Conquest & Cultural Diffusion: The Impact of Alexander the Great



Download 97.41 Kb.
Date conversion19.05.2016
Size97.41 Kb.



Model Lesson: Conquest & Cultural Diffusion: The Impact of Alexander the Great


Grade Level: 9 Curriculum Focus: Social Studies Time Frame: 1.5 weeks

Model Lesson Description:
This model lesson focuses on Alexander the Great’s role in spreading Greek culture to the territories he conquered. His conquests ushered in a new era in world history, the Hellenistic Age. This lesson will also examine the intellectual achievements of the Hellenistic Age and their impact on the advancement of knowledge and learning.
Essential Question:
What factors led to the rise, prosperity, decline, and collapse of civilizations in the Classical Ancient World?
Focus Questions:


  • What is cultural diffusion?




  • In what ways did Alexander the Great facilitate the blending of cultures?




  • What is the difference between Hellenic and Hellenistic culture?




  • How has Hellenistic learning advanced our understanding of the world today?



Be the Historian:
When you have completed this lesson, provide an analysis of either (1) how Alexander the Great’s efforts resulted in unprecedented cultural diffusion OR (2) how Hellenistic learning advanced our understanding of math and the sciences.


Learning Objectives:
Students will be able to:

  • Explain the role of Alexander the Great in the spread of Hellenism to Asia, North Africa, and parts of Europe.



Digital Assets:
Videos:

The Dream of the King of Macedonia   (GL)

Alexander the Great   

The Prince Learns to be a King   (GL)

Alexander the Great & the Greek Ruling Class   (GL)

Into the Heart of the Persian Empire   (GL)

Alexander Unifies the Greek City-States   (GL)

The Spread of Hellenism   (GL)

The Fate of the Empire   (GL)

Conquering the Persians   (Alexander/GL)

Ptolemy   (GL)

Hearth, Cultural Diffusion, and Regions



Alexander the Great’s Legacy

Alexander the Great - Exploration (GL)

Alexander the Great – Discovering Ancient Greece

Alexander the Great Conquers Egypt and Becomes a God (GL)

The City of Alexandria (GL)

Cleopatra’s Egypt: A Mix of Egyptian, Greek, and Roman Cultures (GL)

The Rise of the Cosmopolis: A Comparison of the Hellenistic Altar of Zeus and the Classical Parthenon (GL)

Euclid (GL)

Introduction (Apollonius) (GL)

Aristarchus: A Heliocentric Universe (GL)

Retrograde Motion (Hipparchus) (GL)

Archimedes and Greek Mechanics (GL)
Images:

Alexander the Great by Verrocchio.

The Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria, 280 B.C.

A map of the Hellenistic empire under Alexander.



The great theater at Ephesus, Turkey

A large statute of Buddha with attendants

The colonnaded way in Pergamun’s Asclepium

Part of the theatre of Perge, Turkey

A Nabataean tomb at Madain Salik, Saudi Arabia

The lyric poet Posidippus

Face of Athena

Detail Head of Laocoön
Articles:

Alexander the Great

Hellenistic Age

Ptolemy


Alexandria, Library of

Hellenism

Alexandria

Ptolemaic Dynasty

Seleucus I

Antigonus I

Epicureanism

Stoicism

Euclid

Apollonius of Perga

Aristarchus of Samos

Hipparchus

Archimedes
Audio:

The Greek & Roman World: The Mediterranean Greeks: Alexander the Great   



What Do We Already Know?
Think-Pair-Share: Have students turn to their neighbors and, together, write down everything they know about Alexander the Great. After 2-3 minutes, ask students to share their knowledge.
Students will most likely note that he was “Greek” and that he was a conqueror.
Formulating Historical Questions: Have students turn to their partners and brainstorm 3 questions they would like to have answered about Alexander the Great. Ask some students to share their questions.
Note that some of their questions, and others, will be addressed in a biographical video that the class will watch as an introduction to one of the world’s greatest conquerors.

