Content area: Language Arts/ Indian History Grade level



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In-depth Study Unit Topic or Title: Blackfeet History: Understanding Cultural Conflict through the Eyes of Fools Crow

Essential Question(s): How does your culture influence the choices you make?
Curriculum written by: Cindy Noland

Content area: Language Arts/ Indian History

Grade level: 11

Summary of Outcomes: Students should gain knowledge of Blackfeet Indian History/Culture in order to understand how these impacted the youth. Students should understand “coming-of-age” in terms of Blackfeet cultural expectations. Students will study the various decisions made by characters and how they impacted the tribe. Students will keep a reading journal in order to follow character development. Students will examine a character in depth and write a character sketch for them. They will keep a cultural vocabulary list and a dream record. They will research an aspect of Blackfeet history/culture and develop a PowerPoint for presentation. Students will use Readers Theater to understand the sacred stories. Students will synthesize a scene through ledger art. Students will create a visually appealing and informative PowerPoint presentation as a culminating project for the unit. The topic of the PowerPoint will be up to the student so long as it ties to the novel in some way (i.e. Marias Massacre, medicinal practices, buffalo economy, marriage customs, etc…). The goal is to not only provide students with research opportunities but also to teach presentation skills through the effective use of PowerPoint.



Content Standards Addressed

Long Term

Student Learning Targets

  • Content knowledge, reasoning and skills

  • Literacy skills: Reading, Writing, Speaking

  • Citizenship

Assessments

S.S. 2.6 Analyze events and motivations that cause conflict within and among groups and nations

S.S. 4. 4 Interpret multiple historical viewpoints concerning events within and across cultures

S.S. 4.5 Compare and contrast major historical eras/civilizations in the united States and worldwide to interpret and explain the influence of the past on the present.

S.S. 5.4 Analyze how various personal and cultural points of view influence economic decisions.

S.S. 6.1 Compare and illustrate the ways various groups meet human needs and concerns and contribute to personal identity.

S.S. 6.4 Compare and illustrate the unique characteristics of American Indian tribes and other cultural groups in Montana


Essential Understanding: History

I can analyze how differing cultural and economic values caused conflict between the Blackfeet and white settlers in 19th century Montana.

  • I can identify the important events in the history of the Blackfeet tribe.

  • I can explain the importance of the buffalo in the traditional life of the tribe.

  • I can analyze how the buffalo economy contributed to the cultural conflicts.

  • I can interpret the impacts of the westward expansion on the tribe. This means I can explain how guns, trading and disease changed the lives of the Blackfeet


PowerPoint

Rubric

K-W-L



S.S. 6.2 Explain and give examples of how human expression contributes to the development and transmission of culture
Essential Understanding: Cultural

I can interpret the importance of traditional stories to the spiritual and cultural life of the Blackfeet.

  • I can analyze the character’s response to their dreams and how they affected their decisions.

  • I can explain how traditional stories were used to teach values and spiritual beliefs.

  • I can explain the purpose of Ledger Art and how it was used.




Readers Theatre-Traditional Stories
Ledger Art Analysis (choose a scene to interpret through Ledger Art)

Literature Standards

L 1.1 Make predictions and connections between new literary works and previous information/experiences and explore questions about the impact of literary elements.

L 1.2 Identify and comprehend the main idea and supporting facts and details and summarize ideas in own words.

L 1.5 Draw inferences and conclusions based on literary works.

L 1.6 Respond to literary works on the basis of personal insights and respect the different responses of others.

L 2.3 Evaluate how vocabulary and language contribute to literary works.

L 4.2 Respond to traditional and contemporary works representing diverse perspectives, cultures, and issues.

L 4.3 Create and share responses to literary works through the application of technology, speaking, writing, visual and performing arts

L 5.1 Examine and explain how history, culture, ideas, and issues influence literary works.

L 5.3 Use literary works to develop an understanding of the many dimensions of human experience.



I can analyze the impact of historical events on a character in a novel.

  • I can make connections between the events in Fools Crow and actual historical events.

I can analyze how traditional expectations for young Blackfeet influenced the actions of characters in the novel

  • I can make connections between my life and the characters in Fools Crow to better understand their motives.

  • I can compare the decisions made by the characters in the novel and explain the impact of them personally and tribally.



Journal

Admit quote prompts

Character Sketch


Writing Standards

W 1.2 Develop a main idea through relevant supporting details.

W 1.3 Demonstrate some control of personal voice, sentence structure, and word choice.

W 1.3 Apply conventions of standard written English appropriate for grade level and purpose.

W 2.1 Plan writing by generating and organizing ideas through a variety of strategies and by considering purpose and audience

W 4.2 Choose audiences appropriate to purposes and topics

W 5.2 Write using characteristics of different forms

W 6.2 Find and use a variety of technologies and information sources

W 6.4 Share information appropriate for intended audiences


I can synthesize and summarize the research to explain my understanding of a Blackfeet history/culture topic
I can research an aspect of Blackfeet culture

  • I can identify questions to answer about my identified topic.

  • I can determine important information.

  • I can interpret text coming from multiple perspectives



PowerPoint


Technology standards

T 1.1 Use multiple approaches and diverse perspective, including Montana American Indians, to explore alternative solutions

T 1.2 Collect relevant data and information on a subject from a variety of digital resources

T 1.4 Evaluate and synthesize data and information.

