerie Hudson (1992) Political Psychology and Foreign Policy, Boulder: Westview Press

Vertzberger, Yaacov (1986) ‘Foreign Policy Decision-Makers as Practical Intuitive Historians: Applied History and its Shortcomings’, International Studies Quarterly 30(2), pp. 223-247

Vertzberger, Yaacov (1990) The World in their Minds: Information Processing, Cognition, and Perception in Foreign Policy Decisionmaking, Stanford: Stanford University Press
We, 21. Oct.: Personal Leadership and Elites
Hermann, Margaret (1980) Explaining Foreign Policy Behavior Using the Personal Characteristics of Political Leaders’, International Studies Quarterly 24(1), pp. 7-46

Hermann, Margaret & Thomas Preston (1994) ‘Presidents; Advisers and Foreign Policy: The Effect of Leadership Style on Executive Arrangements’, Political Psychology 15(1), pp. 75-96

McDermott, Rose (2004) Political Psychology in International Relations, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, chapter 8

Walker, Stephen et al. (1999) ‘Presidential Operational Codes and Foreign Policy Conflicts in the Post-Cold War World’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 43(5), pp. 610-25

Weinberg, Ashley (2011) The Psychology of Politicians, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, chapter 8
Further Reading:
Axelrod, Robert (1976) Structure of Decision: The Cognitive Maps of Political Elites, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Byman, Daniel & Kenneth Pollack (2001) ‘Let Us Now Praise Great Men: Bringing the Statesman Back In’, International Security 25(4), pp. 107-46

Crawford, Neta (2000) ‘The Passion of World Politics: Propositions on Emotion and Emotional Relationships’, International Security 24(4), pp. 116-56

Dyson, Stephen (2006) ‘Personality and Foreign Policy: Tony Blair’s Iraq Decisions’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 2(3): pp. 289-306

Foyle, Douglas (1997) ‘Public Opinion and Foreign Policy: Elite Beliefs as a Mediating Variable’, International Studies Quarterly 41(1), pp. 141-70

George, Alexander (1969) ‘The “Operational Code”: A Neglected Approach to the Study of Political Leaders and Decision-Making’, International Studies Quarterly 13(2), pp. 190-222

George, Alexander (1980) Presidential Decisionmaking in Foreign Policy: The Effective Use of Information and Advice, Boulder: Westview Press

Greenstein, Fred (2004) The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to George W. Bush, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Holsti, Ole (1970) ‘The Operational Code Approach to the Study of Political Leaders: John Foster Dulles’ Philosophical and Instrumental Beliefs’, Canadian Journal of Political Science 3(1), pp. 123-57

Jervis, Robert (2010) Why Intelligence Fails: Lessons from the Iranian Revolution and the Iraq War, Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Kaarbo, Juliet (1997) Prime Minister Leadership Styles in Foreign Policy Decision-Making: A Framework for Research’, Political Psychology 18(3), pp. 553-81

McDermott, Rose (2008) Presidential Leadership, Illness and Decision-Making, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Stein, Janice (1994) ‘Political Learning by Doing: Gorbachev as Uncommitted Thinker and Motivated Learner’, International Organization 48(2), pp. 155-83

Walker, Stephen & Akan Malici (2011) US Presidents and Foreign Policy Mistakes, Stanford: Stanford University Press

Weinberg, Ashley (2011) The Psychology of Politicians, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, chapters 1, 4, 6-7
Week 6
Mo, 26. Oct.: Domestic Politics and Special Interest Groups
Mintz, Alex & Karl DeRouen (2010) Understanding Foreign Policy Decision Making, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: chapter 7

Hartung, William (2001) ‘Eisenhower’s Warning of the Industrial-Military Complex Forty Years Later’, World Policy Journal, 18(1): pp. 39-44

Jacobs, Lawrence & Bejamin Page (2005) ‘Who Influences US Foreign Policy?’, American Political Science Review 99(1), pp. 107-23

