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GCSE History Additional Exemplars for Controlled Assessment Topic Area 2


Contents
GCSE History

Exemplars for Controlled Assessment
Topic Area 2:

The effects of war in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

This document contains the WJEC set controlled assessment exemplars for topic area 2 that are available for award up to 2014. This should be used alongside the general guide to controlled assessment available on the WJEC website.


Topic Area 2:

The effect of war in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
Exemplar Tasks
1. World War I: the impact on women / the leadership of the generals

2. World War I: recruitment and conscription / the sinking of the Lusitania

3. World War I: conditions in the trenches / conscientious objectors

4. World War II: evacuation / Dunkirk

5. World War II: the Home Front / the ‘Blitz Spirit’
Introduction
Controlled Assessment is a compulsory unit for GCSE History.
Please note the following advice:
 These exemplars are written in a consistent style to ensure comparability of demand.

 These exemplars can be used for entry in any year of the current specification.

 Centres must change their controlled assessment tasks each year

 Centres must submit a proposal form for each two year cycle demonstrating to WJEC that they are using different tasks in consecutive years.

 Centres who are not studying any British history in their examined units must select controlled assessment tasks that focus on British history.

 Centres cannot mix and match parts (a) and (b) from different tasks.

 The controlled assessment unit can only be entered at the end of the course. Candidates must complete the controlled assessment tasks selected by the centre for that particular year.

 Centres are allowed to write their own controlled assessment tasks. This is called contextualisation. If this choice is made, the tasks must replicate the style of the exemplars entirely and approval must be gained from a WJEC consultative moderator.


Topic area 2
The effects of war on Wales and England in the nineteenth century and the twentieth centuries
Task 1: World War 1: the impact on women /

the leadership of the generals



Controlled Assessment Task part (a)
The lives of women on the Home Front were greatly affected by World War I.
Select any FIVE sources from your pack.
How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining how women's lives were affected by World War I?
Controlled Assessment Task part (b)
Some people have the view that British generals like Haig were incompetent leaders.
How far do your selected sources support or contradict

this interpretation?




CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK Part (a)
The lives of women on the Home Front were greatly affected

by World War I


Select any FIVE sources from your pack
How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining

how women’s lives were affected by World War I?


Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task
How can part (a) be tackled?
Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (a) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.


  • A brief introduction

This needs to have a clear focus on the set question.

It needs to briefly set the issue in its historical context.

A short paragraph is sufficient here.


  • An evaluation of the selected evidence connected with the issue in the question set.

Here candidates can examine developments and issues, while making analysis and evaluation of the evidence selected. Try to integrate the sources into a narrative of how the war affected the lives of women. Candidates should evaluate up to five sources only, aiming to link the evidence to its use in the enquiry. Avoid a robotic trawl through the sources.

When looking at the evidence you should consider points such as:
What information does the source provide about …?

Does the source back up your knowledge about …?

Who was the author/maker?

When was the source written?

Why was it written?

Is there any doubt over the author/is she trustworthy?


It is recommended that the answer to part (a) should be about 800 words in total.
SOURCE A1

With so many young men volunteering to join the army, and with so many casualties in Europe, a gap was created in employment and women were called on to fill these gaps. World War One was to prove a turning point for women. At the start in August 1914, those in political power had been left angered by the activities of the Suffragettes and women had no political power whatsoever. By the end of the war, in November 1918, women had proved that they were just as important to the war effort as men had been and in 1918 women were given some form of political representation.



[From a website focused at GCSE history students, www.bbc.co.uk/schools (2008)]



SOURCE A2










[Official government statistics comparing the numbers of women working in 1914 and in 1918 in Wales and England]


SOURCE A3

[A photograph of women working in a munitions factory in South Wales (June 1916)]



SOURCE A4

[A government poster seeking recruits for the Women’s Land Army (1917)]


SOURCE A5

I was in domestic service and hated every minute of it when the war broke out, earning £2 a month working from 6.00 a.m. to 9 p.m. So when the need came for women 'war workers' my chance came to get out. I started on hand-cutting shell fuses. We worked twelve hours a day apart from the journey morning and night. As for wages I thought I was very well off earning £5 a week.



[Mrs H. Felstead, writing in a letter to the Imperial War Museum. The Museum had asked for memories from women who had had their lives altered by the war. (January 1976)]




SOURCE A6

I was sent to the convalescent depot where they rehabilitated wounded soldiers to get them fit again for the Front. The munitions lassies - the girls in overalls and clogs - were always good company, or so I found them. The moment they found out a soldier was from the convalescent depot, that soldier was not allowed to buy a round of drinks. I felt embarrassed one night in a pub. Some factory girls were also present and when I put my hand into my pocket to pay, one girl said, "You keep your money, Corporal. This is on us." With no more ado she pulled up her frock and produced a roll of notes. Many of the girls earned ten times my pay as a full Corporal.



[H.V. Shawyer, a soldier during World War I, interviewed for a book made up of personal memories, Voices and Images of the Great War (1990)]


SOURCE A7

Earning high wages?

