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n232. See Acuerdo Sobre Fortalecimiento del Poder Civil y Funcion del Ejercito en una Sociedad Democratica, Acuerdos Entre el Gobierno de Guatemala y la URNG 109 (1996).

n233. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 362.

n234. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 101 (citing art. 317 of the Code).

n235. Bovina, supra note 186, at 167 (citing art. 385 of the Code; prior law, Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 638, Decreto 52-73 (repealed)).

n236. Memorandum from Timothy W. Cornish, Director, Centro de Apoyo al Estado de Derecho (CREA/USAID), to Maggie Triviz and Vivian Keller 1 (June 24, 1997) (on file with author).

n237. Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 25, amended by Art. 5, Decreto No. 79-97 (Oct. 13, 1997)(D.O., Oct. 15, 1997); Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 63; The principio de legalidad (principle of legality) in Latin American law prohibits prosecutorial discretion in bringing charges against criminal actors. In contrast, the principio de oportunidad (principle of opportunity) allows for prosecutorial discretion. Typically, the principio de oportunidad has been rejected by Latin American and European legal systems. See Timothy Cornish, Development Associates, Accusatorial Model of Criminal Procedure in Peru, 6 (1993).

n238. Cornish, supra note 236, at 1; Cornish, supra note 237, at 6.

n239. See Cornish, supra note 236, at 1.

n240. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 63; Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 5, Decreto No. 79-97 (Sept. 10, 1997) printed in Diario de Centro America 1 (Oct. 15, 1997)(modifying Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 25, Decree No. 51-92).

n241. See Bovina, supra note 186, at 109-10.

n242. See Montes Calderon, Interpretacion, supra note 198, at 4-5. It is similar to the process of "consenso" envisioned by Prof. B.J. Maier. See Timothy W. Cornish, Sistemas Alternativos en la Solucion de Conflictos en el Proceso Penal Guatemalateco y el Derecho Consuetudinario 1 (1997).

n243. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 5, Decreto No. 79-97.

n244. See id.

n245. See Cornish, supra note 236, at 1.

n246. See Par Usen, supra note 120, at 244.

n247. See Cornish, supra note 236, at 1.

n248. See id.

n249. Bovina, supra note 186, at 119-25.

n250. See Cornish, supra note 236, at 1.

n251. Bovina, supra note 186, at 117-18.

n252. See Cornish, supra note 236, at 4-5.

n253. See id.

n254. See id.

n255. Bovina, supra note 186, at 141-42.

n256. See Barrientos Pallecer, supra 144, at 47.

n257. Cornish, supra note 236, at 1.

n258. See Cornish, supra note 236, at 1; Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 47.

n259. See Cornish, supra note 236, at 1.

n260. See id. at 1-3. For an example of the silly cases that come to trial in Guatemala, see, e.g., Tribunal celebra juicio por robo de dos cajas de margarina, Siglo Veintiuno, June 26, 1997, at 6. (discussing how a full trial was ordered for stealing two boxes of margarine).

n261. See Cornish, supra note 236, at 1.

n262. See Francisco Mauricio Martinez and Jorge Castillo, Aldeanos de Totonicapan crean su tribunal popular, Prensa Libre, July 5, 1997, at 3 (discussing the new popular courts in Totonicapan).

n263. Recomiendan mayor participacion civil, Prensa Libre, Jan. 30, 1998, at 4; Danielo Valladares, Gobernacion impulsa Juntas Locales de Seguridad, El Periodico, Jan. 30, 1998, at 8. Citizen action groups are being set up in Quetzaltenango, San Marcos, Quiche and Huehuetenango. See also Carlos Menocal, Occidente se organiza contra la violencia, El Periodico, Jan. 27, 1998, at 5.

n264. See generally, RFK Memorial Center for Human Rights, Civil Patrols and their Legacy (1996).