Jhaveri, Nayna (2004) ‘Petroimperialism: US Oil Interests and the Iraq War’, Antipode, 36(1): pp. 2-11

Wimmer, Andreas et al. (2004) Facing Ethnic Conflicts. Towards a New Realism, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, chapter 21
Further Reading:
Ambrosio, Thomas (2002) Ethnic Identity Groups and US Foreign Policy, Westport: Praeger

Checkel, Jeffrey (1993) ‘Ideas, Institutions, and the Gorbachev Foreign Policy Revolution’, World Politics 45(2), pp. 271-300

Farnham, Barbara (2004) ‘Impact of the Political Context on Foreign Policy Decision-Making’, Political Psychology 25(3), pp. 441-63

Flibbert, Andrew (2006) ‘The Road to Baghdad: Ideas and Intellectuals in Explanations of the Iraq War’, Security Studies 15(2), pp. 310-52

Jervis, Robert (2010) Why Intelligence Fails: Lessons from the Iranian Revolution and the Iraq War, Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Kaarbo, Juliet (1996) ‘Power and Influence in Foreign Policy Decision Making: The Role of Junior Coalition Partners in German and Israeli Foreign Policy’, International Studies Quarterly 40(4), pp. 501-30

Klare, Michael (2001) Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict, New York: Metropolitan Books

Rosenau, James (1997) Along the Domestic-Foreign Frontier: Exploring Governance in a Turbulent World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Skidmore, David & Valerie Hudson (1993) The Limits of State Autonomy: Societal Groups and Foreign Policy Formulation, Boulder: Westview Press, chapters 1-2, 4-5

Shain, Yossi (1994) ‘Ethnic Diasporas and US Foreign Policy’, Political Science Quarterly 109(5), pp. 811-41

Snyder, Jack (1991) Myths of Empire: Domestic Politics and International Ambition, Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Stone, Diane & Andrew Denham (2004) Think Tank Traditions: Policy Research and the Politics of Ideas, Manchester: Manchester University Press, chapters 1-4, 13


We, 28. Oct.: The Media and Public Opinion
Holsti, Ole (1992) ‘Public Opinion and Foreign Policy: Challenges to the Almond-Lippmann Consensus’, International Studies Quarterly 36(4), pp. 439-66

Merrin, William (1994) ‘Norris, Baudrillard, and the Gulf War’, Economy and Society 23(4), pp. 433-58

Mintz, Alex & Karl DeRouen (2010) Understanding Foreign Policy Decision Making, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: chapter 8

Soroka, Stuart (2003) ‘Media, Public Opinion, and Foreign Policy’, The International Journal of Press/Politics 8, pp. 27-48




Further Reading:
Baumgartner, Jody et al. (2008) ‘A Clash of Civilizations? The Influence of Religion on Public Opinion on US Foreign Policy in the Middle East’, Political Research Quarterly 61(2), pp. 171-9

Chan, Steve & William Safran (2006) ‘Public Opinion as a Constraint against War: Democracies’ Responses to Operation Iraqi Freedom’, Foreign Policy Analysis 2(2), pp. 137-56

Entman, Robert (2004) Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and US Foreign Policy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, chapters 1, 4-7

Foyle, Douglas (1999) Counting the Public In: Presidents, Public Opinion and Foreign Policy, New York: Columbia University Press

Herring, Eric & Piers Robinson (2003) ‘Too Polemical or too Critical? Chomsky on the Study of the News Media and US Foreign Policy’, Review of International Studies 29(4), pp. 553-68

Holsti, Ole (1996) Public Opinion and American Foreign Policy, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

Knecht, Thomas & Stephen Weatherford (2006) ‘Public Opinion and Foreign Policy: The Stages of Presidential Decision Making’, International Studies Quarterly 50(3), pp. 705-27

Kumar, Deepa (2006) ‘Media, War, and Propaganda: Strategies of Information Management during the 2003 Iraq War’, Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies 3(1), pp. 48-69

Nacos, Brigitte et al (2000) Decisionmaking in a Glass House: Mass Media, Public Opinion, and American and European Foreign Policy in the 21st Century, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield

Patrick, Brian & Trevor Thrall (2007) ‘Beyond Hegemony: Classical Propaganda Theory and Presidential Communication Strategy after the Invasion of Iraq’, Mass Communication and Society 10(1), pp. 95-118

Powlick, Philip & Andrew Katz (1998) ‘Defining the American Public Opinion/Foreign Policy Nexus’, Mershon International Studies Review 42(1), pp. 29-61

Thrall, Trevor (2000) War in the Media, Creskill: Hampton Press



Week 7
Mo, 2. Nov.: Culture and Ideology
Flibbert, Andrew (2006) ‘The Road to Baghdad: Ideas and Intellectuals in Explanations of the Iraq War’, Security Studies 15(2), pp. 310-52

Holsti, Kalevi (1970) ‘National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy’, International Studies Quarterly 14(3), pp. 233-309

Kaufman, Chaim (2004) ‘Threat Inflation and the Failure of the Marketplace of Ideas: The Selling of the Iraq War’, International Security 29(1), pp. 5-48

Sonderman, Fred (1977) ‘The Concept of National Interest’, Orbis, 21(1): pp. 121-38


Further Reading:
Barnett, Michael (1999) ‘Culture, Strategy, and Foreign Policy Change: Israel’s Road to Oslo’, European Journal of International Relations 5(1), pp. 5-36

Bouchet, Nicolas (2013) ‘The Democracy Tradition in US Foreign Policy and the Obama Presidency’, International Affairs 89(1), pp. 31-51

Campbell, Kurt & Derek Chollet (2007) ‘The New Tribalism: Cliques and the Making of US Foreign Policy’, The Washington Quarterly 30(1), pp. 191-203

Carlsnaes, Walter (1997) Identity and Foreign Policy: Problems of Comparative Conceptualization, Oxford: Blackwell

Checkel, Jeffrey (1993) ‘Ideas, Institutions, and the Gorbachev Foreign Policy Revolution’, World Politics 45(2), pp. 271-300

Dalacoura, Katerina (2005) ‘US Democracy Promotion in the Arab Middle East since 11 September 2001: A Critique’, International Affairs 81(5), pp. 963-79

Drezner, Daniel (2000) ‘Ideas, Bureaucratic Politics, and the Crafting of Foreign Policy’, American Journal of Political Science 44(4), pp. 733-49

Goldstein, Judith & Robert Keohane (1993) Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions and Political Change, Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Grimm, Sonja & Julia Leininger (2012) ‘Not All Good Things Go Together: Conflicting Objectives in Democracy Promotion’, Democratization 19(3), pp. 391-414

Graubart, Jonathan (2013) ‘R2P and Pragmatic Liberal Interventionism: Values in the Service of Interests’, Human Rights Quarterly 35(1), pp. 69-90

Nabers, Dirk (2009) ‘Filling the Void of Meaning: Identity Construction in Foreign Policy after September 11, 2001’, Foreign Policy Analysis 5(2), pp. 191-214

Nayak, Meghana & Christopher Malone (2009) ‘American Orientalism and American Exceptionalism: A Critical Rethinking of US Hegemony’, International Studies Review 11(2), pp. 253-76

Reus-Smit, Christian (2004) American Power and World Order, Cambridge: Polity

Stelzer, Irwin (2004) The Neo-con Reader, New York: Grove Press, Part II



We, 4. Nov.: Foreign Policy and Perceptions of the Middle East
Fawcett, Louise (2013) International Relations of the Middle East, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapters 4-10

Little, Douglas (2008) American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East since 1945, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 3rd edition, Introduction, chapter 1


Further Reading:
Cleveland, William (2004) A History of the Modern Middle East, Boulder: Westview Press

Fisk, Robert (2006) The Great War of Civilization: The Conquest of the Middle East, New York: Harper Collins

