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. In other words, the murder rate in Guatemala is six to seven times what it is in the United States. Escuintla has a murder rate of more than twenty times the U.S. rate. The Zepeda report also cites an increase in sexual assaults in Guatemala, from 152 reported cases in 1995, to 231 in 1996. See Aumentan denuncias por acoso sexual, Siglo Veintiuno, Dec. 12, 1997, at 4.

n74. See Samuel Flores, El FBI asesorara a policias del Istmo para combatir el secuestro, Prensa Libre, May 30, 1997, at 3.

n75. See Bauduy, supra note 72, at 4. But see Flores, supra note 74, at 3 (detailing the account of a private group known by the Spanish acronym FADS (Familiares y Amigos contra la Delincuencia y el Secuestro, or Relatives and Friends against Crime and Kidnapping) which reported that over two hundred cases occurred between January 1 to May 30, 1997). FADS declared the year 1997 to be a failure in administration of justice, and placed the lion's share of the blame on the Public Ministry. See Julia Corado, FADS evalua la administracion de justicia, Siglo Veintiuno, Dec. 29, 1997, at 5. Another private voluntary organization, GV (Guardianes del Vecindario or Neighborhood Watch) reported nineteen kidnappings in just six days in March 1997. See Samuel Flores, Guardianes del Vecindario denuncia 19 secuestros en los ultimos seis dias, Prensa Libre, March 10, 1997, at 3. The same group, GV, reported nine kidnappings in eight days in February 1997. See Elder Interiano and Samuel Flores, Recrudece ola de secuestros; reportan nueve casos en 8 dias, Prensa Libre, February 26, 1997, at 2. GV puts the total at 1,400 kidnappings for 1997. See Seguridad y Justicia: El ao del terror, Prensa Libre, Dec. 30, 1997, at 4 (Resumen noticiero Supp.). See also GV: 138 secuestros solo en enero, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 26, 1998, at 5 (where GV reports that the kidnappings in January, 1998 totaled 138). Compare Carlos Canteo, En siete dias han plagiado a un industrial, seis estudiantes, dos profesionales y dos ancianos, Siglo Veintiuno, Feb. 26, 1997, at 3 (which puts the figure at eleven persons kidnapped in just seven days).

GV also claims that the number of extortion cases is eight times that of kidnappings, although government sources claim it does not exceed three times. See Julie Lopez, Policia Nacional Civil: casos de extorsion triplican a los de secuestro, Siglo Veintiuno, Nov. 17, 1997, at 3. Still another account claims there were 965 kidnappings between January 1 and August 31, 1997. See GV reporta 183 plagios en agosto, Prensa Libre, Sept. 5, 1997, at 3. A total of 1,200 are claimed for the period January through November 1997. See Aparente descenso de los plagios, Siglo Veintiuno, Nov. 30, 1997, at 22. While GV rejects official government estimates as ridiculous, GV is also a political advocacy group with an opposition agenda, and is consequently discounted by the Government.

n76. See Julie Lopez and Carlos Canteo, De 230 secuestradores consignados solo hay tres condenados a prision, Siglo Veintiuno, Feb. 21, 1997, at 3.

n77. See Aparente descenso de los plagios, Siglo Veintiuno, Nov. 30, 1997, at 22. But see 1997 con mas secuestros, El Periodico, Dec. 29, 1997, at 20 (where GV argues that kidnappings actually increased from 973 in 1996 to 1,638 in 1997). The year 1998 has also seen kidnappings reappear. See Ramon Hernandez S., Perez Aguilera: hay un repunte de secuestros, Prensa Libre, Jan. 16, 1998, at 3.

n78. See En Guatemala ocurre una violacion cada dia, Siglo Veintiuno, Jan. 24, 1998, at 3 (citing an official record of 165 cases in 1997).

n79. See generally Development Associates, Inc., Third Report: Guatemalan Values and the Prospects for Democratic Development, with emphasis on Civil Society Participation, Local Government and the Justice System (Sept. 1997)(draft report, on file with Southwestern Journal of Law & Trade in the Americas)[hereinafter DIMS].

