Conjunctive words & expressions



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CONJUNCTIVE WORDS & EXPRESSIONS

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◎note 1: A conjunction in Japanese language is a word (=conjunction) or a relational expression to connect two sentences, phrases, or words.

◎note 2: When you are not able to read a Kanji, please use the dictionaries on the internet.
電子辞書(漢字辞書もある)ヤフー辞書(言葉)楽天マルチ辞書(漢字もある英和・和英辞典

◎note 3A particle (or particles) might be used after an adverb or a conjunction.

◎note 4: The usage is not necessarily same in English and in Japanese sentences. PLEASE LOOK at conjunctions based on JPN which has a different categorization and more explanation for their usage.

◎note 5: Please let me (Ofuji) know a correct expression and its usage in English.

◎There are some "chips" for the commonly used conjunctions at the end of this page.

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1. SERIES                    



  • at first{ まず/一ばん+さいしょ、はじめ

  • first{ (まず/一ばん+)さいしょ、はじめ、一ばん目、第一

  • second; then 二ばん目、第二、それから

  • third 三ばん目、第三、

  • next つぎに

  • after that その後

  • again また

  • last さいご、おわりに、ついに 、やっと

  • primarily 元来、主に

  • secondarily 二義的に

  • in the first place はじめ、さいしょ

  • in the second place つぎ、ついで

  • finally さいごに、けっきょく

  • at last, after all やっと、ようやく、とうとう、ついに

  • additionally つけくわえると、

  • first and foremost 真っ先、第一、

  • the former 前者

  • the latter 後者

  • before ~ ~の前

  • after ~ ~の後

2. CHRONOLOGICAL transitions to signal relationship IN TIME

  • presently 現在

  • nowadays; today こんにち(今日)、いまでは、

  • before 前

  • long time ago ずっと前、むかし、~のころ、

  • immediately (今)すぐ、すぐさま、ただちに、じきに、即座に、

  • soon やがて、ほどなく、間もなく、もうすぐ

  • shortly ほどなく、間もなく

  • following this/that この/その後

  • there upon それから後すぐ

  • thereafter のち(後)、それから後

  • soon afterward すぐ後

  • afterward; later 後

  • from then on それから後、

  • since then; from that time; ever since それ以来

  • the next day; following day つぎの日

  • meanwhile しばらくすると

  • at length やがて、やっと

  • beforehand その前に

  • at that moment その時

  • before; earlier than; ahead; beyond; away; previously; recently 先に

  • at this time このほど、今回、今度

  • till/ until (clause) ; as far as "a plac" ~まで

  • by that time ~までに

3. SPECIAL transitions to signal relationship IN SPACE

  • between those ~ ~のあいだ

  • among these ~ ~のなか、~のうち

  • beyond this point これ/それ以上

  • within ~  ~以内

  • from one place to another ~から・・・まで

  • about a foot to the left 少しひだりがわ

  • just to the right ちょうどみぎがわ

  • step by step 一歩一歩

  • through ~ ~をとお(通)って、~をとお(通 )して、~をつう(通)じて

  • via ~ ~をとお(通)って

  • this side + the other side {ちらがわ+あちらがわ/むこうがわ

4. 1) ADDITION / SUPPLEMENTARY

  • and そして、そうして、また、そうすれば [vs. そうしなければ as "or"]

  • and yet しかも

  • too ~も

  • also ~もまた

  • again また

  • and then それから、それに

  • moreover それに、さらに、その上、しかも

  • further さらに、その上、

  • furthermore さらに、その上、なお、しかも

  • besides  さらに、その上、なお

  • in addition (to){ (さらに/もう一つ+)つけくわえると

  • plus ・・・つけくわえると

  • and yet しかも

  • nevertheless それにもかかわらず、それでもやはり、しかも

  • not only X but also Y{{ Xだけでなく(+て)Yも(+また)・・・だ (or・・・ではない)

  • together いっしょに、こぞって、ともに、共々

  • jointly こぞって、そろって

2) an EXPANSION to what precedes

  • and then/ immediately after すると

  • and then そこで

  • and then それで

  • and then それでは

  • then/ and so それなら

. COMPARISON transitions to signal what follows is SIMILAR TO what precedes

  • also ... また;~もまた

  • like...; likewise ~と同(おな)じように、~と同様に、~のように

  • similar to ... ~とにている、 ~と同(おな)じように

  • in the same way; at the same time ~と同じに;~と同時に: 

  • same 同じ;かわらない

  • both and りょうほうとも・・・だ(or・・・ではない)

  • either X or Y XもYも・・・ (or・・・ない)

  • neither X nor Y・ XもYも・・・ (or・・・ない)

. CONTRAST transitions to signal A CONTRADICTION OR CONTRAST

1) S1 and S2 are opposite.



  • but; yet; however しかし

  • although; though; but; however けれども

  • but; however だが ( used in a written form) 

  • but; however ところが ( "intention" never be used in the Clause after this word.) 

  • unlike ... ~とちがって

  • different / another ほか、べつ、ちがった/ちがう、ことなった/ことなる

2) S2 is NOT an expected or predicted result of S1.

  • however; unlike my expectation それなのに 

  • to the contrary; by contraries それにしては 

  • but; however それが 

  • in spite of the fact that それにもかかわらないで、それにもかかわらず 

3) S2 is an opinion or judgment against S1. 

  • but; however, hence でも、

  • but and yet; still; nevertheless それでも、しかしながら

  • but then but still; though それにしても  or あるいは、または

7.