Halliday, Fred (2005) One Hundred Myths about the Middle East, London: Saqi

Halliday, Fred (2005) The Middle East in International Relations: Power, Politics, and Ideology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Hinnebusch, Raymond & Anoushiravan Ehteshami (2014) The Foreign Policies of Middle East States, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2nd edition: chapters 1-2

Fawcett, Louise (2013) International Relations of the Middle East, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapters 1-3, 11

Kamrava, Mehran (2011) The Modern Middle East: A Political History since the First World War, Berkeley: University of California Press

Kumar, Deepa (2012) Islamophobia and the Politics of Empire, Chicago, Haymarket Books, chapters 2-3, 5-6

Lockman, Zachary: Contending Visions of the Middle East, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Mansfield, Peter (2013) A History of the Middle East, London: Penguin Books

Owen, Roger (2004) State, Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East, London: Routledge

Said, Edward (1979) Orientalism, New York: Vintage Books

Tripp, Charles (2013) The Power and the People: Paths of Resistance in the Middle East, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Week 8
Mo, 9. Nov.: US Foreign Policy in the Middle East
Brown, L. Carl (2004) Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers, London: I.B. Tauris, chapter 3

Dalacoura, Katerina (2005) ‘US Democracy Promotion in the Arab Middle East since 11 September 2001: A Critique’, International Affairs 81(5), pp. 963-79

Fawcett, Louise (2013) International Relations of the Middle East, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapter 16

Gerges, Fawaz (2013) ‘The Obama Approach to the Middle East: The End of America’s Moment?’, International Affairs 89(2), pp. 299-323

Kumar, Deepa (2012) Islamophobia and the Politics of Empire, Chicago, Haymarket Books, chapters 4, 7

Lynch, Timothy (2008) ‘Kristol Balls: Neoconservative Visions of Islam and the Middle East’, International Politics 45, pp. 182-211


Seminar Presentations:


  1. Kinzer, Stephen (2008) All the Shah’s Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror, Hoboken: John Wiley, 2nd edition

  2. Mearsheimer, John & Stephen Walt (2007) The Israel Lobby and US Foreign Policy, New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux


Further Reading:
Barber, Benjamin (2004) Fear’s Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy, New York: W. W. Norton

Daalder, Ivo (2005) America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy, Hoboken: John Wiley

Freedman, Lawrence (2008) A Choice of Enemies: America Confronts the Middle East, New York: Public Affairs

Gregory, Derek (2004) The Colonial Present: Afghanistan, Palestine and Iraq, Malden: Blackwell

Jervis, Robert (2010) Why Intelligence Fails: Lessons from the Iranian Revolution and the Iraq War, Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Khalidi, Rashid (2004) Resurrecting Empire: Western Footprints and America’s Perilous Path in the Middle East, Boston: Beacon Press

Klare, Michael (2004) Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America’s Growing Petroleum Dependency, New York: Henry Holt

Kumar, Deepa (2012) Islamophobia and the Politics of Empire, Chicago, Haymarket Books, chapters 8-10

Layne, Christopher (2007) The Peace of Illusions: American Grand Strategy from 1940 to the Present, Thaca: Cornell University Press

Layne, Christopher (2009) ‘America’s Middle East Grand Strategy after Iraq: The Moment for Offshore Balancing Has Arrived’, Review of International Studies 35(1), pp. 5-25

Little, Douglas (2008) American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East since 1945, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 3rd edition, chapters 2-9

McAlister, Melanie (2001) Epic Encounters: Culture, Media, and US Interests in the Middle East 1945-2000, Berkeley: University of California Press

Nayak, Meghana & Christopher Malone (2009) ‘American Orientalism and American Exceptionalism: A Critical Rethinking of US Hegemony’, International Studies Review 11(2), pp. 253-76

Oren, Michael (2007) Power, Faith and Fantasy: America in the Middle East, 1776 to the Present, New York: W.W. Norton

Pressman, Jeremy (2009) ‘Power without Influence: The Bush Administration’s Foreign Policy Failure in the Middle East’, International Security 33(4), pp. 149-79

Quandt, William (2005) Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict since 1967, Washington: Brookings Institution Press