n265. See J. Michael Dodson, Donald W. Jackson and Laura Nuzzi O'Shaughnessy, Comparing the Survey Results from El Salvador and Guatemala 7 (Nov. 1997). See also, Julio F. Lara & Mynor De Leon, Cunen: campesinos solicitan armas o policias para capturar a delincuentes, Prensa Libre, Feb. 21, 1998, at 3.

n266. See Elias Salazar, Mendoza: Lentitud en aplicacion de justicia obliga a poblacion a optar por linchamiento, Siglo Veintiuno, July 8, 1997, at 4; Ramon Hernandez S., Huehuetenango registra nueve casos de linchamiento, sin ningun detenido, Prensa Libre, Sept. 16, 1997, at 8; Julio Vasquez Morales, San Marcos: Turba lincha a tres supuestos violadores y asaltantes, Siglo Veintiuno, Aug. 15, 1997, at 55; Jorge Mario Garcia, Linchados eran hijos de empresario, Prensa Libre, Oct. 14, 1997, at 2; Linchamiento frustrado en Quetzaltenango, Siglo Veintiuno, Nov. 25, 1997, at 63; Se salva de ser linchado, El Periodico, Nov. 29, 1997, at 4; Delincuente se salva de ser linchado, El Periodico, Jan. 12, 1998, at 20; PN evita triple linchamiento, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 12, 1998, at 63; A punto de ser linchada, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 13, 1998, at 47; Samuel Flores, Turba lincha a tres personas en Zacualpa, Prensa Libre, Jan. 23, 1998, at 3; Linchan a tres personas en Zacualpa, Quiche, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 23, 1998, at 55; Transladan a hijo de linchados a Zacualpa, Prensa Libre, Jan. 24, 1998, at 2; A punto de ser linchados, El Periodico, Feb. 5, 1998, at 3; Intentan linchar a dos personas en Totonicapan, El Periodico, Feb. 6, 1998, at 29; Otro linchamiento en Quiche, El Periodico, Feb. 7, 1998, at 31; Linchados: 34 en dos aos, Siglo Veintiuno, Feb. 12, 1998, at 4; Capturan a sindicados de linchar a dos hermanos en Almolonga, Prensa Libre, Feb. 18, 1998, at 75; Linchan a presuntos asaltabuses en Quiche, El Periodico, Feb. 20, 1998, at 7; Linchan a presuntos asaltantes en Chibul, Prensa Libre, Feb. 20, 1998 at 79; Rescatan a aslatante antes de ser linchado, Prensa Libre, Feb. 25, 1998, at 8; Ana Lucia Gonzalez and Giovanni Bautista, Turbas con antecedentes, Prensa Libre, Mar. 15, 1998, at 6-7; Haroldo Marroquin, Daniel Tucux & Francisco Mendez, Aldeanos linchan a seis hombres, Prensa Libre, Mar. 18, 1998, at 91; Francisco Mauricio Martinez, Panico en jueces por linchamientos, Prensa Libre, Mar. 24, 1998, at 2. In 1997, there were 60 lynchings in Guatemala. Further, a recent report noted 85 cases of lynchings were no follow- up action has been taken by the government. See Myriam Larra, Impunes 84 casos de linchamiento, Prensa Libre, Jan. 25, 1998, at 3; Julieta Sandoval, Aumentan los linchamientos, Prensa Libre, Jan. 28, 1999, at 2; Erick Campos, Intenta trenar linchamientos, Prensa Libre, Feb. 6, 1999, at 2; Justicia por propia mano: Reportan promedio de un caso cada seis dias, Siglo Veintiuno, Feb. 10, 1999, at 6.

n267. See Elias Salazar, Mendoza: Lentitud en aplicacion de justicia obliga a poblacion a optar por linchamiento, Siglo Veintiuno, July 8, 1997, at 4; See Nuria Maldonado, Julio Lara and olga Lopez, Linchamientos reflejan penosa situacion del sistema judicial, Prensa Libre, Sept. 11, 1997, at 2. See also La justicia es muy lenta, opina Flores Asturias, Prensa Libre, Oct. 29, 1997, at 16 (comments by Vice President Flores Asturias). Supreme Court President Angel Alfredo Figueroa believes that community courts will avoid lynchings. See Juzgados comunitarios evitaran linchamientos, dice presidente de CSJ, Prensa Libre, Oct. 27, 1997, at 26.