Classroom Activities:
A: What was so “great” about Alexander of Macedon? (class activity - about 45 minutes)
After completing the activity described in the “What Do We Already Know?” section above, have the class watch the whole video Alexander the Great to provide students with background information and create context. Use the following questions as a viewing guide to help students follow the biography:
The Prince Learns to be a King

  1. What is Philip of Macedon, Alexander’s father, most remembered for? (uniting the Greek city-states)

  2. Who was Alexander’s teacher? (Aristotle)

  3. What epic poem inspired Alexander? (Homer’s Iliad)

  4. Who was Alexander’s literary role model and hero? (Achilles)

  5. How does Philip die? (murdered by a bodyguard)

  6. How old is Alexander when he ascends to the throne in 336 BCE? (21)

  7. How does Alexander respond to a Greek revolt in Thebes? (he crushes it)

  8. What adjective is used to describe Alexander by the oracle at Delphi? (invincible)

  

Alexander Unifies the Greek City-States



  1. What promise to the Greeks helps Alexander gain their allegiance? (to liberate Greek city-states under Persian control)

  2. In his first confrontation with the Persians, how involved is Alexander? (he fights alongside his men)

  3. What is Persepolis? (the capital of the Persian empire)

  4. Who is Darius? (the Persian emperor)

  5. What is a phalanx? (a fighting formation)

  6. How does Alexander treat Darius’s family after he defeats the Persians at Issus? (he accepts them into his entourage)

  7. In 331 BCE, what title does Alexander receive in Egypt? (Pharaoh)

  8. What city, built by Alexander in the Nile Delta, is described as a “miniature Greece transplanted to alien soil”? (Alexandria)

Conquering the Persians



  1. What was Alexander’s response to Darius’s generous peace offer? (rejected it)

  2. What is the outcome of the Battle of Gaugamela? (Alexander beats the Persians)

  3. Upon arriving at Persepolis, what did the Greeks realize about Persian culture? (that it was, in some ways, more advanced than their own)

  4. What does Alexander do with the treasures looted at Persepolis? (shares with his men)

  5. What did Alexander do to avenge the Persian attack on Athens that occurred roughly 150 years earlier? (set fire to Persepolis)

  6. What does Alexander do to “plant seeds of Greek civilization” in the eastern Persian empire? (builds 10 cities)

  7. What disease ultimately killed Alexander? (malaria)

  8. What happened to Alexander’s empire after his death? (because he failed to name an heir, it is divided among his generals)

Teachers may chose to discuss the video after each segment or watch the whole video in its entirety and then discuss it. Either way, when the video is complete, ask students to share any of their questions that were answered by the video. Then, encourage students to “think like a historian” and jot down any questions that inspired them while they were watching the video.


Use these questions as the basis for discussion. Some additional questions might include:


  • Was Alexander Greek or Macedonian?

  • What qualities made Alexander a good leader?

  • Were these qualities unique to Alexander or are they shared by all good leaders?

  • In your opinion, what was Alexander’s greatest decision? His poorest?

  • Predict what additional accomplishments Alexander might have achieved if he had not died.


Optional extensions: Teachers who wish to explore this topic beyond class discussion may assign a project in which students create an avatar of Alexander, depicting the qualities that made him a great military leader. Require a narrative that explains the choices they made in their design.
Another possibility is to have students create a graphic comparison/contrast in which they compare Alexander the Great’s role as conqueror to the president’s role as Commander-in-Chief. Use this graphic-organizer to depict how the roles of military leaders have changed and stayed the same over time (Change and Continuity).
B: Alexander’s conquests: a vehicle of cultural diffusion (whole class/small group activity – approximately 90 minutes)
Begin this segment of the lesson plan by showing the video Hearth, Cultural Diffusion, and Regions. Ask students to define and provide examples of each term – hearth, cultural diffusion, and regions – in their Interactive Vocabulary Journals.
In the preceding activity, students discussed the qualities that made Alexander a good leader. While the video mostly focused on Alexander’s conquests, it explored briefly his efforts to spread Greek culture throughout the lands he conquered. These efforts resulted in cultural diffusion – the spreading of Hellenism, or Greek culture, to Asia, North Africa, and parts of Europe.
In pairs or small groups, students will view images and videos and read articles to gather evidence that Alexander’s conquests resulted in cultural diffusion. As they use the following assets, students should document examples of cultural diffusion in a journal/log (one possibility is to set up a blog that each group can post observations to). These examples may include strategies used by Alexander to spread Greek culture in addition to examples of Greek culture penetrating other regions.
Videos:

Alexander the Great’s Legacy

Alexander the Great - Exploration

Alexander the Great – Discovering Ancient Greece

Alexander the Great and the Greek Ruling Class

Alexander the Great Conquers Egypt and Becomes a God

The City of Alexandria

Cleopatra’s Egypt: A Mix of Egyptian, Greek, and Roman Cultures
Images:

A map of the Hellenistic empire under Alexander.

