Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness: is there a similar pattern around the world?



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REFERENCES

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Appendix: Items and Indexes for Each Trait

Index

Scale

Item

Involvement

Empowerment

1. Most employees are highly involved in their work.

2. Decisions are usually made at the level where the best information is available.

3. Information is widely shared so that everyone can get the information he or she needs when it's needed.

4. Everyone believes that he or she can have a positive impact.

5. Business planning is ongoing and involves everyone in the process to some degree.





Team Orientation

6. Cooperation across different parts of the organization is actively encouraged.

7. People work like they are part of a team.

8. Teamwork is used to get work done, rather than hierarchy.

9. Teams are our primary building blocks.

10. Work is organized so that each person can see the relationship between his or her job and the goals of the organization.





Capability Development

11. Authority is delegated so that people can act on their own.

12. The "bench strength" (capability of people) is constantly improving.

13. There is continuous investment in the skills of employees.

14. The capabilities of people are viewed as an important source of competitive advantage.

15. Problems often arise because we do not have the skills necessary to do the job.*


Consistency

Core Values

16. The leaders and managers "practice what they preach."

17. There is a characteristic management style and a distinct set of management practices.

18. There is a clear and consistent set of values that governs the way we do business.

19. Ignoring core values will get you in trouble.

20. There is an ethical code that guides our behavior and tells us right from wrong.





Agreement

21. When disagreements occur, we work hard to achieve "win-win" solutions.

22. There is a "strong" culture.

23. It is easy to reach consensus, even on difficult issues.

24. We often have trouble reaching agreement on key issues.*

25. There is a clear agreement about the right way and the wrong way to do things.





Coordination and Integration

26. Our approach to doing business is very consistent and predictable.

27. People from different parts of the organization share a common perspective.

28. It is easy to coordinate projects across different parts of the organization.

29. Working with someone from another part of this organization is like working with someone from a different organization*

30. There is good alignment of goals across levels.





Index

Scale

Item

Adaptability

Creating Change

31. The way things are done is very flexible and easy to change.

32. We respond well to competitors and other changes in the business environment.

33. New and improved ways to do work are continually adopted.

34. Attempts to create change usually meet with resistance.*

35. Different parts of the organization often cooperate to create change.





Customer Focus

36. Customer comments and recommendations often lead to changes.

37. Customer input directly influences our decisions.

38. All members have a deep understanding of customer wants and needs.

39. The interests of the customer often get ignored in our decisions.*

40. We encourage direct contact with customers by our people.





Organizational Learning

41. We view failure as an opportunity for learning and improvement.

42. Innovation and risk taking are encouraged and rewarded.

43. Lots of things "fall between the cracks".*

44. Learning is an important objective in our day-to-day work.

45. We make certain that the "right hand knows what the left hand is doing."


Mission

Strategic Direction & Intent

46. There is a long-term purpose and direction.

47. Our strategy leads other organizations to change the way they compete in the industry.

48. There is a clear mission that gives meaning and direction to our work.

49. There is a clear strategy for the future.

50. Our strategic direction is unclear to me*





Goals & Objectives

51. There is widespread agreement about goals.

52. Leaders set goals that are ambitious, but realistic.

53. The leadership has "gone on record" about the objectives we are trying to meet.

54. We continuously track our progress against our stated goals.

55. People understand what needs to be done for us to succeed in the long run.





Vision

56. We have a shared vision of what the organization will be like in the future

57. Leaders have a long-term viewpoint.



58. Short-term thinking often compromises our long-term vision.*

59. Our vision creates excitement and motivation for our employees.



60. We are able to meet short-term demands without compromising our long-term vision.

*Items in italics are worded negatively in the survey. Responses are reversed for analytic purposes.
Appendix: Effectiveness Questions:
Comparing the performance of your organization with others in the industry, how would you assess your company performance in the following areas? Please mark one response per item.




Don’t Know

0

Low Performer

1



2

Average
3



4

High Performer

5

Sales Growth


0

1

2

3

4

5

Profitability/ROI


0

1

2

3

4

5

Quality of Products and Services

0

1

2

3

4

5

Employee Satisfaction


0

1

2

3

4

5

Overall Organizational Performance

0

1

2

3

4

5


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