n80. See id. at III-2.

n81. See id. Another study gave similar results: In Guatemala City, one in three reported that either the respondent personally, or a member of the respondent's household (defined as people actually living in the same house) had been a victim of a crime in the last six months. The figure fell to 19 percent outside Guatemala City. See CID-Gallup de Centroamerica, Guatemala: Public Opinion Poll Report, July 1997, at 19.

n82. See DIMS, supra note 79, at III-3. This coheres with data from El Salvador and Guatemala that show that metropolitan respondents are less likely to believe in the system, i.e. that judges are honest. See J. Michael Dodson, Donald W. Jackson and Laura Nuzzi O'Shaughnessy, Comparing the Survey Results from El Salvador and Guatemala, Nov. 1997, at 2. Contra: it may be that more poor people on public buses, for example, are crime victims than university-educated residents of zones 10, 14 and 15 - the higher income areas of Guatemala City: the poor are often less vocal and less polled.

n83. See DIMS, supra note 79, at III-5.

n84. See id.

n85. See, e.g., Danilo Valladares, Investigan supuestas adopciones ilegales, El Periodico, Feb. 20, 1998, at 8. The level of abuse, according to the Public Ministry, is actually quite low. See Archivan expedientes de adopciones, Siglo Veintiuno, Mar. 13, 1998, at 11.

n86. See Rolando Queme Velasquez, Quetzaltenango: Alarma por robo de menores, Siglo Veintiuno, Dec. 5, 1997, at 79.

n87. See Edin Hernandez, Violencia deja 20 muertos diarios, Siglo Veintiuno, Dec. 8, 1997, at 3.

n88. See Ana Montes Calderon, Diagnostico del Sector Justicia en Guatemala, (IDB Consultant Report, Sept. 1996) at 7 [hereinafter Montes Calderon, Diagnostico].

n89. See DIMS, supra note 79 at III-10. Fortunately, however, the gap is closing, comparing data from 1993 with 1997. See id. at III-11.

n90. See id. at III-19.

n91. See id. These results are very similar to another study of both El Salvador and Guatemala which found that less educated respondents are more likely to believe that judges are honest. See Dodson, supra note 82, at 2. More educated respondents are more likely to believe that their judges are subject to political control. Id. at 3.

n92. See Julia Corado, Descubren anomalias en 500 resoluciones judiciales, Siglo Veintiuno, Oct. 8, 1997, at 6.

n93. Former Court President Ricardo Umaa asserts the country needs 240 more courts. See OJ necesita 240 nuevos juzgados, Siglo Veintiuno, Mar. 22, 1998, at 6.

n94. For a general introduction to Spanish colonization in the Americas, see generally Edwin Williamson, The Penguin History of Latin America 3-166 (1992). For an overview of Guatemala's history, see generally Jim Handy, Gift of the Devil: A History of Guatemala (1984).

n95. See Anthoney Pagden, Introduction to Bartolome de las Casas, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies xv (Penguin Classics Ed., 1992)[hereinafter de las Casas].

n96. See de las Casas, supra note 95, at 59.

n97. Id. at 62.

n98. See National Democratic Institute for Int'l Affairs, The 1990 National Elections in Guatemala 8 (1991)[hereinafter National Democratic Institute]. See also, Miguel Angel Asturias, El Seor Presidente (Editora Nacional, 1979)(1932)(Nobel Prize winner Miguel Angel Asturias describes such a military dictatorship).

n99. See Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinzer, Bitter Fruit: The Untold Story of the American Coup in Guatemala 33 (1990) [hereinafter Bitter Fruit].

n100. See id. at 37.

