Contents gcse history Exemplars for Controlled Assessment Topic Area 2



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Source B14

In this place, alone, you spend twenty-three hours and ten minutes out of the twenty-four in the first month of your sentence, hungry most of the time. You get little exercise, and probably suffer from indigestion, headache or sleeplessness. The entire weekend is solitary until you attend chapel. After the first month you have thirty minutes exercise on Sunday. You would go mad but for the work. You sit and stitch canvas for mailbags. Your fingers begin by being sore and inflamed, but they become used to it. At first your daily task can hardly be finished in a day. You struggle hard to get the reward of a large mug of sugarless cocoa and a piece of bread at eight o'clock. It will save you from hunger all night, for your previous food - I cannot call it a meal - had been at 4.15. However, this extra ration was cut off as a war economy in 1918. Except on monthly visits (15 minutes), or if he has to speak to the Chaplain or doctor, or if he has to accost a warder, the prisoner is not allowed to speak for two years the sentence usually given to a conscientious objector.

[A conscientious objector who was sent to Princetown prison on Dartmoor, interviewed for a book in 1922]

Source B15

In many ways, the conscientious objectors of First World War can be considered courageous. Many of them were individuals who were confident that they must not employ violence or war, regardless of how it may put them in jeopardy; it was a principle that they held strongly. When they persevered against violence and killing with the possibility of friends and family turning against them, they were bold. When the leaders of their society were convinced that war, not peace, was the correct and gallant means forward, they stood their ground. Their efforts were seen as betrayals; many believed that the pacifists had failed to make a difference and a contribution for their country. The mass of public opinion ridiculed them, rejecting them from society.

[An historian’s view of conscientious objectors posted on a website concerned with the First World War (2010)]
Source B16
In 1921 the Ministry of Health ordered all records and papers relating to the treatment of conscientious objectors should be destroyed together with the records of every Tribunal held across the country. Middlesex and Lothian and Peebles were kept as examples, together with some central Tribunal documentation.

[A government memo found in the National Archives in 2010 following a review of information about conscientious objectors]



Topic area 2
The effects of war on Wales and England in the nineteenth

and twentieth centuries
Task 4: World War II: evacuation/Dunkirk



Controlled Assessment Task part (a)
The lives of people on the Home Front were greatly changed by evacuation during World War II.
Select any five sources from your pack.
How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining

how people’s lives were changed by evacuation during World War II?


Controlled Assessment Task part (b)
Some people have the view that the events at Dunkirk in 1940 deserve to be remembered as a triumph for Britain and its people.
How far do your selected sources support or contradict

this interpretation?



CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK Part (a)
The lives of people on the Home Front were greatly changed by evacuation during World War II
Select any FIVE sources from your pack.
How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining how people’s lives on the Home Front were greatly changed by evacuation?
Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task
How can part (a) be tackled?
Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (a) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.


  • A brief introduction

This needs to have a clear focus on the set question.

It needs to briefly set the issue in its historical context. A short paragraph is sufficient here.




  • An evaluation of the selected evidence connected with the issue in the question set.

Here candidates can examine developments and issues, while making analysis and evaluation of the evidence selected. Candidates should evaluate up to five sources only, aiming to link the evidence to its use in the enquiry. Avoid a robotic trawl through the sources. Try to integrate the sources into a narrative of the impact of evacuation.
When looking at the evidence you should consider points such as:
What information does the source provide about …?

Does the source back up your knowledge about …?

Who was the author/maker?

When was the source written?

Why was it written

Is there any doubt over the author/is she trustworthy?


It is recommended that the answer to part (a) should be about 800 words in total
SOURCE A1

The government have made plans for the removal from what are called ‘evacuable’ areas to safer places called ‘reception’ areas, of school children, children below school age if accompanied by their mothers or other responsible persons, and expectant mothers and blind persons.

The scheme is entirely a voluntary one, but clearly the children will be much safer and happier away from the big cities where dangers will be greatest.

There is room in the safer areas for these children; householders have volunteered to provide it. They have offered homes where children will be made welcome. The children have their school teachers and their helpers with them and their schooling will continue.