T 1.5 Share data and information ethically and appropriately cite sources.

T 3.5 Use digital tools and skills to construct new personal understandings.



Communication Arts Standards

C.A. 2.8 Recall and explain a series of events or the sequence of information to draw conclusions.

C.A. 2.9 Summarize by stating main ideas and supporting details.

C.A 2.14 Analyze author’s purpose, point of view, language use, and credibility in culturally diverse texts, including those by and about Montana American Indians.



I can create a PowerPoint presentation that incorporates different elements of the program.


  • I can critically evaluate internet sites to collect valid, relevant data.

  • I can use _______ format to accurately cite the sources used.







PowerPoint


Sequence of scaffolding lessons

  • What sequence of steps will best engage, support and hold students accountable to reaching the above learning targets?

  • What student and teacher involved assessment for learning strategies and routines can you build in?

  • What instructional practices and protocols will you use?

  1. Gallery of photos and artwork to generate questions and activate background knowledge.

    1. Gallery walk historical photos and create a list of descriptive words in a double entry journal. Words/Questions. (Begins K-W-L)

    2. Sit and fill in K-W-L

  2. Building Background Knowledge Workshop – make a concept map

    1. Start with a traditional quote, maybe from a Blackfeet chief

      1. What does it mean?

      2. What do you think we will be reading about?

    2. Read a common text describing traditional Blackfeet life and spirituality Blackfeet Website

    3. Jigsaw texts that describe the different aspects of historical/traditional Blackfeet life: (The Blackfeet:Raiders on the NW Plains Ch. 4 The Staff of Life, Ch. 5 Camp Life, Ch. 7 Raiding for Horses and Scalps, Ch. 9 The Old Time Religion) Jigsaw Wksht.

    4. Revisit KWL and add to Learn.

  3. You could start the novel with a Tea Party of the first two chapters

    1. Find several snippets of text (15-20) that are compelling/provocative that are clues to what is going to happen in the book.

    2. Give each student one and have them write a prediction in their journal.

    3. Stand and mingle. Reading quotes and discussing predictions. (10min.)

    4. Sit and write a revised prediction

    5. Classroom discussion (3min) What was it like? How did it help?

    6. Teacher reads 1st 2 chapters. Raise your hand when you hear your text.

    7. Do you want to add anything to your prediction?

  4. Inquiry-What is coming-of-age? What are issues that teens face today? Are you the only teens in history to deal with these things? (Admit/Exit)Make a prediction about the issues the characters might face in the novel.

  5. Chunk text into sections. Prepare journal entries. (Protocol) Respond to various questions/prompts (Journal)

  6. Timeline

    1. Give students an event.

    2. Have them research important facts about it.

    3. Write an annotation.

    4. Create a human timeline

    5. Place the event on the timeline.

  7. Quote of the Day/Topic-(Roots and Branches)

    1. Choose an interesting quote from the reading assignment and have students respond to it.

    2. Where did it happen, Who was involved, Why is it important?

    3. Pair/Share with neighbor

    4. Whole group

    5. (Toward end, have them find quotes and exchange)

  8. Accounts of the Baker Massacre

    1. This Learning experience is described on p. 75 in Reading Native American Literature: A Teacher’s Guide by Bruce A. Goebel




  1. Use Massacre on the Marias from Blackfeet and corresponding chapter in novel (Baker Massacre) to create 4 different RAFTs. One is from the perspective of a woman/child in the camp that is attacked, one is from the perspective of a soldier who attacks the camp, one is from the perspective of a returning hunter to the camp, and one is from the perspective of a Gov’t official writing a report about the attack. (Writer’s Workshop)

  2. Character Sketch

    1. Hand out worksheet for writing a character sketch. (Example)

    2. Give students 3-5 character options and have them “draw a picture” of their character with words. Focus on description.

  3. PowerPoint

    1. Give students an assignment sheet of expectations for project.

    2. Students will research a topic of their choice that connects to Fools Crow. Examples might be: medicinal plants, games and recreation, buffalo economy. Brainstorm a list with students.

    3. Students will have to create a PowerPoint of a minimum 10 slides.

    4. Include 1-2 pictures per slide that enhance the topic.

    5. Each slide needs to have 3 facts that are explained in the presentation.

    6. A reference slide must be at the end of the presentation (MLA format)

    7. All notes you made during the research process must be turned in.


Instructional Practices selected:
Inquiry

Photo Gallery Walk

Quote
Comprehension

K-W-L


Concept Map

Journal Entries

Analyzing Perspectives
Vocabulary Development

Blackfeet Terms


Oral Participation Protocols

Small Group book talks

Tea Party

Quote of the Day - Pair/share


Represent-to-Learn

Reader’s Theater

Ledger Art

Timeline


PowerPoint
Write-to-learn

Entry quote

Character development Journal

Character Sketch

Exit Ticket

RAFTS


Character Sketch

PowerPoint



Resources: (e.g. Anchor Texts, District adopted materials, Supplementary resources, Web-sites)


Fools Crow by James Welch

The Blackfeet: Raiders on the Northwestern Plains by John C. Ewers

The Blackfeet Nation: homepage for the tribe www.blackfeetnation.com



Reading Native American Literature: A Teacher’s Guide by Bruce A. Goebel

“The Story Behind Family Names” by Bryan O’Connor http://www.umt.edu/journalism/student_work/nativenews02.com/stories/Blackfeet.html






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