Wawro, Geoffrey (2008) Quicksand: America’s Pursuit of Power in the Middle East, New York: Penguin Books
We, 11. Nov.: Watershed 2003: The Decision to Invade Iraq and Its Occupation
Bluth, Christoph (2004) ‘The British Road to War: Blair, Bush, and the Decision to Invade Iraq’, International Affairs, 80(5): pp. 871-92

Dodge, Toby (2010) ‘The Ideological Roots of Failure: The Application of Kinetic Neo-Liberalism to Iraq’, International Affairs 86(6), pp. 1269-86

Dyson, Stephen (2006) ‘Personality and Foreign Policy: Tony Blair’s Iraq Decisions’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 2(3): pp. 289-306

Howard, Peter (2004) ‘Why Not Invade North Korea?’, International Studies Quarterly 48(4), pp. 805-28


Seminar Presentation:


  1. Harvey, Frank (2012) Explaining the Iraq War: Counterfactual Theory, Logic and Evidence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

  2. Chandrasekaran, Rajiv (2007) Imperial Life in the Emerald City: Inside Iraq’s Green Zone, New York: Vintage Books


Further Reading:
Badie, Dina (2010) ‘Groupthink, Iraq, and the War on Terror: Explaining US pOlicy Shift toward Iraq’, Foreign Policy Analysis 6(4), pp. 277-96

Burke, Jason (2011) The 9/11 Wars, London: Allen Lane, Parts 2, 4, 6

Fawcett, Louise (2013) International Relations of the Middle East, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapter 15

Flibbert, Andrew (2006) ‘The Road to Baghdad: Ideas and Intellectuals in Explanations of the Iraq War’, Security Studies 15(2), pp. 310-52

Freedman, Lawrence (2004) ‘War in Iraq: Selling the Threat’, Survival, 46(2): pp. 7-50

Hybel, Alex Roberto (2006) The Bush Administrations and Saddam Hussein: Deciding on Conflict, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Jervis, Robert (2010) Why Intelligence Fails: Lessons from the Iranian Revolution and the Iraq War, Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Jhaveri, Nayna (2004) ‘Petroimperialism: US Oil Interests and the Iraq War’, Antipode, 36(1): pp. 2-11

Kampfner, John (2003) Blair’s War: A Liberal Imperialist in Action, London: Free Press

Krebs, Ronald and Jennifer Lobasz (2007) ‘Fixing the Meaning of 9/11: Hegemony, Coercion, and the Road to War in Iraq’, Security Studies, 16(3): pp. 409-51

Kaufman, Chaim (2004) ‘Threat Inflation and the Failure of the Marketplace of Ideas: The Selling of the Iraq War’, International Security 29(1), pp. 5-48

Kumar, Deepa (2006) ‘Media, War, and Propaganda: Strategies of Information Management during the 2003 Iraq War’, Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies 3(1), pp. 48-69

Packer, George (2007) The Assassin’s Gate: America in Iraq, London: Faber & Faber

Patrick, Brian & Trevor Thrall (2007) ‘Beyond Hegemony: Classical Propaganda Theory and Presidential Communication Strategy after the Invasion of Iraq’, Mass Communication and Society 10(1), pp. 95-118

Phillips, David (2005) Losing Iraq: Inside the Postwar Reconstruction Fiasco, New York: Westview Press

Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) ‘The Long Road to War’, Frontline, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/ pages/frontline/shows/longroad/

Ricks, Thomas (2006) Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq, New York: Penguin Books

Schuster, Jürgen & Herbert Maier (2006) ‘The Rift: Explaining Europe’s Diverging Iraq Policies in the Run-Up to the American-Led War on Iraq’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 2(3): pp. 223-44

Wall, Irvin (2004) ‘The French-American War over Iraq’, Brown Journal of World Affairs, 10(2): pp. 123-139

Woodward, Bob (2004) Plan of Attack, New York: Simon & Schuster



Week 9
Mo, 16. Nov.: Turkish Foreign Policy
Haas, Mark (2012) The Clash of Ideologies: Middle Eastern Politics and American Security, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapter 4

