Considering the Abolition of Ilobolo: Quo Vadis South Africa?



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Mofokeng “The Lobola Agreement as the ‘Silent’ Prerequisite for the Validity of a Customary Marriage in Terms of the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act” 2005 (68) THRHR 277-278.

13 The Recognition of Customary Marriages Act 120 of 1998 (hereinafter referred to as the Recognition Act).

14 The Natal Code of Zulu Law Procl R 151 of 1957(hereinafter referred to as the Natal Code of 1987).

15 The Kwazulu Act on The Code of Zulu Law 16 of 1985 (hereinafter referred to as the Kwazulu Act).

16 See s 38 (1) of both the Natal Code and the Kwazulu Act.

17 JC Bekker Seymours Customary Law in Southern Africa (1989) at 105.

18 NJJ Olivier et al Indigenous Law (1995) Butterworths at 17-21.

19 Mabena v Letsoalo 1998 (2) SA 1068 (T) (hereinafter referred to as Mabena s case).

20 See Le Roux J in Mabena’s case ibid.

21 See Hlophe JP in Mabuza v Mbatha 2003 (4) SA 218 (C) at 9 http://www.saflii.org/za/cases/ZAWCHC/2002/11.html

(accessed 27-09-2012).

22 Bekker et al Introduction to Legal Pluralism in South Africa (2010) 3rd edition LexisNexis Butterworths at 36; see also Dlodlo J in Fanti v Boto and others 2008 (5) SA 405 (C).

23 S 1 (4), see also the quotation in n 5.

24 S 4 (4) (a).

25 S 3 (1) (b).

26 AM Janse van Rensburg Non-Recognition?: Lobolo as a Requirement for a Valid Customary Marriage 2002 (27) JJS 170 at 173-178.

27 The SALC chapter 4.

28 D Taylor “Converting Attitudes of Church, State and Courts to Lobolo, Polygyny, Succession and Labour in 19th Century South Africa 2005 (11-2) Fundamina 114.

29 CRM Dlamini “A Juridical Analysis and Critical Evaluation of Ilobolo in a Changing Zulu Society” Unpublished LLD thesis 1983 University of Zululand, CRM Dlamini “The modern legal significance of ilobolo in Zulu society” 1984 De Jure 148-166.

30 The SALC chapter 4.

31 The SALC chapter 4.

32 Dlamini (n 29 above) at 150.

33 Dlamini (n 29 above) at 160.

34 Dlamini (n 29 above) at 151.

35 Dlamini (n 29 above) at 152; M Brandel “Urban Lobolo Attitudes: a Preliminary Report” 1958 (17) African Studies 34; see also TW Bennett A Sourcebook of African Customary Law for Southern Africa 1st edition (1991) Juta & CO, Ltd at 201.

36 Dlamini (n 29 above) at 152.

37 Dlamini (n 29 above) at 153.

38 Dlamini (n 29 above) at 154.

39 Dlamini (n 29 above) at 156; see also MW Prinsloo, JG Van Niekerk and LP Vorster “Current Research on Lobolo by Means of a Questionnaire (Part1)” 1997 De Jure at 99; MW Van Niekerk, JG Van Niekerk, and LP Vorster “Perceptions of the Law Regarding, and Attitudes Towards, Lobolo in Mamelodi and Atteridgeville” 1998 (31) De Jure 314.

40 Dlamini (n 29 above) at 154 - 156.

41 See (n 6 above).

42 Mbono v Manoxowendi (6 EDC 62) 1891, 72; Ngqobela v Sihele (10 SC 346) 1893, 354; D Taylor “Converting Attitudes of Church, State and Courts to Lobolo, Polygyny, Succession and Labour in 19th Century South Africa 2005 (11-2) Fundamina 114.

43 Natal Commission to Enquire into the past and present state of the kafir proceedings of the commission appointed to enquire into the past present state of Kafirs in the District of Natal 1852 vol 3 25 (hereinafter referred to as the Natal Commission).

44 Natal Commission vol 3, 63-64.

45 J Bekker &  C Boonzaaier How equal is equal? A legal-anthropological note on the status of African women in South Africa 2007 De Jure 284.

46 Excellent Chireshe and Regis Chireshe Lobola: The Perceptions of Great Zimbabwe University Students 2010 (3) The Journal of Pan African Studies 212.

47 JC Bekker Seymour’s Customary Law in Southern Africa 1989 5th ed at 150; see also NJJ Olivier et al Indigenous law 1995 at 33; Schapera Handbook of Tswana law and custom (1995) at 138-139.

48 Dlamini (n 29) at 162.

49 Dlamini (n 29) at 162.

50 Bekker (n 17) at 150.

51 D Posel &  S Rudwick Marriage and ilobolo [Bride wealth] in contemporary Zulu Society Working Paper No. 60 December 2011.

52 J Bekker & Boonzaaier (n 42) at 284.

53 Excellent Chireshe and Regis Chireshe “Lobola: The Perceptions of Great Zimbabwe University Students” 2010 (3) The Journal of Pan African Studies 212.

54 Bekker JC and Boonzaaier (n 42) 283.

55 Section 9 of The Constitution of South Africa, 1996.

56 See those listed in s 9 (3).

57 Prinsloo v Van Der Linde and another 1997 (3) SA 1012 (CC) (hereinafter referred to as Prinsloo) paras 28 -29.

58 S 6 of the Recognition Act guaranteed equal status for both men and women in a marital relationship by providing that: ‘A wife in a customary marriage has, on the basis of equality with her husband and subject to the matrimonial property system governing the marriage, full status and capacity, including the capacity to acquire assets and to dispose of them, to enter into contracts and to litigate, in addition to any rights and powers that she might have at customary law’.

59 Prinsloo para 31.

60 President of the Republic of South Africa and Another v Hugo 1997 (6) BCLR 708 (CC) para 729 (hereinafter referred to as Hugo case).

61 Brink v Kitshoff NO 1996 (6) BCLR 752 (CC) para 768 (hereinafter referred to as Brink case); Hugo case para 729.

62 Prinsloo para 31.

63 The SALC (chapter 4).

64 The SALC (Chapter 4).

65 S 9 (5) of the Constitution.

66 Harksen v Lane NO and others 1997 (11) BCLR 1489 (CC) para 50-51 (hereinafter referred to as Harksens case).

67 S 1 (founding provisions), s 7 (in chapter 2), s 36 (the limitation clause), and s 39 (the interpretation clause).

68 Prinsloo para 31; Dawood and Others v Minister of Home Affairs and Others 2000 (8) BCLR 387 (CC) at para 35 (hereinafter referred to as Dawoods case);

69 1995 (3) SA 391 (CC) para 328.

70 Dawoods case para 35.

71 A Chaskalson Human Dignity as a Foundational Value of Our Constitutional Order 2000 (16) SAJHR 193.

72 Susie Cowen “Can ‘dignity’ guide South Africa’s equality jurisprudence?” 2001 SAJHR 40, accessed on http://products.jutalaw.co.za on 04/06/2011.

73 Ibid.

74 See generally The UNESCO’s 1995 Declaration on the Principles of Tolerance adopted by UNESCO Member States in Paris on 16 November 1995.

75 D Davis “Equality: the majesty of Legoland Jurisprudence” 1999 (116) SALJ 398 at 413-414.

76 See the Declaration on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, proclaimed by UN General Assembly Resolution 1904 (iviii) on 20 November 1963; see also The Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on the Abolition of Death Penalty, adopted by the UN General Assembly on 15 December 1983.
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