n268. See, e.g., Edgar Rene Saenz Archilla, Turba lincha a presunto delincuente y vapulea a dos, Prensa Libre, July 5, 1997, at 5; Ramon Aguilar Vela, Peten: Queman vivo a supuesto criminal, Siglo Veintiuno, June 29, 1997, at 43; Elder Interiano, Intentan linchar en Iztapa, Escuintla, a presunto violador, Prensa Libre, May 11, 1987, at 39; Jorge Mario Garcia and Julio F. Lara, Linchan a tres presuntos asaltantes de buses en la aldea Akal, Huehuetenango, Prensa Libre, May 2, 1997, at 4. The Interior Ministry plans to deploy new PNC troops to areas were lynchings have been a problem. See Gobernacion conformo grupo especial por linchamientos, Siglo Veintiuno, Oct. 27, 1997, at 5.

n269. See Acuerdo Sobre Fortalecimiento del Poder Civil y Funcion del Ejercito en una Sociedad Democratica P III-16-f (1996), printed in Acuerdos Entre el Gobierno de Guatemala y la URNG 109 (1996).

n270. See Acuerdo Sobre Identidad y Derechos de los Pueblos Indigenas P IV-D-1 (1995), printed in Acuerdos Entre el Gobierno de Guatemala y la URNG 59 (1996) [hereinafter Acuerdo de los Pueblos Indigenas].

n271. See Acuerdo de los Pueblos Indigenas, supranote 270, at P IV-D-1. See also International Labour Organization (ILO) Agreement 169 [hereinafter ILO 169]. ILO 169 came into effect in Guatemala in June 1997. See Maria Julia Serech Quina, Los Acuerdos de Paz y el Convenio 169, Siglo Veintiuno, Dec. 29, 1997, at 3 (Mayan supp., "Iximulew").

n272. See Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 34.

n273. See Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 34. This paper will not attempt to describe indigenous law practices, since that issue has been dealt with effectively elsewhere. See generally, Rachel Sieder, Derecho Consuetudinario y Transicion Democratica en Guatemala (1996); ASIES, Derecho Consuetudinario Indigena en Guatemala (1995); Rachel Sieder, Customary law and Democratic Transition in Guatemala (1996) (Latin American Studies Research Paper, Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London)(on file with author); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico - UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Juridicas, Etnicidad y Derecho: Un dialogo postergado entre los cientificos sociales (1996).

n274. See Decreto No. 79-97 (Sept. 10, 1997) printed in Diario de Centro America 1 (Oct. 15, 1997). It is hoped the Tribunales will deter lynchings. See Tribunales disminuiran linchamientos, Prensa Libre, Jan. 24, 1998, at 2.

n275. See Controversia por reformas al Codigo Procesal Penal, El Periodico, Sept. 12, 1997, at 5.

n276. See id. In fact, the Court and Public Ministry had been provided copies of draft legislation in April 1997. Both institutions commented on the legislation in May. However, the bill which was later introduced and passed was very different from this earlier bill and was more that twice its length.

n277. See Martin Juarez and Abner Guoz, En que consisten las reformas penales, El Periodico, Sept. 12, 1997, at 5.

n278. See Montes Calderon, Interpretacion, supra note 198, at 2.

n279. See Martin Juarez and Abner Guoz, En que consisten las reformas penales, El Periodico, Sept. 12, 1997, at 5; Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 5, Decreto No. 79-97 (Sept. 10, 1997) printed in Diario de Centro America 1 (Oct. 15, 1997)(modifying Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 25, Decree No. 51-92).