n101. See id. at 46. Arbenz won with 65 percent of the vote against General Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes, an ally of the former dictator General Jorge Ubico, the nation's last old-style military dictator prior to Guatemala's 1944 revolution. See id. at 46, 112A. Arbenz' main rival had been Col. Francisco Arana, who with Arbenz was a hero in Guatemala's October Revolution. See id. at 43. Arana was assassinated prior to the election in a plot involving the chauffeur of Arbenz' wife. Although it is not sure whether Arbenz himself was involved, the assassination was certainly done in his interest. See id. at 44-45.

n102. See National Democratic Institute, supra note 98, at 10. According to recently de- classified documents, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) drafted a plan to assassinate fifty- eight Guatemalan leaders connected with the Arbenz Government. See CIA planeo matar a 58 funcionaries de Arbenz, Prensa Libre, May 24, 1997, at 2.

n103. See Bitter Fruit, supra note 98, at 83.

n104. See id. at 106. John's brother Thomas was a president of United Fruit in 1948.

n105. See id.

n106. Id. at 192A, 234.

n107. See id. at 234.

n108. See id. at 235-7.

n109. See id. at 244.

n110. Id.

n111. See id. at 245.

n112. See id. at 245-6.

n113. See id. at 247.

n114. Id. at 248-9.

n115. Id. at 250.

n116. See Centro Evangelico, supra note 27, at 1.

n117. See National Democratic Institute, supra note 98, at 12.

n118. Centro Evangelico, supra note 27, at 2.

n119. See Richard Fenske, The Sister Parish Movement: En la Buena Lucha, In the Good Struggle 40 (1996).

n120. See Jose Mynor Par Usen, El Juicio Oral en el Proceso Penal Guatemalteco 34 (1997)[hereinafter Par Usen].

n121. See Gladis Yolanda Albeo Ovando, Derecho Procesal Penal: Implantacion del Juicio Oral al Proceso Penal Guatemalteco 39 (1994)[hereinafter Albeo Ovando]; Par Usen, supra note 120, at 34.

n122. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 39-40.

n123. See id. at 40.

n124. See id. at 40-41.

n125. See id. at 42.

n126. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 43 (citing Decreto No. 52-73 (July 5, 1973)).

n127. See id. at 44.

n128. See Par Usen, supra note 120, at 34.

n129. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 36-37; Par Usen, supra note 120, at 35.

n130. See Centro Evangelico, supra note 27, at 2.

n131. See National Democratic Institute, supra note 98, at 1.

n132. See id. at 16.

n133. See Instituto Latinoamericano de las Naciones Unidas para la Prevencion del Delito y Tratamiento del Delincuente (ILANUD), La Administracion de Justicia Penal en Guatemala, Mar. 1988, at 31 [hereinafter ILANUD].

n134. See Brian Treacy, Retaking Stock: An Update to a 1991 Justice Sector Reform Stocktaking 2 (1996)(draft, on file with the Southwestern Journal of Law & Trade in the Americas)[hereinafter Treacy], lists 1986 as the start date. The actual ILANUD-USAID agreement was signed March 22, 1985. See ILANUD, supra note 133, at 1.

n135. See USAID/Guatemala, Stocktaking of 1986-1991 Administration of Justice Program, Oct. 1991, at 3 [hereinafter USAID/Guatemala, Stocktaking].

n136. See Treacy, supra note 134, at 2.

n137. See USAID/Guatemala, Stocktaking, supra note 135, at 3.

n138. For an overview of the human rights record in Guatemala, See generally Robert E. Lutz, A Piece of the Peace: The Human Rights Accord and the Guatemalan Peace Process, 2 S.W. J. L. & Trade Am. 183 (1995).

n139. See Kenneth Anderson, International Human Rights Law Group, Maximizing Deniability: The Justice System and Human Rights in Guatemala iii (1989).

n140. See Treacy, supra note 134, at 3. For an in depth description of the pilot court programs, see Checchi and Company Consulting, Evaluacion del Programa Experimental de Juzgados Pilotos (Feb. 1991).

n141. See Treacy, supra note 134, at 3.

