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n348. See U.S. Agency for International Development, Judicial Sector Reform Advancing USAID's Peace Objective: Scope of Work, Nov. 12, 1997, at 4 [hereinafter USAID/SOW].

n349. See generally National Center for State Courts, Changing Times in Trial Courts: Caseflow Management and Delay Reduction in Urban Trial Courts (1988).

n350. See USAID/SOW, supra note 348, at 4. In recognition of this fact, the Guatemalan government opened a Clerk of Court office, Centro Administrativo de Gestion Penal, in Guatamala City, a first for a capital city in Latin America. This clerk office is based on the Justice Center model. See infra note 351.

n351. See id. at 3-4; See generally, Tim Cornish & Maggie Triviz, Perspectivas: Sistemas de Gestion Administrativo de los Centros de Enfoque de Quetzaltenango y Zacapa, Presentation to the Plenary of the Supreme Court (May 28, 1997) [hereinafter Cornish & Triviz]. New Justice Centers were opened in 1998 in Nebaj (El Quiche), San Benito (Petan), and Escuintla.

n352. Article 90 of the Criminal Procedure Code requires interpreters for non-native Spanish speakers. Under Article 142, it is possible to have the criminal procedure in an indigenous language, with simultaneous translation into Spanish.

n353. See generally, Cornish & Triviz, supra note 351.

n354. See generally, Alejandro Alvarez, Centro de Administracion de Justicia de Nebaj: Modulo Organizativo y Tecnico, Dec. 20, 1996 (Overview of the Nebaj center).

n355. See USAID/SOW, supra note 348, at 3.

n356. See Point 3 regarding Combatir la corrupcion in Comision de Modernizacion del Organismo Judicial, Plan de Modernizacion del Organismo Judicial: 1997 - 2002 (Oct. 7, 1997).

n357. See, e.g., Helen Mack Chang, Commission for the Strengthening of Justice, Presentation in Antigua, Guatemala, Nov. 4, 1997 at 7; Avizoran panorama oscuro para la justicia por bajo presupesto del OJ, Prensa Libre, Nov. 28, 1997, at 4; Bar Association President Alfonso Novales, Comments in La inseguridad, talon de Aquiles del Gobierno, Prensa Libre, Jan. 14, 1998, at 3; Karen Fischer (Alianza contra la Impunidad), Michelle de Leal (Madres Angustiadas) & Oscar Recinos (guardianes del Vecindario), Comments in Carlos Ajanel Soberanis & Carlos Castaaza Rosales, Dos aos de Gobierno: Seguridad, la tarea pendiente, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 13, 1998, at 3; Comision de Modernizacion del Organismo Judicial, Plan de Modernizacion del Organismo Judicial 1997 - 2002 18 (Aug. 1997); Annex "MINISTERIO PUBLICO: COSTO DE EJECUCION POR AREA ESTRATEGICA" in Ministerio Publico, Metas Programadas por Area Estrategica, (Oct. 1997); Ministerio de Gobernacion, Resumen de la Presentacion efectuada ante el primer taller de intercambio entre la Instancia Coordinadora del Sector de Justicia con la Comunidad Internacional 4 (Nov. 4, 1997); Oneida Najarro, Jueces de Paz piden incremento salarial, Prensa Libre, Oct. 18, 1997, at 6 (noting that Congress has approved salary increases: Trial Court judges will receive Q2,500, magistrates Q1,500, court supervisors Q2,000 and secretaries Q1,000. A small increase to the Courts to Q325.5 MM is in sight, although far below what the Court will need to implement its Modernization Plan, budgeted at Q705 million). See also Carlos Ajanel and Edgar Arana, La justicia con Q81 millones mas, Siglo Veintiuno, Nov. 29, 1997; Editorial: Un presupuesto insuficiente para el Organismo Judicial, El Periodico, Jan. 10, 1998, at 10; Oneida Najarro, Advierten insuficiencia en presupuesto asignado al OJ, Prensa Libre, Jan. 9, 1998, at 6; Corte Suprema tramita Q50 millones mas de presupuesto, Prensa Libre, Jan. 15, 1998, at 6. One pending issue for the Public Ministry budget has been the transfer of control of morgues from the Courts to the Public Ministry, which lacks resources for carrying out this new function. See Inicia traslado de morgue a la Fiscalia, El Periodico, Jan. 7, 1998, at 6; Donald Gonzalez, Servicio Medico Forense: Quien hara las necropsias?, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 7, 1998, at 39; MP sin recursos para necropsias, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 12, 1998, at 6. Proposals are now on the table to increase the Constitutionally-required share of the national budget for the Courts from 2 percent today to a proposed 6 percent under Article 213 of the Constitution. Elevaran a 6% aporte a la CSJ, Prensa Libre, Jan. 27, 1998, at 6. The Court had wanted a 10 percent guarantee. See Presentan nomina de candidatos a magistrados, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 24, 1998, at 8. Finally, Public Defense is an area also hurt by under-investment. See Defensoria pide mas recursos, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 18, 1998, at 5.