n280. The locations are: (1) San Andres Semetabaj, Solola; (2) San Luis, Peten; (3) Santa Maria Chiquimula, Totonicapan; (4) San Miguel Ixtahucan, San Marcos; and (5) San Rafael Petzan, Huehuetenango. See Juramentan a jueces comunitarios, El Periodico, Jan. 22, 1998, at 7; Juramentan a Jueces Comunitarios, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 22, 1998, at 8. There is discussion of raising the number of tribunals to 35. See Ampliaran numero de Juzgados Comunitarios, Prensa Libre, Jan. 25, 1998, at 3; Dudas sobre funcionamiento de juzgados comunales, Prensa Libre, Jan. 23, 1998, at 3.

n281. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 49, Decreto No. 79-97 (modifying Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 552, Decree No. 51-92. The Court requested a delay until April 1998 in the implementation of the new courts, which were to start up on January 23, 1998. See Falta de Tribunales Comunitarios provocara impunidad y anarquia, El Periodico, Jan. 14, 1998, at 6; Inician capacitacion para poner a funcionar Tribunales Comunitarios, El Periodico, Jan. 16, 1998, at 6; Juzgados comunitarios listos para iniciar funciones, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 15, 1998, at 6.

n282. About two-thirds of all offenses carry punishments of up to five years. Consequently, this is a major reform. For a complete listing of offenses subject to community courts or conciliatory processes, see Montes Calderon, Interpretacion, supra note 198, at 23-29.

n283. See ILO 169, supra note 271, at art. 8(2); Interview by Raquel Irragoyen and Steven E. Hendrix with Victor Ferrigno F., Legal Advisor, MINUGUA (Dec. 5, 1997) [hereinafter Ferrigno meeting].

n284. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 50, Decreto 79-97.

n285. See Ferrigno meeting, supra note 283.

n286. See Montes Calderon, Interpretacion, supra note 198, at 17; Interview by Steven E. Hendrix with Ana Montes, Guatemala. (Dec. 4, 1997)[hereinafter Montes Interview].

n287. An executable judgment in Spanish is referred to as a titulo ejecutivo, as noted in Art. 8, Decreto No. 79-97; See also Montes Calderon, Interpretacion, supra note 198, at 17; Montes Interview, supra note 286.

n288. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 50, Decreto 79-97.

n289. See Ferrigno meeting, supranote 283.

n290. See Edwin Palacios, Rechazo a los Tribunales Comunitarios, El Periodico, Jan 13, 1998, at 6.

n291. See ILO 169, supra note 271, at art. 6(a).

n292. See Ferrigno meeting, supra note 283.

n293. See Palacios, supra note 290, at 6.

n294. See id.

n295. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 50, Decreto 79-97 (limiting the subject matter jurisdiction of the community courts to criminal matters).

n296. See Ferrigno meeting, supra note 283.

n297. Supreme Court Magistrate Carlos Conjulun is the head of the Commission. He also heads up the Court's criminal law section (Sala Penal).

n298. See Ferrigno meeting, supra note 283.

n299. See generally, National Center for State Courts, Plan Anual Operativo: Componente Fortalecimiento de los Canales No Formales de la Administracion de Justicia,(Nov. 1997) (unpublished report, draft, on file with author).

n300. See Ferrigno meeting, supra note 283.

n301. See Montes Calderon, Interpretacion, supra note 198, at 17; Montes Interview, supra note 286.

n302. See Montes Calderon, Interpretacion, supra note 198, at 17; Montes Interview, supra note 286.

n303. See Art. 8, Decreto 79-97.

n304. See Martin Juarez and Abner Guoz, En que consisten las reformas penales, El Periodico, Sept. 12, 1997, at 5.

n305. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 4, Decreto No. 79-97 (Sept. 10, 1997) printed in Diario de Centro America 1 (Oct. 15, 1997)(modifying Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 24, Decree No. 51-92).