n142. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 45; Par Usen, supra 120, at 36.

n143. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 46.

n144. See id.; Cesar R. Barrientos Pallecer, Derecho Procesal Penal Guatemal-

teco 21 (2nd ed., 1997) [hereinafter Barrientos Pallecer].

n145. See Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 20.

n146. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 46.

n147. The Jorge Serrano presidency represented the first transfer of power from one civilian government to another in more than 35 years. See National Democratic Institute, supra note 98, at vii.

n148. See Centro Evangelico, supra note 27, at 2.

n149. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 46-7.

n150. See USAID/Guatemala, Stocktaking, supra note 135, at 4.

n151. See Treacy, supra note 134, at 3.

n152. See USAID/Guatemala, Stocktaking, supra note 135, at 20; Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 23.

n153. See Unclassified cable from the U.S. Embassy in Guatemala to James Michel, the Assistant Administrator for Latin America at the Agency for International Development's office in Washington (May 7, 1992) (on file with the Southwestern Journal of Law & Trade in the Americas).

n154. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 47; Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 22.

n155. See Centro Evangelico, supra note 27, at 2; Human Rights Watch/Americas, Human Rights in Guatemala During President de Leon Carpio's First Year 3 (1994).

n156. Later in 1993, USAID provided some technical assistance to the new court. See, e.g., DPK Consulting, Technical Assistance to the Organismo Judicial Unidad de Planificacion y Transformacion de la Justicia Penal, (Oct. 12, 1993)(draft, on file with the Southwestern Journal of Law & Trade in the Americas). This renewed assistance was provided via the National Center for State Courts. Later, in 1994, a new project, referred to as "CREA - Centro de Apoyo a la Reforma del Estado de Derecho" came on line. In English, the project was called the Judicial Sector Reform Support Project (JSRSP). See, e.g., U.S. Agency for International Development, Project Paper (July 14, 1993).

n157. See Montes Calderon, Diagnostico, supra note 88, at 3.

n158. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 47.

n159. See Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 26.

n160. See Centro Evangelico, supra note 27, at 2.

n161. Id. at 3.

n162. Par Usen, supra note 120, at 41; Michael E. Tigar, The Educative Function of Criminal Law: Cuban Reforms in Comparative Perspective 1 (1979) (preliminary draft, on file with Southwestern Journal of Law & Trade in the Americas) [hereinafter Tigar].

n163. Erika Fairchild, Comparative Criminal Justice Systems 125 (1993) [hereinafter Fairchild].

n164. See Eugenio Neira Alarcon, Manual de Procedimiento Penal Chileno 15 (1992)[hereinafter Neira Alarcon].

n165. Neira Alarcon, supra note 164, at 14; Tigar, supra note 162, at 4; Tulio Chiossone, Manual de Derecho Procesal Penal 22 (1989) (regarding Venezuelan legislation) [hereinafter Chiossone).

n166. See Tigar, supra note 162, at 4.

n167. Articles 120-123, Codigo Procesal Penal, Decreto 52-73 (repealed).

n168. Articles 124-141, Codigo Procesal Penal, Decreto 52-73 (repealed).

n169. See Tigar, supra note 162, at 14-15.

n170. See Fairchild, supra note 163, at 126; Compare with Argentina: Jorge R. Moras Mom, Manual de Derecho Procesal Penal 143, 152 (1993).

n171. See Fairchild, supra note 163, at 126.

n172. Id. at 127.

n173. See id.

n174. See Tigar, supra note 162, at 5.

n175. For the case of France, see Tigar, supra note 162, at 6.

n176. See Fairchild, supra note 163, at 126-127.

n177. See id. at 127.

n178. Decreto No. 551 was signed by then President Jose Maria Reyna Barrios (Jan. 7, 1898), based on the Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal (Sept. 14, 1882) from Spain. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 35.

n179. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 35-36.