[From a Public Information leaflet issued by the government to all households in towns and cities (July 1939)]

SOURCE A2

In the very early months of the war young children were evacuated to rural areas from the large industrial cities. Many middle-class people who had lived in villages most of their lives were totally shocked at the dirty, deprived and badly clothed children who arrived from places like London. Very quickly a feeling developed within the country that Britain had to be made a better place to live when the war was over.



[From a school text-book called Peace and War, published by the Schools History Project, and written by a group of history teachers (1993)]



SOURCE A3

It was in September 1940 when I was nine years old that my life changed dramatically. We had been having a bad time in Birmingham my home town. It was a favourite place for the German bombers to unload their cargo of bombs. On that day hundreds of children from the Birmingham area assembled at Tyseley Station carrying luggage with a label attached to their clothing giving their name and address. It was very long and slow. I remember the train going up the Rhondda Valley stopping at each station to allow evacuees to alight.

The end of my train journey was Treorchy, the last station but one, continuing by bus to Park Hall, Cwmparc. There were not many of us left by this time, I would guess about 20-28. My travelling companions on the journey had been my friend Margaret Gardner and her brother Michael, we all hoped to be billeted together. Unfortunately no one seemed to have room for three evacuees and I think we were almost the last to find a home. In the end I went to the Bound family at 11 Vicarage Terrace and Margaret and Mike stayed with the Evans family at number 13, so we weren't too far apart. I can still see me now that first evening sitting in the armchair by the fire, a very quiet and shy nine year old with Floss the spaniel sitting at my feet. Aunty Poll, Uncle Sam and Cliff made me very welcome and I seem to remember having my favourite tinned fruit (a luxury at that time) for tea. The biggest problem was language. I could not understand a word that was said to me and they could not understand me.

[From the memories of a wartime evacuee interviewed for a HTV television programme on evacuation (September 2000)]



SOURCE A4


I was separated from my close school friends and was billeted in a house with a girl who I didn't get on with. We were foisted on a middle aged childless couple. The wife had been a domestic servant and regarded the evacuees as domestic help. I can still remember doing lots of cooking and washing up! We were also very cold and as they believed in very low powered bulbs we lived in a sort of twilight. I fell downstairs one day and after a day in hospital we were allowed a dim light on the stairs.




[Mrs Beryl Preedy, who had been a wartime evacuee, writing in her book which was based on her diary kept during the war years (1992)]



SOURCE A5

[A photograph showing mothers and children being evacuated from London in September 1939]
SOURCE A6

Everything was so clean in the room. We were even given flannels and toothbrushes. We'd never cleaned our teeth up till then. And hot water came from the tap. And there was a lavatory upstairs. And carpets. And something called an eiderdown. And clean sheets. This was all very odd. And rather scaring.



[Bernard Kops, who was evacuated from Stepney in London to a village in Buckinghamshire. He wrote about his experiences in his autobiography in 1963]



SOURCE A7

Except for a small number the children were filthy, and in this district we have never seen so many children lacking any knowledge of clean and hygienic habits. Furthermore, it appeared they were unbathed for months. One child was suffering from scabies and the majority had it in their hair and the others had dirty sores all over their bodies.


Many of the mothers and children were bed-wetters and were not in the habit of doing anything else. The appalling apathy of the mothers were terrible to see.
Their clothing was in a deplorable condition, some of the children being literally sewn into their ragged little garments. There was hardly a child with a whole pair of shoes and most of the children were walking on the ground - no soles, and just uppers hanging together.
The state of the children was such that the school had to be fumigated after the reception.


[Extracts from a report compiled by the National Federation of Women’s Institutes. The report, called Town Children Through Country Eyes, was published in 1940]



SOURCE A8







And what do you think about evacuation? 'Well, it's been carried out alright. I've got two girls in our house and I've had a very nice time showing them around. I was a little bit disappointed when they brought two girls to the house because I'd expected two boys, but they're turning out alright anyway.'