Hinnebusch, Raymond & Anoushiravan Ehteshami (2014) The Foreign Policies of Middle East States, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2nd edition: chapter 12

Murinson, Alexander (2012) ‘Turkish Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century’, The Begin Sadat Centre for Strategic Studies, Mideast Security and Policy Studies 97, available online at: http://www.biu.ac.il/SOC/besa/ MSPS97.pdf

Walker, Joshua (2007) ‘Learning Strategic Depth: Implications of Turkey’s New Foreign Policy Doctrine’, Insight Turkey 9(3), pp. 32-47


Seminar Presentations:


  1. Hale, William (2007) Turkey, the US and Iraq, London: Saqi Books

  2. Barysch, Katinka (2010) ‘Can Turkey Combine EU Accession and Regional Leadership?’, Centre for European Reform, available online at: http://www.cer.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/attachments/pdf/2011/pb_barysch_turkey_25jan10-232.pdf

Patton, Marcie (2007) ‘AKP Reform Fatigue in Turkey: What Has Happened to the EU Process?’, Mediterranean Politics 12(3), pp. 339-58

Phillips, David (2004) ‘Turkey’s Dreams of Accession’, Foreign Affairs 83(5), pp. 86-97

Zucconi, Mario (2009) ‘The Impact of the EU Connection on Turkey’s Domestic and Foreign Policy’, Turkish Studies 10(1), pp. 25-36
Further Reading:
Aras, Bülent (2009) ‘The Davotoğlu Era in Turkish Foreign Policy’, Insight Turkey 11(3), pp. 127-42

Brown, L. Carl (2004) Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers, London: I.B. Tauris, chapter 13

Grigoriadis, Ionnis (2010) ‘Friends No More? The Rise of Anti-American Nationalism in Turkey’, The Middle East Journal 64(1), pp. 51-66

Hale, William (2000) Turkish Foreign Policy 1774-2000, London: Frank Cass

International Crisis Group (2010) ‘Turkey and the Middle East: Ambitions and Constraints’, Europe Report 203, available online at: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/203-turkey-and-the-middle-east-ambitions-and-constraints.aspx

Murinson, Alexander (2007) ‘The Strategic Depth Doctrine of Turkish Foreign Policy’, Middle Eastern Studies 42(6), pp. 945-64

Taspinar, Ömer (2012) ‘Turkey’s Strategic Vision and Syria’, The Washington Quarterly 35(3), pp. 127-40

Zürcher, Erik (2004) Turkey: A Modern History, London: I.B. Tauris, 3rd edition



We, 18. Nov.: Iranian Foreign Policy

Haas, Mark (2012) The Clash of Ideologies: Middle Eastern Politics and American Security, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapter 2

Hinnebusch, Raymond & Anoushiravan Ehteshami (2014) The Foreign Policies of Middle East States, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2nd edition: chapter 10

Juneau, Thomas & Sam Razavi (2013) Iranian Foreign Policy since 2001: Alone in the World, London: Routledge, chapters Introduction, 1-3


Seminar Presentations:


  1. Juneau, Thomas & Sam Razavi (2013) Iranian Foreign Policy since 2001: Alone in the World, London: Routledge, chapter 4

Patrikarikos, David (2012) Nuclear Iran: The Birth of an Atomic State, London: I.B. Tauris

Perthes, Volker (2010) ‘Ambition and Fear: Iran’s Foreign Policy and Nuclear Programme’, Survival 52(3), pp. 95-114



  1. Brookings Institution (2015) Collection of Commentaries and Assessments of Nuclear Deal with Iran, available online at: http://www.brookings.edu/research/flash-topics/flash-topic-folder/iran-nuclear-deal

European External Action Service (2015) ‘Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action + Annexes’ of the P5+1 and the EU with the Islamic Republic of Iran, available online at: http://eeas.europa.eu/statements-eeas/docs/iran_agreement/iran_joint-comprehensive-plan-of-action_en.pdf