n306. See Montes Calderon, Interpretacion, supra note 198, at 2.

n307. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 4, Decreto No. 79-97 (Sept. 10, 1997) printed in Diario de Centro America 1 (Oct. 15, 1997)(modifying Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 24, Decree No. 51-92). This provision, actually a carry-over from prior law, has created controversy, with women's groups suggesting that it is anti-women. Prior law stated that a prosecutor could only bring a rape charge when there was no complaint if the victim was under age 16. The new law actually increases the age cut-off to 18, providing women with increased protection. Still, advocacy groups are angry. Already there is a proposal to revise this section of the Code. See Julieta Sandoval, Diputada propone dar mas proteccion legal a la mujer, Prensa Libre, Nov. 7, 1997, at 16.

n308. See Julia Corado, Descubren anomalias en 500 resoluciones judiciales, Siglo Veintiuno, Oct. 8, 1997, at 6 (citing MINUGUA, Analisis de sentencias judiciales con miras a determinar necesidades formativas en Guatemala, (1997)(unpublished report, on file with author)). Article 389 of the Criminal Procedure Code outlines what a judgment should contain.

n309. See Fairchild, supra note 163, at 127.

n310. See Tigar, supra note 162, at 5.

n311. See ILANUD, supra note 133, at 92; MINUGUA/PNUD & Instituto de Estudios Comparados en Ciencias Penales de Guatemala, Diagnostico del Servicio Publico de Defensa Penal 6 (1996).

n312. See ILANUD, supra note 133, at 96.

n313. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 93, Decreto No. 51-92; Cesar R. Barrientos Pallecer, Derecho Procesal Penal Guatemalteco 46 (2d ed. 1997); Compare Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 154, Decreto No. 52-73 (repealed)(which previously allowed students to represent criminal defendants).

n314. See Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 44.

n315. See id.

n316. See MINUGUA/PNUD & Instituto de Estudios Comparados en Ciencias Penales de Guatemala, Diagnostico del Servicio Publico de Defensa Penal,8 (1996); Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 44-45; See Updated account in Aprobada ley de la Defensa Publica, El Periodico, Dec. 6, 1997, at 4.

n317. See Carlos Caneo, Olvidados en prision, Siglo Veintiuno, June 23, 1997, at 3; Graeme Thompson, Public Defenders: Overworked and Underpaid, Siglo News, Jan. 7, 1998, at 16; Walter Martin Juarez, Solo 68 defensores para el pais, El Periodico, June 1, 1998, at 6.

n318. See Novales: Pueden demandar al Estado, Siglo Veintiuno, June 23, 1997, at 3.

n319. See Julia Corado, El 50% de los detenidos de escasos recursos no se contacta con defensores publicos, Siglo Veintiuno, Sept. 16, 1997, at 8.

n320. See Aprobada ley de la Defensa Publica, El Periodico, Dec. 6, 1997, at 4.

n321. See id.; see also Art. 64, Decree No. 129-97, "Ley del Servicio Publico de Defensa," (Diario de Centro America, No. 16, Jan. 13, 1998) 393.

n322. See Piden Defensoria Indigena, Siglo Veintiuno, Dec. 7, 1997, at 5.

n323. See Crearan defensoria de la mujer indigena, Siglo Veintiuno, Dec. 10, 1997, at 6; Defensoria para las mujeres mayas, El Periodico, Dec. 10, 1997, at 6.

n324. See Art. 64, Decree No. 129-97, "Ley del Servicio Publico de Defensa," (Diario de Centro America, No. 16, Jan. 13, 1998) 393, 397 (noting that the legislation will come into effect six months after its publication).

n325. See Fairchild, supra note 163, at 128.

n326. See generally Tigar, supra note 162, at 7 (discussing how the Chilean Supreme Court refused extradition to the U.S. of three individuals known to have been accomplices in the murder of Orlando Letelier and Ronni Karpen Mofitt on September 21, 1976 in Washington, DC. The court decision was a parody of judicial reasoning and constituted on the whole an exercise designed to reach a result fore-ordained by the Pinochet regime).