Alexander the Great by Verrocchio.

The Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria, 280 B.C.



The great theater at Ephesus, Turkey

A large statute of Buddha with attendants

The colonnaded way in Pergamun’s Asclepium (Turkey)

Part of the theatre of Perge, Turkey

A Nabataean tomb at Madain Salik, Saudi Arabia
Articles:

Alexander the Great

Hellenistic Age

Ptolemy


Alexandria, Library of

Hellenism

Alexandria

Ptolemaic Dynasty

Seleucus I

Antigonus I
Conclude this segment of the lesson plan with a 15-20 minute discussion in which students share concrete examples of cultural diffusion. To facilitate this discussion, teachers might ask the following questions:

  • When examining images, did you see any Greek influence on art and architecture?

  • What measures did Alexander take to facilitate the spread of Greek culture?

  • Can you recall any examples of ways Alexander was influenced by the cultures of the people he conquered?

Ideally, students will note that just as Alexander spread culture to his conquered territories, so was he influenced by their cultures.


Classroom Connections:
A: Cultural syncretism - the Hellenistic Age (whole class/small group activity – about 90 minutes)
Explain to students that cultural diffusion is not a one-way street, and that just as Alexander spread Hellenic culture to the areas he conquered, he was likewise influenced by the cultures of his conquered territories. As a result, cultural syncretism – the blending of two or more cultures – birthed the Hellenistic Age.
Based on what they have learned so far, ask students to speculate about the differences between Hellenic (Greek) and Hellenistic (Greek-like) culture. Emphasize that the Hellenistic Age infused Egyptian, Persian, Hebrew, and Greek culture and that it yielded its own unique accomplishments in art, architecture, math, science, and literature.
Show students the following video to highlight some of the differences between Hellenic and Hellenistic culture:
The Rise of the Cosmopolis: A Comparison of the Hellenistic Altar of Zeus and the Classical Parthenon
Note that Hellenistic culture, while Greek in origin, was distinct from Greek culture.
In this activity, students will use assets to complete a chart that examines other aspects of Hellenistic culture and achievement. Divide the class into 10 groups of 2-3 students each. Assign each group one block of assets from the chart below. Give students approximately 15 minutes to view/read their assets and create a poster-size visual, complete with a caption, that reflects what they learned about Hellenistic contributions to world history.
After 15 minutes, each group should present its findings; other students should record notes to complete their charts.


Discipline

Assets

Notes on characteristics of the Hellenistic Age – key points to remember


Architecture


The Rise of the Cosmopolis: A Comparison of the Hellenistic Altar of Zeus and the Classical Parthenon (video)





Art

Compare/contrast the images:

Face of Athena (image - Hellenic)

Detail Head of Laocoön (image - Hellenistic)





Literature

The lyric poet Posidippus (image)





Philosophy

Epicureanism (article)





Stoicism (article)





Math


Euclid (article)

Euclid (video)





Apollonius of Perga (article)

Introduction (Apollonius) (video)





Science

Aristarchus of Samos (article)

Aristarchus: A Heliocentric Universe (video)





Hipparchus (article)

Retrograde Motion (Hipparchus) (video)





Archimedes (article)

Archimedes and Greek Mechanics (video)




To conclude this portion of the lesson, discuss the impact of the Hellenistic Age on human progress. Possible questions to facilitate this discussion might include:




  • How did art evolve from the Hellenic to the Hellenistic periods? Which art form is better represented in contemporary art forms?

  • Stoic and epicurean are words that sometimes occur on the SAT. What is the origin and meaning of each word?

  • How would the world be different if Euclid and Apollonius had not made advancements in geometry?

  • Which Hellenistic achievements in astronomy increased our understanding of the universe?

  • What inventions by Archimedes are still used today?


