Conquest and Colonies world history notes date



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Conquest and Colonies WORLD HISTORY NOTES

DATE: ___________


The Americas by the 1700’s

  • The lasting effects of exploration are shown here by this map.

  • _________________________________________


Spain Builds an Empire

  • Spain is among the first countries to successfully settle in the Americas.

    • First areas settled

      • ____________________

      • ____________________

      • ____________________


Spain in the Caribbean

  • Encomienda System

    • Spanish colonial system in which a colonist was given:

      • _______________________________

      • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • Native Americans endure:

    • ____________________________________

    • ____________________________________


How to get rid of the Native Population: Germ Warfare

  • At the time of the Pontiac rebellion in 1763, Sir Jeffrey Amherst, the Commander-in Chief of the British forces in North America, wrote to Colonel Henry Bouquet: 'Could it not be contrived to send smallpox among these disaffected tribes of Indians? We must use every stratagem (trick) in our power to reduce them.'

  • The colonel replied: 'I will try to inoculate the [Native American tribe] with some blankets that may fall in their hands, and take care not to get the disease myself.'

Why were the Native Americans so vulnerable to European disease?

  • No domesticated animals in Americas, this is the origin of most diseases among humans.

  • ________________________________________

    • Small gene pool (less immune variety)

  • ________________________________________

    • Didn’t isolate the sick


Conquest of Mexico

  • Cortes’ supplies:

    • ____________________

    • ____________________

    • ____________________

      • Ratio 1 : 10,000

    • ____________________

    • Malinche was a slave woman who spoke several native languages, and was taught to speak Spanish.

      • ____________________________________________________

    1. __________________________________________________________

    2. __________________________________________________________

    3. Horses (struck fear in Aztecs, never saw an animal like that before)

    4. __________________________________________________________

  • The Aztec Empire is set up in Mexico (Tenochtitlan)

    • _______________________,Cortes defeats Montezuma, he is taken prisoner but fight breaks out and he dies.




Conquest of Peru

  • Francisco Pizarro’s advantages on Atahualpa.

    1. Incan Empire in Peru was already weaken do to smallpox.

      • About ten years after the conquest of Mexico.

    1. Atahualpa is a new leader

    • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Life in the Spanish Empire

    • ______________- Spanish king chose officials who ruled a large area in the king’s name.

      • _____________________ = Spain’s economy is based on silver and gold.

  • Reasons nations wanted colonies:

    • _________________________

    • _________________________

    • _________________________

  • Native American populations drop by __________%.

    • Spain needs a new labor force (import Africans)

    • Sought to protect Native Americans, but also suggested the use of Africans.

      • This becomes standard practice.

  • ***_______________________________________________________________________________________________________. ***


The Portuguese in Brazil

  • Spain and Portugal have built an empire in the Americas.

    • ________________________________

  • Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

    • The agreement between Spain and Portugal that created an imaginary north-south line dividing their territory in the Americas.

      • __________________________

      • __________________________

French, Dutch, and English Colonies in the Americas


FRANCE

  • France (New France)= Canada

    • Not as wealthy as Mexico or Peru.

    • __________________________

    • __________________________


France differs from Spain

  • France doesn’t send massive amounts of colonists over to the Americas.

  • France also doesn’t enslave the Native American population.

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


The Dutch of New Netherland

  • Bought the island of Manhattan

    • Built a city called ______________________, but today it’s known as ________________.

  • Dutch Colonies in the Caribbean produced sugar.


The English Colonies

  • First successful colony is _____________! Although there are many previous attempts that are unsuccessful…

  • Colonists included: ____________________

  • Conflict later emerges between countries over claimed territory.

    • __________________________________


British and French Conflict

  • Disputed territory in the Ohio River Valley

    • _________________________________

    • _________________________________

  • British win the war but at a high financial cost.

    • __________________________________

To your knowledge what is a result from this?



________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


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