n327. See Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 19 (the inquisitive system is "propio de regimenes dictatoriales o autoritarios, parte de la presuncion de culpabilidad y por lo tanto utiliza la prision provisional como una condena anticipada, por lo que opera fuera del sistema de garantias constitucionales").

n328. See id. at 26-27.

n329. See Neira Alarcon, supra note 164, at 15.

n330. See id.

n331. See Acuerdo Fortalecimiento, supra note 269, P III-8, at 106.

n332. See id. One area of the law in particular that is under attack because of perceptions of impunity is parole. The public views any early release as another example of impunity at work in Guatemalan society. See, e.g., Maynor Amezquita and Carlos Castaaza, Redencion de penas: Mas de 30 convictos tramitan libertad, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 6, 1998, at 3. As a reaction to this perceived impunity, there has been discussion about change to the parole system. See, e.g., Lucy Barrios, Redencion de penas: Piden plantear reformas, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 7, 1998, at 4; Fiscal justifica liberacion de reo, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 7, 1998, at 4; Julia Corado and Rodolfo Zelada, Redencion de penas: FRG presentara reformas a la ley, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 8, 1998, at 6; Presidente del OJ: Urge revisar sistema de redencion de penas, Siglo Veintiuno, June 20, 1998, at 10.

n333. One example of the new transparency is that victims can now participate in and observe the trial process. See, e.g., En juicio oral, victima reconoce a sus plagiarios, El Periodico, Nov. 26, 1997, at 6.

n334. See MP espera notificacion para enjuiciar a Rodil, Siglo Veintiuno, Nov. 5, 1997, at 6.

n335. See Marco Tulio Trejo, Ramses Cuestas y dos de sus hijos seran llamados a declarar, Siglo Veintiuno, June 18, 1997, at 6.

n336. See Solicitan prision preventiva, Siglo Veintiuno, Dec. 4, 1997, at 4.

n337. See Arrestan a focial de alta por sopechas de narcotrafico, Siglo Veintiuno, June 22, 1997, at 3; Los narcomilitares, Siglo Veintiuno, June 22, 1997, at 3; Militares y policias integran bandas de plagiarios, dice GV, Siglo Veintiuno, July 31, 1997, at 43; Jefe policiaco y ejectutivo de una empresa detenidos por sindicacion de narcotrafico, Siglo Veintiuno, Aug. 6, 1997, at 59; Jefe de PN encubria a red de narcotraficantes, Prensa Libre, Aug. 6, 1997, at 2; Ochoa Ruiz ira a juicio oral, Siglo Veintiuno, Nov. 21, 1997, at 6.

n338. See MP interpondra hoy solicitud de extracicion de Serrano Elias, Prensa Libre, June 23, 1997, at 3; Edin Hernandez, Extradicion de Serrano cobra fuerza, Siglo Veintiuno, Nov. 25, 1997, at 8; Julia Corado, Deniegan solicitud de captura, Siglo Veintiuno, Dec. 10, 1997, at 8; Editorial Panama mancha de nuevo el espiritu del asilo politico, Prensa Libre, Feb. 23, 1998, at 10; Panama niega por tercera vez la extradicion de Serrano Elias, Prensa Libre, Feb. 20, 1998, at 79.

n339. See General Rios Montt niega haber ordenado masacre en Dos Erres, Prensa Libre, June 25, 1997, at 6.