Humanities Extension:
The world of mythology began in ancient Greece. Their world of gods, myths, and explanations for the supernatural was an integral part of their culture. From the following list of known and unknown mythological characters, choose two familiar and one unfamiliar. Research the history of each god, including their importance in the culture. Then chart each one in a PowerPoint (PPT) presentation to show their likenesses and differences and their influences on today’s language. Lastly, compare those individuals to individuals of today that might be considered as heroes or villains. List: Achilles, Adonia, Asclepius, Arachne, Jason, Heracles, Lycaon, Odysseus, Narcissus, Perseus, Pygmalion, Thesus, Triptolemus

Projects:
Students may select a project from the suggestions below or may propose their own. Teachers may opt to provide class time to complete this project, or they may choose to assign it as homework.
Cause and Effect: Using Publisher or similar presentation software, create a 1-page newsletter, complete with news articles, that addresses the methods Alexander the Great used to spread Hellenic civilization to the areas he conquered and the results of his doing so. At least one article must define cultural diffusion.
Change and Continuity: Using PowerPoint (PPT) or similar presentation software, create a slideshow that applies what you learned in this lesson and what you learned previously about Athens to compare and contrast aspects of Hellenic and Hellenistic civilization. Note the characteristics that Hellenistic civilization adopted from Hellenic civilization (continuity), and those characteristics that were uniquely Hellenistic (change).
Using the Past: Using PowerPoint (PPT) or similar presentation software, create a slideshow that overviews how Hellenistic learning has influenced our understanding of the world today. Make direct connections between the past and the present, finding and using appropriate images to illustrate these bonds.
Through Their Eyes:

Complete one of the following tasks:



  • Write a blog or journal entry from the perspective of a soldier fighting for Alexander the Great. Include how he is viewed as a leader.

  • Write a blog or journal entry from the perspective of a person living in a territory conquered by Alexander the Great. Include how you feel about his reign.

  • Design a website that presents information about how Alexander the Great’s background, values, and skills impacted his leadership style.


Extension:
Alexander the Great was considered to be one of the greatest governmental and military leaders of the ancient world. Read the quotations below and decide how his statements give students an understanding of a great leader today. Select one quote and create a Digital Report, comparing, contrasting, and evaluating Alexander the Great with a chosen modern world leader. Use the digital assets and other available resources, incorporating appropriate documentation.

“I am not afraid of an army of lions led by a sheep; I am afraid of an army of sheep led by a lion.”
OR
“I would rather excel others in the knowledge of what is excellent than in the extent of my powers and dominion.


Interactive Vocabulary Journal:
You always study vocabulary, but this time let’s make it yours and make it fun. Create an Interactive Vocabulary Journal (IVJ), using the lesson vocabulary below. You may use any of the digital assets in this unit, and you may use other resources you find in and outside of class. For example, you may take your own photographs and incorporate them into your IVJ.
Hellenism/Hellenic

Hellenistic Age/Era

Alexander the Great

Philip of Macedon

Aristotle

Homer


Iliad

Achilles


Cultural diffusion

Cultural syncretism

Phalanx

Ptolemaic Dynasty

Seleucus I

Antigonus I

Euclid

Apollonius of Perga

Aristarchus of Samos

Hipparchus

Archimedes

Epicureanism

Stoicism

Alexandria

Persepolis

Pharaoh



Assessment Rubric:

This rubric is on a four-point scale and uses as references The Skillful Teacher by Jon Saphier and Robert Gower and Thinking Like a Historian: Rethinking History and Instruction by Nikki Mandell and Bobbie Malone.



4 3 2 1

Questions

1. consistent use of

multiple historical facts, perspectives, evidence

2. uses variety of methods for supporting evidence

3. relies on identification, evaluation, and comparison/contrast

4. relies on historical context and change


1. relies on multiple historical facts, perspectives, evidence

2. use of supporting evidence

3. use of differentiation between and among statements


1.uses one historical fact or evidence

2. limited

support

3. limited use of the historical context



1. states facts w/no support

2.little or no use of the historical context



Evidence

1.relies heavily on primary and secondary sources from a variety of resources

2.uses deftly research skills in documenting authorities and their impact on work/project

3.uses analysis, evaluation, synthesis throughout the work/project

4.uses comparison/contrast to weigh impact of sources on work/project




1.uses some primary/secondary sources

2.uses limited number of other resources

3. uses research skills on work/project with limited assessment of evaluation of source

4.uses identification and explanation from the sources on work/project



1.uses very limited secondary sources—one or two

2.uses very limited or no primary sources

3.no attention to research skills evaluating authorities and their impact on work/project