n180. See Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA), Habits of Repression: Military Accountability for Human Rights Abuse Under the Serrano Government in Guatemala: 1991-1992 23 (1992) [hereinafter WOLA]. For Chile, compare Neira Alarcon, supra note 164, at 17; For Venezuela, compare Chiossone, supra note 165, at 217.

n181. Guat. Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 310 & 527, Decreto 52-73 (repealed); WOLA, supra note 180, at 23. For Chile, compare Neira Alarcon, supra note 164, at 17; For Venezuela: Chiossone, supra note 165, at 217.

n182. See WOLA, supra note 180, at 23.

n183. Id. at 24.

n184. Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 20.

n185. See id.

n186. See Alberto Bovina, Temas de Derecho Procesal Penal Guatemalteco 60 (1996).

n187. See Fairchild, supra note 163, at 128.

n188. See Bovina, supra note 186, at 60.

n189. Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Peru, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Argentina have all made moves to reform their Criminal Procedure frameworks. However, none go as far as Guatemala in creating a true adversarial system. For example, "oral trials" in Panama, Colombia, Costa Rica and Peru did not mean doing away with the written collection of evidence in the sumario. In those countries, the files are read aloud now. On very rare occasions there might be a witness. However, the process remains much as ever under the old jueces de instruccion. Similarly in Argentina, there is a so-called "mixed-modern" system combining the old sumario with some oral elements, not an adversarial system. See generally, Roberto A. Bsser & Norberto Juan Iturralde, El Juicio con Debate Oral: Codigo Procesal Penal de la Nacion (1993).

In Colombia, the figure of juez de instruccion was abolished, but the legal characteristics were simply transferred to the prosecutor. In Peru, much of the reform law has yet to come into effect. Honduras has pending legislation to reform its Criminal Procedure Code. See Interview with Timothy Cornish, USAID/CREA, Guatemala City, Guatemala (May 11, 1998); See generally, Timothy Cornish, Development Associates, Accusatorial Model of Criminal Procedure in Peru (1993); Marta Lucia Zamora, Nuevo Codigo de Procedimiento Penal Colombiano (1992).

El Salvador's new reforms came into effect in April 1998. The new package is much in line with the Guatemala model. New oral procedure, changes in pre-trial detention, and new sentencing and parole rules are the highlights. See generally Cod. Proc. Pen., Decreto No. 904, D.O. No. 11, Tomo No. 334 (Jan. 20, 1998); U.S. Embassy Cable, El Salvador begins implementation of new criminal codes - getting the bugs out, (May 12, 1998).

Venezuela passed legislation in 1998 to introduce oral trials and abolish the sumario. This legislation is set to come into effect in mid-1999. See Steven Gutkin, Associated Press, L. Americans Revamp Court Systems, (June 3, 1998); Presentation by John Pate, Attorney at Law, De Sola & Pate (Caracas, Venezuela), at the Inter-American Law Committee Meeting, International Practice Section Meetings of the American Bar Association in New York (April 30, 1998).

Of the other countries that have enacted reforms, perhaps Colombia stands out as the closest in creating an adversarial system, more for its restructuring of the prosecutor's role. See Interview with Timothy Cornish, Development Associates, USAID/CREA, in Guatemala City, Guatemala (May 11, 1998).

n190. See WOLA, supra note 180, at 25.

n191. See Human Rights Watch/Americas, Human Rights in Guatemala During President de Leon Carpio's First Year 3 (1994) [hereinafter Human Rights Watch/Americas]. The Code was finally published in the Diario de Centroamerica on December 14, 1992. Article 555 of the Code stated that the Code would take effect one year from publication. However, the Court asked for an additional six month delay to prepare for the new Code. See Gladis Yolanda Albeo Ovando, Derecho Procesal Penal: Implantacion del Juicio Oral al Proceso Penal Guatemalteco 48 (1994).

n192. See Human Rights Watch/Americas, supra note 191, at 3.

n193. See Guat. Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 8, Decreto No. 51-92; Ovando, supra note 191, at 97; Jose Mynor Par Usen, El Juicio Oral en el Proceso Penal Guatemalteco 208 (1997)(referring to the preliminary investigative stage as the fase preparatoria).