n340. See Former Guatemalan officials sentenced, UPI, July 31, 1997, available in LEXIS, News Library; Guatemala court sentences top officials for student's death, Deutsche Presse- Agentur, July 31, 1997, available in LEXIS, News Library; Rodolfo Zelada, Condenan a prision a ex funcionarios del Interior, Siglo Veintiuno, July 31, 1997, at 2. Interior Minister Rodolfo Mendoza characterized the judgement as a "barbarity." See Despues de la sentencia, la controversia, Siglo Veintiuno, Aug. 1, 1997, at 8. Congressional President Arabella Castro Quionez was also publicly against the sentence. See Castro: Es una resolucion que debilita la autoridad, Siglo Veintiuno, Aug. 1, 1997, at 8. Nevertheless, Attorney General Hector Hugo Perez Aguilera supported the decision. See Otras reacciones, Siglo Veintiuno, Aug. 1, 1997, at 8.

n341. See Ex funcionarios absueltos enjuiciaran a sus acusadores, Siglo Veintiuno, Oct. 29, 1997, at 3.

n342. See Oneida Najarro, Espina condenado a 4 aos de carcel conmutables, Prensa Libre, July 23, 1997, at 67; Julia Corado, Proximo martes vence el plazo para que Gustavo Espina apele sentencia, Siglo Veintiuno, Aug. 2, 1997, at 8.

n343. See Julia Corado, Espina pagara Q7 mil 300 por haber violado la Constitucion, Siglo Veintiuno, July 23, 1997, at 6. The case is on appeal. Espina apela sancion, Siglo Veintiuno, Feb. 12, 1998, at 6.

n344. See Marco Tulio Trejo and Alba Trejo, Perez: El 90% de los secuestradores detenidos pertenecio al Ejercito, Siglo Veintiuno, Nov. 4, 1997, at 3; Nationwide Sweep Nabs 21 Alleged Kidnappers, Siglo News, Nov. 5, 1997, at 3; Elder Interiano, Fueron militares 19 de 21 detenidos por caso Beverly, Prensa Libre, Nov. 4, 1997, at 3.

n345. See Edin Hernandez, Asaltantes capturados son ex PMA, Siglo Veintiuno, Nov. 27, 1997, at 2.

n346. See Human Rights: Guatemala ha mejorado, Siglo Veintiuno, Nov. 25, 1997, at 1; Human Rights Watch, World Report: 1998 116 (1997)(noting that political repression sharply declined in 1997, although Guatemala remains awash in violence with common crime). But see GAM reporta mil 196 violaciones de los Derechos Humanos durante 1997, Prensa Libre, Nov. 1, 1997, at 8 (The Grupo de Apoyo Mutuo - GAM - reports 1,196 human rights violations in 1997). Compare GAM: continuan violaciones a los derechos humanos, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 14, 1998, at 43 (However, GAM uses a definition of human rights which includes lynchings, kidnappings, assassinations and extrajudicial killings which are not necessarily linked to the government, but rather reflect regular criminal conduct). In this sense, the GAM report and Human Rights Watch are not necessarily in conflict. See GAM: 1,559 violaciones en 1997, El Periodico, Jan. 14, 1998, at 31 (noting that official human rights violations have declined substantially).

n347. See Edwin Palacios, Macro balance para la justicia en la ciudad, El Periodico, Dec. 21, 1997, at 1 (reporting there were 480 judgements, of which 331 were convictions and 77 were acquittals since the new Code has come into effect). Unfortunately, there have been some very serious set-backs in prosecution, including the dramatic losses of the Moreno case and the Conexion Alema case and the apparent ineptitude of the prosecution in the Girardi case. See Marco Tulio Trejo, El MP pone en duda imparcialidad de sala, Siglo Veintiuno, Feb. 16, 1999 at 2; Donald Gonzales & Julia Corado, Gandera inconforme con absolucion, Siglo Veintiuno, Feb. 18, 1999, at 8; Julia Corado & Marco Tulio Trejo, MP analiza solicitar la clausura provisional del caso Gerardi, Siglo Veintiuno, Feb. 10, 1999 at 4; Elder Interiavo, Orantes: hoy, libre o a juicio, Prensa Libre, Feb. 18, 1999, at 3. These dramatic failures have drawn into question the ability of the Public Ministry to carry out an effective investigation and prosection.

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