Contents gcse history Exemplars for Controlled Assessment 2015-2016 Topic Area 3



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GCSE History Additional Exemplars for Controlled Assessment Topic Area 3


Contents
GCSE History

Exemplars for Controlled Assessment 2015-2016
Topic Area 3

The role and significance of major figures in history
This document contains the WJEC set controlled assessment exemplars that are available for award up to 2016. This should be used alongside the general guide to controlled assessment available on the WJEC website.
Topic Area 3

The role and significance of major figures in history
Exemplar Tasks
1. Owain Glyndwr

2. David Lloyd George

3. Adolf Hitler

4. Winston Churchill

5. John F Kennedy

6. Nelson Mandela




Introduction
Controlled Assessment is a compulsory unit for GCSE History.
Please note the following advice:
 These exemplars were written in a consistent style to ensure comparability of demand.

 These exemplars can be used for entry in any year of the current specification.

 Centres must change their controlled assessment tasks each year/

 Centres must submit a proposal form for each two year cycle demonstrating to WJEC that they are using different tasks in consecutive years.

 Centres who are not studying any British history in their examined units must select controlled assessment tasks that focus on British history.

 Centres cannot mix and match parts (a) and (b) from different tasks.

 The controlled assessment unit can only be entered at the end of the course. Candidates must complete the controlled assessment tasks selected by the centre for that particular year.

 Centres are allowed to write their own controlled assessment tasks. This is called contextualisation. If this choice is made, the tasks must replicate the style of the exemplars entirely and approval must be gained from a WJEC consultative moderator.



Topic area 3
The role and significance of major figures in history
Task 1: Owain Glyndwr




Controlled Assessment Task part (a)
English rule in Wales in the late fourteenth century

was very harsh.


Select any FIVE sources from your pack.
How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining why English rule in Wales in the late fourteenth century was very harsh.
Controlled Assessment Task part (b)
Some historians argue that Owain Glyndwr was nothing

more than a rebel leader.


How valid is this interpretation of Owain Glyndwr?




CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK PART A
Select any FIVE sources from your packs.
How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining why

English rule in Wales in the late fourteenth century was very harsh?


Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task
How can part (a) be tackled?
Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (a) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.


  • A brief introduction

This needs to have a clear focus on the set question.

It needs to briefly set the issue in its historical context.

A short paragraph is sufficient here.


  • An evaluation of the selected evidence connected with the issue in the question set.

Here candidates can examine developments and issues, while making analysis and evaluation of the evidence selected. Try to integrate the sources into a narrative of English rule on Wales or the late fourteenth century.

Candidates should evaluate up to five sources only, aiming to link the evidence to its use in the enquiry. Avoid a robotic trawl through the sources.


When looking at the evidence you should consider points such as:
What information does the source provide about …?

Does the source back up your knowledge about …?

Who was the author/maker?

When was the source written?

Why was it written?

Is there any doubt over the author/is she trustworthy?


It is recommended that the answer to part (a) should be about 800 words in total.
SOURCE A1

Wales was out of sorts at the end of the 14th century. Regular outbreaks of plague had devastated the country as it had in most of the countries of western Europe. English taxation of Wales was heavy whilst peace with France had put Welsh troops out of a job. The political troubles in England following the downfall of Richard II in 1399 had destabilised authority in Wales also. But there were other complaints that made the circumstances in Wales even more explosive. There was huge resentment at the discrimination practiced against Welshmen – in terms of economic privileges, promotion to key posts in the Church and government and so forth. Welshmen felt they were exiles in their own country.



[From a website featuring teaching resources for secondary schools, www.bbc.co.uk/history (2004)]


SOURCE A2

[A modern photograph of Harlech Castle. This was one of many castles which had been built by King Edward I of England to keep the Welsh under control]

SOURCE A3


Wales in the late 14th century was a turbulent place. The brutal savaging of Llywelyn the Last and Edward’s stringent policies of subordinating Wales had left a discontented nation where any signs of rebellion were sure to attract support. There seems little doubt that the charismatic Owain Glyndwr fulfilled many of the mystical medieval prophesies about the rising up of the red dragon. He was of aristocratic stock and had a conventional upbringing, part of it in England of all places. His blue blood furthered his claim as Prince of Wales, being directly descended from the princes of Powys.