n194. See WOLA, supra note 180, at 25-26; A justice of the peace (juez de paz) cannot order a pretrial detention. Any such order must come from a judge. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 44, Decreto No. 51-92. Further, in any case where the accused is deprived of liberty, he must be informed of his rights. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 71, Decreto No. 51-92.

n195. See Bovina, supra note 186, at 53.

n196. See id. at 58.

n197. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 105; Jose Mynor Par Usen, El Juicio Oral en el Proceso Penal Guatemalteco 221 (1997).

n198. See Ana Montes Calderon, Interpretacion y alcance de la Reforma Procesal Penal 14-15 (Oct. 1997)(unpublished manuscript, on file with author)[hereinafter Montes Calderon, Interpretacion](discussing how the probable cause investigation is carried out).

n199. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 105.

n200. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 91, Decreto No. 51-92.

n201. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 109.

n202. Id. at 123.

n203. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 11, Decreto No. 51-92.

n204. See WOLA, supra note 180, at 25; Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 38; Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 259 (setting forth the probable cause standard).

n205. See Barrientos Pallecer, supre note 144, at 37.

N206. See WOLA, supra note 180, at 25.

n207. This list was presented in: WOLA, supra note 180, 26-28.

n208. See id.

n209. About 82 percent of persons held in prison in the country do not have final sentences against them. The prison population is about 8,000 inmates. 1,030 have final sentences. In many cases, the entire trial process takes about two years. See Oneida Najarro, 82% de reos esta sin ser condenado, Prensa Libre, Nov. 16, 1997, at 3.

n210. See Bovina, supra note 186, at 39. Under Article 10 of the Constitution, persons in detention should not be held with convicts. In practice, however, this is not always honored. See Najarro, supra note 209, at 3.

n211. See Bovina, supra note 186, at 39-43.

n212. See id. at 45.

n213. See Bovina, supra note 186, at 50 (citing art. 268 (3) of the Code). While there is the limit on pretrial detentions, note that there is no fixed term for a criminal investigation. See Albeo Ovando, supra note 121, at 103. Article 7 (5) of the Convencion Americana sobre Derechos Humanos requires that "Toda persona detenida... tendra derecho a ser juzgada dentro de un plazo razonable o ser puesta en libertad." The same provision is found in Article 9(3) of the Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Politicos. See Bovina, supra note 186, at 49.

n214. See Bovina, supra note 186, at 39-43.

n215. See id. at 64.

n216. See Cod. Proc. Pen., art. 464-465. For a general discussion of proceso abreviado in Argentina, see Jose I. Cafferata Nores, Juicio Penal Abreviado, 4 Revista de la Facultad 117 (1996)(Universidad Nacional de Cordova, Argentina, Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Sociales).

n217. This list was presented in: WOLA, supra note 180, at 26-28.

n218. See Bovina, supra note 186, at 68.

n219. This list was presented in: WOLA, supra note 180, at 26-28.

n220. This list was presented in: WOLA, supra note 180, at 26-28.; Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 40-41.

n221. Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 39.

n222. See id.

n223. This list was presented in: WOLA, supra note 180, at 26-28.

n224. See Barrientos Pallecer, supra note 144, at 39.

n225. See Article 92 of the Criminal Procedure Code established a right to a defense.

n226. This list was presented in: WOLA, supra note 180, at 26-28.

n227. See id.

n228. See WOLA, supra note 180, at 30.

n229. See id. at 33.

n230. See Fairchild, supra note 163, at 168-69.

n231. For Chile, see Neira Alarcon, supra note 164, at 16; Mexico and Spain also have oral proceedings, despite being "inquisitorial" systems. See Jorge Alberto Silva Silva, Derecho Procesal Penal 365 (1990); For Argentina, see Jorge R. Moras Mom, Manual de Derecho Procesal Penal 315 (1993).

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