Juneau, Thomas & Sam Razavi (2013) Iranian Foreign Policy since 2001: Alone in the World, London: Routledge, chapter 12

House of Representatives (2014) ‘Iran’s Destabilizing Role in the Middle East’, Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Transcript, available online at: http://docs.house.gov/meetings/FA/FA00/20140716/102496/HHRG-113-FA00-Transcript-20140716.pdf

Katzman, Kenneth (2015) ‘Iran: US Concerns and Policy Responses’, Congressional Research Service Special Report for Congress, available online at: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL32048.pdf


Further Readings:
Axworthy, Michael (2013) Revolutionary Iran: A History of the Islamic Republic, London: Penguin

Brown, L. Carl (2004) Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers, London: I.B. Tauris, chapter 12

Haas, Mark (2012) The Clash of Ideologies: Middle Eastern Politics and American Security, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapter 3

Juneau, Thomas & Sam Razavi (2013) Iranian Foreign Policy since 2001: Alone in the World, London: Routledge, chapters 5, 7

Nasr, Seyyed (2007) The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future, New York: W.W. Norton

Pollack, Kenneth (2005) The Persian Puzzle: The Conflict between Iran and America, New York: Random House

Takeyh, Ray (2006) Hidden Iran: Paradox and Power in the Islamic Republic, New York: Times Books

Takeyh, Ray (2009) Guardians of the Revolution: Iran and the World in the Age of the Ayatollahs, Oxford: Oxford University Press



Week 10
Mo, 23. Nov.: Arab Gulf States’ Foreign Policy
Al-Rashid, Madawi (2013) ‘Saudi Arabia: Local and Regional Challenges’, Contemporary Arab Affairs 6(1), pp. 28-40

Haas, Mark (2012) The Clash of Ideologies: Middle Eastern Politics and American Security, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapter 5

Hinnebusch, Raymond & Anoushiravan Ehteshami (2014) The Foreign Policies of Middle East States, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2nd edition: chapters 6, 7

Mabon, Simon (2012) ‘Kingdom in Crisis? The Arab Spring and Instability in Saudi Arabia’, Contemporary Security Policy 33(3), pp. 530-53


Seminar Presentations:


  1. Gause, F. Gregory (2014) ‘Beyond Sectarianism: The New Middle East Cold War’, Brookings Doha Analysis Paper 11, available online at:

http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Research/Files/Papers/2014/07/22-beyond-sectarianism-cold-war-gause/English-PDF.pdf?la=en

Abdo, Geneive (2013) ‘The New Sectarianism: The Arab Uprisings and the Rebirth of the Shi’a-Sunni Divide’, The Saban Centre for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution, Analysis Paper, available online at:

http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Research/Files/Papers/2013/04/sunni-shia-abdo/sunni-shia-abdo.pdf?la=en

Juneau, Thomas & Sam Razavi (2013) Iranian Foreign Policy since 2001: Alone in the World, London: Routledge, chapter 6

International Crisis Group (2011) ‘Popular Protests in North Africa and the Middle East III: The Bahrain Revolt’ MENA Report 105, available online at: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/middle-east-north-africa/iraq-iran-gulf/bahrain/105-popular-protests-in-north-africa-and-the-middle-east-iii-the-bahrain-revolt.aspx

Mabon, Simon (2012) ‘The Battle for Bahrain: Iranian-Saudi Rivalry’, Middle East Policy 19(2), pp. 84-97

Matthiesen,. Toby (2013) Sectarian Gulf: Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and the Arab Spring that Wasn’t, Stanford, Stanford University Press, chapter 2


  1. Cooper, Andrew & Bessma Momani (2011) ‘Qatar and Expanded Contours of Small State Diplomacy’, The International Spectator 46(3), pp. 113-28

Dorsey, James (2015) ‘How Qatar Is Its Own Worst Enemy’, The International Journal of the History of Sport 32(3), pp. 422-39