1.if secondary sources are used, they are traditional: encyclopedia, for example, and very limited use

2. one or no primary sources

3.no evaluation of credibility of sources


Interpretation

1.uses analysis and synthesis of evidence completely supported from variety of sources and resources

2.relies on explication of context for historical changes

3.provides rationale for using multiple sources and resources to accomplish work/project

4.evaluates and explains intricate connections between people, events, and ideas—both past and present



1.addresses the essential questions: who, what, why, when, where

2.will present one or two historical perspectives or historical events/timelines that are different to chart similarities

3.uses limited multiple sources and resources to accomplish work/project

4. does not evaluate and explain intricate connections between people, events, and ideas—both past and present

5.presents in generalities, thereby avoiding any specificity or proof of thesis for work/project


1. addresses in limited and cursory fashion the essential questions: who, what, why, when, where

2. uses only identification and description

3.little to no use of supporting evidence


1.no addressing of the essential questions: who, what, why, when, where

2. no use of supporting evidence



Cause and Effect

1.identifies, evaluates, and analyzes multiple causes/effects—both stated and inferred—intended/unintended—short term/long term

2. differentiates and evaluates how different groups act differently and why



1.identifies multiple causes/effects—both stated and inferred—intended/unintended—short term/long term

2. identifies how different groups act differently and why



1.addresses multiple causes/effects

2. addresses only short term/long term causes/effects



1.addresses only one or two causes and/or effects

2. addresses only short term causes/effects that are obvious or intended



Change and Continuity

1.understands that change and continuity are inextricably linked to specific events and/or developments

2. evaluates change and continuity from variety of perspectives, including but not limited to social, political, economic, cultural levels

3. includes in the analysis trends, movement, patterns


1.understands that change and continuity are inextricably linked to specific events and/or developments

2. addresses change and continuity in terms of trends and patterns

3.may address one of the following perspectives: social, political, economic, cultural levels


1.links change and continuity to one event or series of developments

2.limited discussion and exploration of one of the following: social, political, economic, cultural levels



1.addresses change or continuity but not both

2.relationship between change or continuity to an event or series of developments not clearly developed or supported



Using the Past

1.distinguishes, analyzes, synthesizes elements and patterns in historical periods that compare and contrast to the present

2. uses knowledge of a past event or period to infer and thereby draw conclusions about a modern event or period




1.chronicles the developmental relationship throughout time and space between patterns and contemporary events

2.identifies which factors contributed to historical changes over time



1. makes linear connections between past event and modern issues

2. may see similarities and/or differences

3.will not address the import of these connections or intervening developments


1.sees and therefore cannot make any connections between the past and the present

Identifying with the Past

1.construct and compare/contrast how those from the past understood and responded to their concerns, i.e., problems, opportunities, choices, defining moments of action

2. recognizes that their own eyes contribute to their understanding of the past



1. recognizes that seeing their past through the eyes of people from the past provides them with a variety of new perspectives and questions

2. may not be able to connect these perspectives to important historical developments



1.recognizes that people’s lives in the past differ significantly from their own lives in the 21st century

2. considers 21st issues such as gender, race, ethnic attitudes, standard of living, for example, are quite different



3.may attempt to make these connections personal

1. recognizes only 21st century values and ideals and knowledge inform and make sense of the past—in both actions and decisions


Academic Standards:
This model lesson uses Indiana State Standards and the standards developed by National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) to provide guidance for teaching social studies. To view the standards online, go to http://www.socialstudies.org
Indiana State Standards

  • Explain the role of Alexander the Great in the spread of Hellenism to Asia, North Africa, and parts of Europe.


NCSS

  • Describe how people create places that reflect cultural values and ideals as they build communities, neighborhoods, and the like

  • Indentify and use key concepts such as chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity

  • Identify and describe selected historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, such as the rise of civilizations, the development of transportation systems, the growth and breakdown of colonial systems, and others

  • Identify and use processes important to reconstructing and reinterpreting the past, such as using a variety of sources, providing, validating, and weighing evidence for claims, checking credibility of sources, and searching for causality

  • Compare similarities and differences in ways groups, societies, and cultures meet human needs and concerns

  • Explain and give examples of how language, literature, the arts, architecture, other artifacts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behaviors contribute to the development and transmission of culture


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page