[Gwyn A. Williams, an academic historian and university professor, writing in a chapter in a travel guide, Wales: A Rough Guide (1994)]



SOURCE A4

Life was difficult for ordinary people in Wales in the 14th century. They were not allowed to take wood from the forests to build or for fuel. They were not allowed to hunt in the forests or graze their livestock there either. They had to buy grain and bread from the Lord’s mill and pay tolls for using the roads. Though the population had fallen by 30% after the Black Death, rents and rates had only fallen 10%. Fewer people were paying more.



[From a teaching resource on Owain Glyndwr produced by teachers for Key Stage 3 pupils. It was published by Gwynedd Archives (1996)]



SOURCE A5

[An illustration in a history book written by Hefin Mathias and aimed at primary school pupils, Wales in the Medieval World, c1000-c1500 (1996)]



SOURCE A6

Serious trouble began in the Welsh Marches in the 1390s. Some of the gentry here had suffered for supporting King Richard II in his last years. One of these was Owain Glyndwr, a landowner in the valley of the Dee, descended from the ancient Welsh nobility, who turned his grievances into a revolt against English rule. The reasons for its success are probably to be found in widespread resentment against the English exploitation of Welsh tenants, carried on by the Marcher lords in their various lordships and similarly by the Crown in the Principality. The Glyndwr revolt was not itself a serious threat to England, but it was a running sore.

[G. Holmes, an academic historian, writing in a text book for university students, A History of England in the late Middle Ages (1962)]
SOURCE A7
The Welsh habit of rebelling against the English is an old-standing madness and this is the reason. The Welsh once ruled over the whole of England; but they were expelled by the Saxons and lost their kingdom. The fertile lands went to the Saxons, but the Welsh were forced into the sterile and mountainous areas. They have since hoped to win back their land. This is why the Welsh frequently rebel.

[An extract from a chronicle written by a monk from Malmesbury in Wiltshire in 1373]


SOURCE A8



Certain restraints laid on persons wholly born Welshmen
Welshmen shall not purchase lands in the English towns in Wales

Englishmen shall not be convicted by Welshmen in Wales

No wastrels, rhymers or vagabonds shall be sustained in Wales

No congregations shall be made by Welshmen in any part of Wales

Welshmen shall not be armed

Welshmen shall not have castles

No Welshman shall bear office

Castles and walled towns in Wales shall be kept by Englishmen

Englishmen married to Welsh women shall not bear office in Wales

[Some examples of the Penal Laws passed by Henry IV in 1402. These laws were a reaction to the outbreak of the rebellion of Owain Glyndwr. However, many laws of this kind had been passed in certain parts of Wales in earlier centuries to strengthen control over the area.]



SOURCE A9

Owen de Glendour, a Welshman, came to Parliament complaining that Lord de Grey of Rhuthun had stolen certain lands of his in Wales, but no argument helped against Lord de Grey. The Bishop of St Asaph warned the Parliament that it should not entirely ignore Owen’s complaint, as the Welsh might perhaps revolt. But those in Parliament said that they cared nothing for the bare-footed clowns.

[An extract from Eulogium Historiarum, a chronicle written by an anonymous author sometime around the year 1405.]

SOURCE A10

The Principality of Wales was worth over £5,000 per year. The chronicler Adam of Usk reckoned that the sum exacted from Wales by all the English lords was about £60,000. When the total income of the King of England himself during the 14th century was about £80,000 a year, it seems incredible that such huge sums could be taken from a land as poor as Wales.


[Geoffrey Hodges, an academic historian, giving an estimate of how much the English taxed the Welsh in his book called Owain Glyndwr and the War of Independence in the Welsh Borders (1995)]





CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK part (b)
Some historians argue that Owain Glyndwr was nothing

more than a rebel leader.


How valid is this interpretation of Owain Glyndwr?



Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task
Underneath is a suggested structure which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.


  • An introduction

This needs to have a clear focus on the set question and also needs to show an awareness of what an interpretation actually is.

It needs a clear reference to the different interpretations of the issue / topic.

There is a need to briefly set the issue in its historical context.

There is NO NEED to evaluate any sources or evidence in this part of the assignment.


  • A discussion/explanation of the first interpretation

There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.

There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.

There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed


  • A discussion/explanation of the second interpretation

There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.