Yus, Five quid a week.

A woman, too, mind you,

I calls it dim sweet.




Afraid! Are yer kidding?

With money to spend!

Years back I wore tatters,

Now - silk stockings, my friend!

Ye'are asking some questions −

But bless yer, here goes:

I spends the whole racket

On good times and clothes.




I've bracelets and jewellery,

Rings envied by friends;

A sergeant to walk with,

And something to lend.

Me saving? Elijah!

Yer do think I'm mad.

I'm acting the lady,

But − I ain't living bad.



I drive out in taxis,

Do theatres in style.

And this is my verdict −

It is jolly worthwhile.

We're all here today, mate,

Tomorrow − perhaps dead,

If Fate tumbles on us

and blows up our shed.



Worth while, for tomorrow

If I'm blown to the sky,

I'll have repaid my wages

In death − and pass by.

[A poem called Munition Wages written in 1917 by Madeline Ida Bedford. Not much is known about the author, but it is likely that she was an educated upper-class woman]


SOURCE A8

In July (1916) I was approached by women working at a London aircraft works. They were painting aircraft wings with dope varnish at a wage of 15s. a week, for which they had to work from 8 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. They were frequently expected to work on till 8 p.m. and were paid only bare time rates for this overtime. It was common, they told me, for six or more of the 30 women dope painters to be lying ill on the stones outside the workshop, for half an hour, or three-quarters, before being able to return to their toil.



[Sylvia Pankhurst, an author and campaigner for women’s rights, writing in a history book, The Home Front: A Mirror to Life in England during the First World War (1932)]




SOURCE A9

Throughout the war, however, both the government and the press tended, for propaganda reasons, to exaggerate the extent to which women took over men's jobs. Actual female dentists, barbers and architects - all of which were featured on war savings postcards - were extremely rare. Most male-dominated professions remained closed to women. Even in areas where they were employed in large numbers, such as munitions and transport, they were often treated as inferior, stop-gap replacements for enlisted men. Moreover, women's wages, routinely portrayed as 'high' in the wartime press, remained significantly lower than those of their male counterparts.


Many women did find their wartime labour experiences in some way 'liberating', if only because it freed them from woefully paid jobs in domestic service. But the comment made in 1918 by the women's suffrage campaigner Millicent Fawcett - that 'the war revolutionised the industrial position of women' - should be treated with caution.


[From the commentary to the BBC TV series Out of the Doll’s House, which looked at the history of women in the twentieth century (1988)]



SOURCE A10

The First World War ended on 11 November 1918. Four million British servicemen got ready to return to their homes and jobs.


Women had been allowed to take over skilled industrial jobs normally done by men for as long as the war lasted. Now that the war was over, they were expected to give up their jobs to returning servicemen. Even in factories that had not existed before the war, many women were pressurised into handing in their notice. Within months of the end of the war, hundreds of thousands of women were out of work.
Many of these women did not want to go back into traditional 'women's work' when they lost their jobs. Domestic service was especially unpopular. One unemployed munitions worker said when she went to an employment exchange looking for work: 'I feel so pleased the war's over that I'll take any old job that comes along'. However, when she was offered work as a domestic servant she added: 'Anything but that.'
Many women stayed on the dole rather than go into domestic service. These women faced fierce criticism. Newspapers mounted a campaign against them, calling them idlers and parasites. Women who only months before had been called 'heroines' and 'gallant girls' were now called 'scroungers' and 'pin-money girls'. The government reduced unemployment benefit to force them back into work.

[Josh Brooman, an author of school history textbooks, writing in a book for GCSE students, People in Change (1994)]





CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK part (b)
Some people have the view that British generals like Haig were incompetent leaders.
How far do your selected sources support or contradict

this interpretation?


Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task
Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (b) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.


  • An introduction

This needs to have a clear focus on the set question and also needs to show an awareness of what an interpretation actually is.

It needs a clear reference to the different interpretations of the issue / topic.

There is a need to briefly set the issue in its historical context.

There is NO NEED to evaluate any sources or evidence in this part of the assignment.


  • A discussion / explanation of the first interpretation

There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.

There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.

There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed


  • A discussion / explanation of the second interpretation

There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.

There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.

There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed


  • Summary

There should be a final answer to the set question.

There should be a judgement reached as so which set of evidence is considered to have most validity in addressing the interpretation.



It is recommended that the answer to part (b) should be about 1200 words in total.
It is also recommended that candidates use no more than four sources from each section to explain how and why each interpretation has been arrived at.

SOURCES WHICH SUPPORT THE INTERPRETATION


SOURCE B1

Haig and other British generals must be blamed for wilful blunders and wicked butchery. However stupid they might have been, however much they were the product of a system which obstructed enterprise, they knew what they were doing. There can never be forgiveness for their sheer incompetence.



[John Laffin, a military historian, writing in his history book titled British Butchers and Bunglers of World War One (2003). Laffin earned his living taking people on battlefield tours and researched the war from the soldiers’ viewpoint.]