[The opinion of a boy in a host family interviewed by a BBC radio journalist in September 1939. The boy interviewed is leading the donkey with one of the evacuees riding on it.]



SOURCE A9

29 May - School will be closed tomorrow for VE celebrations. There will be a tea and sports which will also serve as a "Send-off" to the London and Surrey evacuees who very shortly, will be leaving for home.
29 June - The London and Epsom pupils are leaving by train this afternoon at 1.30. Some of these pupils have been here for 5 years, living in the homes of our pupils. To enable our pupils to see their little friends off, school will close this morning at 12 o'clock and we shall re-assemble at 1.15 pm.
We returned to school from the station at 1.45 pm.

[Extracts from the log-book of Talgarth Primary School, Breconshire in 1945. A log-book was an official record of a school, kept by the Headteacher.]



SOURCE A10

For those who took part in evacuation, it was a life-changing event. There was no typical evacuee experience, only a shared sense of isolation and loneliness at a dangerous time of war. Some evacuees were lucky to have positive and pleasant experiences, while others less fortunate suffered physically and emotionally. What is without doubt is that evacuation had deep and long-lasting effects on life in Britain. Education, health, welfare and religion were all affected hugely.



[Dr. Penny Starns, an historian and university lecturer, writing in a book called The Evacuation of Children during World War II (2004)]






CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK 4 part (b)
Some people have the view that the events at Dunkirk in 1940

deserve to be remembered as a triumph for Britain

and its people.
How far do your selected sources support or contradict

this interpretation?



Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task
Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (b) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.



  • An introduction

This needs to have a clear focus on the set question and also needs to show an awareness of what an interpretation actually is.

It needs a clear reference to the different interpretations of the issue/topic.

There is a need to briefly set the issue in its historical context.

There is NO NEED to evaluate any sources or evidence in this part of the assignment.



There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.

There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.

There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed


  • A discussion / explanation of the second interpretation

There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.

There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.

There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed


  • Summary

There should be a final answer to the set question.

There should be a judgement reached as so which set of evidence is considered to have most validity in addressing the interpretation.


It is recommended that the answer to part (b) should be about 1200 words in total.
It is recommended that candidates use no more than 4 sources in each section to explain how and why each interpretation has been arrived at.

SOURCES WHICH SUPPORT THE INTERPRETATION

SOURCE B1
A ‘miracle’ is the best description of what happened at Dunkirk in May and June 1940. Hundreds of thousands of troops were rescued from the German advance in the nick of time. The troops were desperately needed back on the British shores to help defend against a Nazi invasion. They were rescued from the harbour by a curious assembly of many different types of craft. Many of the little ships, such as motor yachts, fishing boats and all manner of other craft, were privately owned. They mainly ferried the troops from the beaches to the destroyers lying offshore – but thousands of troops came all the way back to England in some of these boats. The escape captured the minds and hearts of the British people at a time when it looked probable that we too would soon be invaded. It seemed like a victory in just getting the troops back to fight another day.
[David Knowles, a military historian, writing in his study of Dunkirk and its effects, Escape from Catastrophe (2002)]
SOURCE B2




[A cartoon by British artist David Low. This was published in the London newspaper, The Evening Standard, on 8th June 1940]


SOURCE B3
The importance of Dunkirk

  • 340,000 men, 71 heavy guns and 595 vehicles were rescued.

  • RAF fighter planes over Dunkirk shot down three German planes for every British plane lost

  • Dunkirk inspired British civilians to make sacrifices and do their bit for the war effort

  • The efficiency of the operation showed how powerful and effective the Royal Navy was.

  • Britain’s navy and air force remained intact.

  • Winston Churchill came through as a powerful leader who could unite the country behind him.