There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.

There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed


  • Summary

There should be a final answer to the set question.

There should be a judgement reached as so which set of evidence is considered to have most validity in addressing the interpretation.


It is recommended that the answer to part (b) should be about 1200 words in total.
It is also recommended that candidates use no more than 4 sources from each section (8 in total) to explain how and why each interpretation has been arrived at.

SOURCES WHICH SUPPORT THE INTERPRETATION

SOURCE B1

I think it is important to teach our children the complete historical facts. Glyndwr, the ‘Welsh prince’ was only distantly related to the Welsh princes. He was in fact English and was a barbarous thug who raped and murdered innocent people, including innocent Welsh people. Do we really need to fly flags for this barbarian? We need to remember him as he was in history and not as some fairytale thought up by Welsh nationalists. Who in their right mind would want their child brought up to look up to such a figure? It’s like telling children in Romania that Vlad the Impaler is Father Christmas. If you’re proud of Wales, read the truth about Owain Glyndwr.

[Gaynor, a woman from Llanelli, writing on an internet message board set up to gather public opinion over whether there should be a special Glyndwr Day in Wales (2008)]


SOURCE B2

[An artist’s impression of the Battle of Pilleth in 1402 where Owain Glyndwr’s army defeated the forces of the Marcher lord Edmund Mortimer. Over 800 were killed at the battle.]

SOURCE B3

In the 1400th year of Christ, Owain ap Gruffydd, Lord of Glyn Dyfrdwy rose in revolt with the support of the Welsh, and burned down Rhuthun. Not long after, the Lord of Rhuthun and Sir Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of the March, were caught and imprisoned in the woods until they paid Owain a ransom. Owain then continued to rebel against the English.

[An entry in a Welsh chronicle called Brenhinedd y Saesson (The English Kings) written in the late 15th century by a Welsh poet called Gethin Owain.]


SOURCE B4

All this summer, Owain Glyndwr, with many Welsh chiefs who were considered outlaws and traitors to the king, hiding in the mountains and woods, now looting, now killing their enemies, greatly harassed the districts of West and North Wales, and took prisoner the Lord de Grey.


That autumn, Owain Glyndwr, with all North Wales, Cardigan and Powys supporting him, greatly harassed with fire and sword the English living in those parts and their towns, and especially the town of Welshpool. The said Owain harmed the English to no small extent, slaying many of them and carrying off the arms, horses and tents of the king’s eldest son, and other English lords, transporting them for his own use to his mountain strongholds of Snowdon.

[Adam of Usk, a Welsh priest, historian and chronicler writing in 1401. Adam was well known in royal and religious circles.]



SOURCE B5

The noble Mortimer,

Leading the men of Herefordshire to fight

Against the irregular and wild Glendower,

Was, by the rude hands of that Welshman taken.

And a thousand of his people butchered,

Upon whose dead corpse there was such misuse,

Such beastly, shameless transformation,

By the Welsh women done, as may not be,

Without much shame, retold or spoken of.

[An extract from the play, Henry IV Part 1, written by the famous playwright, William Shakespeare, in the 1590s. Shakespeare based much of his description of Glyndwr on contemporary chronicles.]

SOURCE B6

Then there took place a crime unheard of for centuries. After the battle the women of Wales went to the bodies of the slain, cut off their genitals, and randomly placed them in the mouths of the dead with the testicles hanging down between the teeth and above the chin. They cut off the noses of the dead and pushed them into their behinds. The bodies of the dead were not allowed to be buried without the payment of a very heavy ransom.

[Thomas Walsingham, a monk at St. Albans in south east England, writing in his chronicle called Historia Anglicana (English history) in 1402. He had heard rumours of what happened after Owain Glyndwr’s victory at the Battle of Pilleth.]

SOURCE B7

All the rebels of Glyndwr are advancing on the castle with all their power. They have destroyed all the corn in the countryside around the castle. Many of the townsmen of Kidwelly have fled towards England with their wives and children; the rest have retreated into the castle and are in great fear for their lives.

[The Keeper of the royal castle at Kidwelly, writing an appeal in despair to the King of England in 1403.]