Relevant Entries on James Dorsey’s blog ‘The Turbulent World of Middle East Soccer’, available online at: http://mideastsoccer.blogspot.co.at/

Hammond, Andrew (2014) ‘Qatar’s Leadership Transition: Like Father, Like Son’, European Council on Foreign Relations Report, available online at: http://www.ecfr.eu/page/-/ECFR95_QATAR_BRIEF_AW.pdf

International Trade Union Confederation (2014) ‘The Case against Qatar, Host of the FIFA 2022 World Cup’, ITUC Special Report, available online at: http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/the_case_against_qatar_en_web170314.pdf

Kamrava, Mehran (2013) Qatar: Small State, Big Politics, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, chapter 2
Further Reading:
Bronson, Rachel (2006) Thicker than Oil: America’s Uneasy Partnership with Saudi Arabia, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Brown, L. Carl (2004) Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers, London: I.B. Tauris, chapter 11

Fawcett, Louise (2013) International Relations of the Middle East, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapter 14

Haykel, Bernard et al. (2014) Saudi Arabia in Transition: Insights on Social, Political, Economic and Religious Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Hegghammer, Thomas (2010) Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism since 1979, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Kamrava, Mehran (2013) Qatar: Small State, Big Politics, Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Matthiesen,. Toby (2013) Sectarian Gulf: Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and the Arab Spring that Wasn’t, Stanford, Stanford University Press

Scott Doran, Michael (2004) ‘The Saudi Paradox’, Foreign Affairs 83(1), pp. 35-51

Stern, Sarah (2011) Saudi Arabia and the Global Islamic Terrorist Network: America and the West’s Fatal Embrace, New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Yamani, Mai (2008) ‘The Two Faces of Saudi Arabia’, Survival 50(1), pp. 143-56


We, 25. Nov.: Israel’s Foreign Policy
Hinnebusch, Raymond & Anoushiravan Ehteshami (2014) The Foreign Policies of Middle East States, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, chapter 11

Maoz, Zeev (2009) Defending the Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel’s Security and Foreign Policy, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, chapters 1, 8-13, Afterword


Seminar Presentations:


  1. Swisher, Clinton (2004) The Truth about Camp David: The Untold Story about the Collapse of the Middle East Process, New York: Nation Books

  2. Parsi, Trita (2008) Treacherous Alliance: The Secret Dealings of Israel, Iran and the United States, New Haven: Yale University Press


Further Reading:
Adelman, Jonathan (2008) The Rise of Israel: A History of a Revolutionary State, London: Routledge

Azoulay, Ariella (2013) The One State Condition: Occupation and Democracy in Israel/Palestine, Stanford: Stanford University Press

Blumenthal, Max (2013) Goliath: Life and Loathing in Greater Israel, New York: Nation Books

Brown, L. Carl (2004) Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers, London: I.B. Tauris, chapter 6

Fawcett, Louise (2013) International Relations of the Middle East, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapters 12, 13

Pedatzur, Reuven (2007) ‘The Iranian Nuclear Threat and the Israeli Options’, Contemporary Security Policy 28(3), pp. 513-41

Pollack, Kenneth (2010) ‘Osiraq Redux: A Crisis Simulation of an Israeli Strike on the Iranian Nuclear Program’, The Saban Centre for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution, Middle East Memo 15, available online at:

http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Research/Files/Reports/2010/2/iran-israel-strike-pollack/02_iran_israel_strike_pollack.PDF

Sasley, Brent (2010) ‘Affective Attachments and Foreign Policy: Israel and the 1993 Oslo Accords’, European Journal of International Relations 16(4), pp. 687-709

Shlaim, Avi (2000) The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World, New York: Penguin Books



Sorkin, Michael (2005) Against the Wall: Israel’s Barrier to Peace, New York: New Press


Week 11
Mo, 30. Nov.: Discussion of Simulation Exercise Position Papers
We, 2. Dec.: Simulation Exercise I

Week 12
Mo, 7. Dec.: Simulation Exercise II
We, 9. Dec.: In-Class Final Exam


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