[Ben Walsh, a history teacher and author, writing in a GCSE text book called Essential Modern World History (2003)]


SOURCE B4

[An oil painting by Charles Cundall titled 'The evacuation from Dunkirk.’ Cundall was sent to France by the British government to produce an official painting of events on the beaches of Dunkirk. The painting was completed soon after the evacuation.]
SOURCE B5
Through an inferno of bombs and shells the B.E.F. is crossing

the Channel from Dunkirk – in history’s strangest armada
TENS OF THOUSANDS

SAFELY HOME ALREADY
Many more coming by day and night
SHIPS OF ALL SIZES DARE THE GERMAN GUNS
UNDER THE WINGS OF THE BRITISH FLEET, UNDER THE WINGS OF THE ROYAL AIR FORCE, A LARGE PROPORTION OF THE B.E.F., WHO FOR THREE DAYS HAD BEEN FIGHTING THEIR WAY BACK TO THE FLANDERS COAST, HAVE NOW BEEN BROUGHT SAFELY TO ENGLAND FROM DUNKIRK.

First to return were the wounded. An armada of ships – all sizes, all shapes – were used for crossing the Channel. The weather which helped Hitler’s tanks to advance has since helped the British evacuation.

Cost to the navy of carrying out, in an inferno of bombs and shells, one of the most magnificent operations in history, has been three destroyers, some auxiliary craft and a small steamer.

Cost to the enemy of the Fleet’s intervention outside Dunkirk can be counted in the shattering of German advanced forces by naval guns and the survival of tens of thousands of British soldiers whom the Germans had hoped to capture or destroy.


Tired, dirty, hungry, they came back –

unbeatable

[The front page of the British newspaper, The Daily Express, 31st May 1940]



SOURCE B6

Immediately after Dunkirk, I visited a number of camps in different parts of the country in which the returned troops of the B.E.F. had been hurriedly quartered. I had half expected some questioning or complaint, for there was enough to criticize. Our infantry had had no armour to support them; even its equipment had revealed some woeful shortages. But the mood of the officers and men showed none of this.


On the contrary, their temper was that of victors, with no sign that they had had to retreat during days of continuous fighting before an overwhelmingly stronger enemy. I felt that having measured their opponent in these conditions, they were convinced that, given the weapons, they could match and outfight him. Even those brigades which had suffered the heaviest casualties, notably the 5th Brigade of the 2nd Division, were as confident and resolute as their more fortunate comrades. For me the hours I could spend among these men were a tonic, for there was in them the temper of those who knew they could not be beaten, whereas in Whitehall I had only too much reason to reckon how heavy must soon be the odds.

[Anthony Eden, a senior army officer and later British Prime Minister, writing in his book of memoirs about World War II, The Reckoning (1965)]



SOURCE B7

Dunkirk was a miracle of deliverance, achieved by valour, by perseverance, by perfect discipline, by faultless service, by resource, by skill. The enemy was hurled back by the retreating British and French troops. He was so roughly handled that he did not hurry their departure seriously. We must be very careful not to assign to this deliverance the attributes of a victory. Wars are not won by evacuations, but there was a victory inside this deliverance for which we must rejoice.

[Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister, speaking to Parliament on June 4th 1940. His speech came on the day the last allied soldier arrived home from France at the end of a 10-day operation to bring back hundreds of thousands of British and Allied troops trapped by the German army at Dunkirk.]
SOURCE B8

More cheering evidence of the success of this amazing military exploit is the presence in Britain of large numbers of French soldiers. They are showered with hospitality and find the tea of old England almost as refreshing as their familiar coffee. Enjoying an unexpected seaside holiday, they bask in the sun, awaiting orders to return to France.


The story of that epic withdrawal will live in history as a glorious example of discipline amongst our troops. Every kind of small craft - destroyers, paddle steamers, yachts, motor boats, rowing boats - have sped here to the burning ruins of Dunkirk to bring off the gallant British and French troops betrayed by the desertion of the Belgian king.
Here in these scenes off the beaches of Dunkirk you have one of the dramatic pictures of the war. Men wade to a vessel beached at low tide, its crew waiting to haul them aboard. Occasional German planes fleck the sky, but where was the German Navy? Of German sea power there was little trace.


[Part of a soundtrack from an American newsreel programme shown to American cinema audiences in June 1940. The visual images show Royal Navy warships and small boats rescuing soldiers from the Dunkirk beaches. The images were accompanied by rousing military music.]


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