SOURCE B8

After the final battles of the revolt in 1412, little is known of Owain Glyndwr. Flashes of sporadic violence against the English continued but by bandits and outlaws than by any organised force. The rebellion of Glyndwr had to a large extent ruined the fragile but comfortable co-existence that the English and the Welsh had arrived at. Chroniclers at the time reported that Glyndwr had brought “all things to waste” and that he had caused “havoc in Wales.” There was extensive destruction of towns and villages and agricultural land went to waste. It was at least a generation before most of the areas caught up in the revolt got back to working life. There had been great loss of life, an economic blockade and a weakening of commerce. Politically the Welsh were knocked back where they had been making progress. It would be 150 years until the Welsh were allowed to become more prominent in society. Given the aftermath of the rebellion, it was easy for English propagandists to portray Glyndwr as a traitor and a rebel.

[From a website produced by the BBC on major historical figures, www.bbc.co.uk/wales/history/figures (2008)]


SOURCES WHICH CHALLENGE THE INTERPRETATION


SOURCE B9

I completely agree that Glyndwr should be remembered for his vision for Wales, a vision to create a united Wales with a university and direct links with Europe. The fact remains that he wanted the best for Wales and its people. Glyndwr aimed high to achieve freedom, perhaps too high, but he must be remembered for his ambitions, dreams and visions of the Welsh. Our future generations should be able to speak about him with pride in their hearts. He should be revered for the hope and trust he put into the country and its people.

[Paul Richards from Newport, writing on an internet message board set up to gather public opinion over whether there should be a special Glyndwr Day in Wales (2008)]

SOURCE B10

The revolt of Owain Glyndwr began on 16 September 1400 when Owain was proclaimed Prince of Wales at Glyndyfrdwy (Corwen). The rising flared up again in 1401 with the capture of Conwy Castle and Owain’s victory at Mynydd Hyddgen; it spread across Wales and successive royal expeditions were unable to suppress or contain it. 1404 saw the capture of the castles of Harlech and Aberystwyth. The year 1405 saw the drawing up of the Tripartite Indenture, an agreement between Owain, Percy, the Earl of Northumberland, and Edmund Mortimer for the division of England and a much-expanded Wales.

[An extract from the Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, published by the University of Wales Press (2008)]

SOURCE B11

[Map of the Tripartite Indenture, drawn up in 1405, showing how Owain Glyndwr and the English nobles Mortimer and Percy were going to split England and create an independent Wales.]
SOURCE B12


[A statue of Owain Glyndwr erected in Cardiff City Hall in 1916. The statue is meant to represent Glyndwr as a soldier-statesman.]



[A statue commemorating Owain Glyndwr in Corwen in Denbighsire. The bronze statue was paid for by government and public funds and put up in 2007.]
SOURCE B13

Owain Glyndwr summoned a parliament at Machynlleth when he was at his most successful, and could truly lay claim to being a national prince of Wales, not just a rebel leader. By 1404 his influence stretched across Wales and English control was reduced to a few isolated boroughs and castles. It is believed that representatives were sent to the parliament from all parts of Wales, and that envoys attended from France, Scotland and Spain.

[From the Powys Digital History Project, which produces teaching resources for secondary schools (2008)]
SOURCE B14

In a letter sent to the King of France in 1406, dated at Pennal, Owain Glyndwr states clearly what he was aiming at. First of all, he aimed at restoring the independence of Wales. Secondly, he aimed at restoring the independence of the Welsh Church. Thirdly, he wished to establish two universities in Wales, one in the North and one in the South. The new independent Wales was to be ruled by a prince and a parliament. Instead of princes, summoned on account of their blood, four men were summoned from each district in Wales under Owain’s authority.

[Owen M. Edwards, an historian and the first Chief Inspector of schools in Wales, writing in a history of Wales in 1894. This book was the first continuous history of Wales and Edwards was a keen supporter of Wales and its language and culture.]

SOURCE B15

Most serene Prince,

My nation, for many years now, has been oppressed by the fury of the barbarous Saxons, whose governments have trampled upon us. The Church of St. David’s was violently forced by the barbarous fury of those reigning in this country to obey the Church of Canterbury. May the Church of St. David’s be restored to its original dignity as in the times of our forefathers the Princes of Wales. We shall have two universities, one in North Wales and the other in South Wales.

[Extract from the Pennal Letter of 1406 sent by Owain Glyndwr to King Charles VI of France]


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