n358. See Seguridad y Justicia: Un mal ao para la justicia, Prensa Libre, Dec. 30, 1997, at 6 (resumen noticiero Supp.)(providing a summary for 1997); The Public Ministry continued to get rid of corrupt officials in 1998. See MP: Destituyen a personal corrupto, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 15, 1998, at 6. Similar attempts continued in 1998 in the Court as well. See CSJ: No a la corrupcion, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 20, 1998, at 8; Edwin Palacios, Rotaciones en la Corte para evitar corrupcion, El Periodico, Jan. 20, 1998, at 6; Julia Corado, Con lugar expediente contra magistrados, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 17, 1998, at 2; Rotan a trabajadores en el OJ tras retornar de sus vacaciones, Prensa Libre, Jan. 21, 1998, at 6. In 1998, the Interior Ministry continue to fire officers for abuse of authority and drinking on the job. See Policia Nacional: Detenciones ilegales, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 14, 1998, at 4. The Court also continues to address corruption in 1998. See CSJ pide destitucion de los magistrados de Sala Duodecima, El Periodico, Jan. 27, 1998, at 6.

n359. See, e.g., Multan a Fiscal General, El Periodico, Nov. 26, 1997, at 6; Oneida Najarro, Reinstalan a fiscal del MP destituida por ineficiente, Prensa Libre, Dec. 3, 1997, at 6. Still, the Court has succeeded in getting rid of some corrupt officials. See, e.g., Oneida Najarro, OJ anuncia despidos de corruptos y huelgueros, Prensa Libre, Dec. 29, 1997, at 6; STOJ: despidos anunciados en el OJ obedecen a compromisos politicos, Prensa Libre, Jan. 4, 1998, at 8; Organismo Judicial inicia plan de trabajo para combatir corrupcion, Prensa Libre, Jan 6, 1998, 47. Incompetence and unethical conduct is also present among public defenders. See, e.g., Edwin Palacios, 600 abogados abandonaron a sus clientes, El Periodico, Dec. 24, 1997, at 6.

n360. See, e.g., CREA/USAID, Reporte Trimestral de Avance: Reporte Numero Diez, 1 de abril al 30 de junio de 1997 11-13 (July 17, 1997) [hereinafter CREA/USAID Report].

n361. See generally, Alicia Warde, Informe y Recomendaciones: Analisis de los programas de capacitacion del proyecto CREA/USAID (Nov. 1996).

n362. See, e.g., CREA/USAID Report, supra note 360, at 8.

n363. See USAID/Guatemala, Stocktaking, supra note 135, at 3.

n364. See id. at 16.

n365. Id. at 16-17.

n366. See Acuerdo Gubernativo No. 221-97 (Mar. 7, 1997) printed in Diario de Centro America 157 (Mar. 12, 1997); Acuerdo Fortalecimiento, supra note 269, Art. 15.

n367. See Alba Trejo, Organismos de seguridad firman carta para entenderse mejor, Siglo Veintiuno, Sept. 26, 1997, at 6; Convenio Interinstitucional para la Creacion de la Junta Tecnica de Planificacion y Coordinacion Sectorial (Antigua, Guat., Nov. 4, 1997). This group is now meeting regularly. See also Instancia Coordinadora sostiene reunion, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 30, 1998, at 5. The Instancia Coordinadora ended its work with its presentation of its final report, Comision de Fortalecimiento de la Justicia, Una nueva justicia para la paz (1998). The Instancia Coordinadora should not be confused with the so called Instancia Multipartidaria, a multiparty group of experts providing advice to the Congress on Constitutional reform, including the area of justice reform. See also Instancia Multipartidaria analiza presupesto del OJ, Prensa Libre, Jan. 24, 1998, at 3; Maynor Amezquita, Instancia Multipartidaria: Discusiones sin concenso, Siglo Veintiuno, Feb. 21, 1998, at 6. The Multiparty Commission ended its work upon presentation of the recommendations for constitutional reform. See Disuelve Multipartidaria, Prensa Libre, May 16, 1998, at 4.

n368. See generally Comision de Modernizacion del Organismo Judicial, Plan de Modernizacion del Organismo Judicial: 1997-2002 (Guat., 1997).

n369. See Oneida Najarro, El OJ esta enfermo: La corrupcion e impunidad lo agobian, Prensa Libre, Oct. 8, 1997, at 4 (which summarizes the Plan).

n370. See USAID/SOW, supra note 348, at 3-4.

n371. See, e.g., CREA/USAID Report, supra note 360, at 6-7.

n372. See Acuerdo Global sobre Derechos Humanos, Art. 9 (Mar. 29, 1994).

n373. See generally, MINUGUA, Project Document - Trust Fund: Justice and Multiculturalism Man and K'iche Linguistic Zones (July 31, 1997).

n374. See, e.g., Letter from Victor Marrero, Ambassador, to Jean-Pierre Halbwachs, Controller, U.N., (April 29, 1997).

n375. See generally Inter-American Development Bank, PERFIL II, (Aug. 18, 1997); Mas apoyo al sector justicia, Prensa Libre, Jan. 17, 1999, at 22.

n376. See Union Europea: Daran US$ 31 millones para la PNC, Siglo Veintiuno, Mar. 25, 1998, at 6. The European Union will provide about $ 30 million to the PNC to be used for training. However, the support to the Organismo Judicial is contingent upon passage of the Constitutional Reforms.



n377. A Canadian diagnostic study, a step prior to investment, is now complete. See generally, Louis Perret and Jean-Denis Archambault, La Administracion de Justicia en Guatemala: Reporte de mision y recomendaciones para la Agencia Canadiense de Desarrollo Internacional (Mar. 1997).

n378. A number of governments sent representatives to a donor coordination meeting in Antigua, Guatemala, November 3-4, 1997. Among the invitees were Spain, France, Italy, Japan, Norway, the Netherlands, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Great Britain, Sweden, Switzerland, Argentina, Venezuela, Belgium and Austria.
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