SOURCE B2
It was pure bloody murder. Douglas Haig should have been hung, drawn and quartered for what he did on the Somme. The cream of British manhood was shattered in less than six hours.
[P. Smith, a private in the 1st Border Regiment which fought on the Somme, writing in his diary in July 1916]

SOURCE B3

The biggest murderer of the lot was Haig. I'm very bitter; always have been and always will be and so will everybody else that knew him. He lived almost 50 kilometres behind the line and that's about as near as he got. I don't think he knew what a trench was like. And they made him an Earl after the war and gave him £100,000. I know what I'd have given him.



[Fred Pearson, a private on the Western Front, writing a letter to a local newspaper in 1966. The newspaper had run a feature on the 50th anniversary of the Battle of the Somme.]



SOURCE B4
Haig was a second-rate Commander in unparalleled and unforeseen circumstances. He was not endowed with any of the elements of imagination and vision. He certainly had none of that personal magnetism which has enabled great leaders of men to inspire multitudes with courage, faith and a spirit of sacrifice. He was incapable of planning vast campaigns on the scale demanded on so immense a battlefield.
[David Lloyd George, British Prime Minister during the First World War, writing in a book about his war-time experiences,

War Memoirs (1935)]

SOURCE B5






Reg. No

Rank

Name

Date of Death







12/288 Pte. Bagshaw, William 1/7/16

12/289 Pte. Bailey, Joseph 1/7/16

12/291 Pte. Barlow, Wilfred 16/5/16

12/294 Pte. Batley, Edward 1/7/16

12/296 Pte. Baylis, Lawrence 1/7/16

12/307 Cpl. Braham, George 1/7/16

12/310 Pte. Bramham, George 13/10/18

12/314 C.S.M. Bright, Arthur Willey 12/4/18

12/318 Pte. Brookfield, Fredk. Harold 1/7/16

12/591 Pte. Bedford, Norman 1/7/16

12/593 Pte. Beniston, Aubrey 1/7/16

12/597 L/Cpl. Blenkarn, William 10/9/16

12/600 Pte. Bowes, Frank 1/7/16

12/604 Pte. Bratley, Clifford William 1/4/18

12/606 Pte. Brindley, Charles W. 14/3/17

12/607 Pte. Brown, Arthur 1/7/16

12/608 Pte. Brown, Samuel 6/12/17

12/611 Pte. Busfield, Harry Craven 18/5/17

12/862 L/Cpl. Barnsley, Frank 1/7/16

12/865 Pte. Barrott, John Henry 1/7/16

12/867 Pte. Barton, John Arthur 1/7/16

12/870 Pte. Bennett, Joseph Arnold 1/7/16

12/871 L/Cpl. Binder, Walter Bertram 1/7/16

12/874 L/Cpl. Bland, Ernest 1/7/16

12/879 Pte. Brammer, Archie 1/7/16

12/882 Pte. Brown, Stanley 1/7/16

12/887 Pte. Buttery, John Arnold 1/7/16
[A page from the official list of dead suffered by the Sheffield Pals Battalion during World War I. The Sheffield Pals suffered 548 deaths on the first day of the Battle of the Somme.]

SOURCE B6







Major-General (addressing the men before practising an attack behind the lines). "I want you to understand that there is a difference between a rehearsal and the real thing. There are three essential differences: first, the absence of the enemy. Now (turning to the Regimental Sergeant-Major) what is the second difference?"

Sergeant-Major. "The absence of the General, Sir."

[A cartoon about World War I leadership published in the British satirical magazine Punch (February 1917)]



SOURCE B7

‘Good morning, good morning!’, the general said,

When we met him last week on our way to the line.

Now the soldiers he smiled at are most of ‘em dead,

And we’re cursing his staff for incompetent swine.

‘He’s a cheery old card’, grunted Harry to Jack,

As they slogged up to Arras with rifle and pack.

But he did for them both by his plan of attack.

[A poem by Siegfried Sassoon called The General which was published in 1918. Sassoon served as a Captain in the Royal Welch Fusiliers on the Western Front, but later threw away the Military Cross which had been awarded to him for bravery.

SOURCE B8


Idealism perished on the Somme. The enthusiastic volunteers were enthusiastic no longer. They had lost faith in their cause, in their leaders, in everything except loyalty to their fighting comrades. The war ceased to have any purpose, it went on for its own sake, as a contest of endurance. The Somme set the picture by which future generations saw the First World War: brave, helpless soldiers; blundering, obstinate generals; nothing achieved. After the Somme men decided that the war would go on for ever.



[A. J. P. Taylor, an academic historian, commenting on First World War generals in a specialist history book, The First World War (1963)]




SOURCES WHICH CHALLENGE THE INTERPRETATION


SOURCE B9

The truth is that those ruddy-cheeked, bristling-moustached, heavy-jawed, frequently inarticulate generals rose to challenge after challenge, absorbed weapon after weapon into their battle-systems, adapted themselves to constant change with astonishing success. But no one cares to make a legend out of that.



[John Terraine, a military historian, writing in his study of the Battle of the Somme, The Smoke and the Fire (1980)]


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