1) CAUSE-EFFECT transitions to signal what follows is A RESULT of what precedes



note: Emotive expressions --desire (~たい), will (~ます、volutional forms), request / command (~て下さい/~なさい), suggestion / advice (~ たらどうですか/~た方がいい/~べきだ), intention (~つもりだ), supposition(~かもしれない/~だろう), invitation (~ませんか), etc.

  • so だから、それで (で←話言葉,Not used with the emotive expressions)

  • therefore だから、それで、したがって(written form; stress on the effect)、それゆえに (written form)、その結果、必然的に、

  • consequently したがって、その結果、それゆえに、必然的に、

  • as a result; as a consequence; consequently{ (その+)結果 (けっか)

  • for this / that reason{ (この/その+)ために (stress on the reason) hence{ (その+)ために (stress on the reason) wherefore{ (それ+)ゆえに because of ~ ~のため、~というわけで

  • due to ~  ~のため、~というわけで  

2) To signal that what follows is a REASON of what precedes, use EFFECTCAUSE transition  

  • for  ~というのは・・・からだ、 なぜなら・・・からだ

  • the reason why ~ is that ・・・ ~わけは・・・・だ、~理由は・・・だ

8. EMPHASIS

  • obviously 明らかに

  • certainly たしかに

  • perhaps 多分

  • surely たしかに

  • naturally とうぜん、あたりまえのことだが・・・

  • very likely とうぜん

  • really ほんとうに

  • to be sure たしかに

  • in truth; in fact 事実 、実は、実際

  • indeed{ 本当に、実は、事実 、実際

  • undoubtedly うたがいなく

  • assuredly たしかなことに

  • without fail かならず

  • surprisingly おどろいたことに

9. AN EXAMPLE, AN ILLUSTRATION, A QUALIFICATION

  • "a general name / category" called "a specific name"  ”S”という”G/C” such as X, Y, Z  X、Y、Zなど、XとかYとかZなど、

  • for example / for instance たとえば、れいをあげると、

  • to illustrate たとえば、たとえれば、たとえると

  • generally / in general いっぱんてきに

  • usually ふつう

  • especially とくに、とりわけ

  • specifically とくに、とりわけ

  • particularly/ in particular とくに、とりわけ

  • occasionally ばあいによっては

  • ; that is, つまり、・・・というのは

10. EXPECTED, NATURAL, OR OBVIOUSLY TRUE   

  • to be sure たしかに

  • of course もちろん

  • naturally とうぜん

  • surely たしかに

  • for that matter その(ことの)ために

  • as a matter of fact じじつ、まったくもって、じつのところ、事実上、じつは

11. COUNTER ARGUMENT transitions for CONCESSION

  • of course もちろん

  • doubtless きっと、多分、おそらく、

  • to doubt that… …は うたがわしい

  • certainly たしかに

  • to be sure たしかめると

  • granted that… かりに…だとしても

12. SUMMARY OR CONCLUSION transitions to illustrate that what follows is a REPETITION OR INTENSIFICATION of that which precedes  *note: Read the section, "cause-effect" also.

  • in other words; in short ; in brief すなわち、要するに、せんじつめると

  • to repeat くりかえすと

  • as we have seen 前に見てきたように

  • as noted earlier 先に書いたように

  • to put it another way ほかの言い方をすれば、ほかの言い方をすると

  • indeed じじつ

  • in any case どんな場合でも

  • in fact じじつ

  • besides そのうえに、さらに、なお

  • thus このように、それゆえに、

  • for this reason こういうわけで

  • on the whole 全体的に

  • in a word 要するに

  • to summarize 要約すると

  • in summary 要約すると

  • in sum 要旨は

  • in conclusion 結論は、結びに

  • to conclude 結論を言うと

  • finally さいごに

  • all in all 全部、すべて                

■"chips" to avoid confusion
"The main sentence" means the sentence after the conjunction.
"Emotive expressions" means "will" "desire" "command" and so on.

  • そして:(1) connect a word, phrase, sentence and another word, phrase, sentence. (2) The main sentence should be a consequential matter. (3) used for "one topic" (person, place, matter) (4) can be used for the relation to express a reason or a result.

  • それから:(1) connect a word, phrase, sentence and another word, phrase, sentence. (2) chronological matter (3) means "other than that, the next ....." (4) used to change a topic (5) can NOT use for a reason or a result  

  • それに:(1) connect a word, phrase, sentence and another word, phrase, sentence. (2) addition (3) objective opinions (4) can NOT use for subjective opinions and commands<しかも、その上>

  • だから:(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) the main sentence is a reasonable effect or a strong reason of the previous sentence--a cause. (3) The main sentence can be "emotive expressions."

  • それで:(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) the main sentence is an effect, result (3) the previous sentence should be a cause or reason. (4)The main sentence can NOT be "emotive expressions." (5) in a dialog, it is used to urge, facilitate the speaker

  • その結果:(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) as a result

  • そのため(に):(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) for extraordinary goal with often the present tense (3) reason ~ with often the "past sense"

  • そこで:(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or sentence. (2) the previous sentence is (often unexpected) situational → next action or natural result occurs.(3) The main sentence should be a verbal sentence, but not an adjectival sentence.

  • すると/そうすると:(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) the 2nd incident/matter [main sentence] follows to the 1st one. (3) often both sentences are "past tense." (4) The main sentence is a natural consequence of the previous sentence.

  • それでは/では/じゃあ(くだけた言い方):(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) The main sentence is the speaker's/writer's suggestion, intention, judgement.

  • ところが:(1) connect a sentence and another sentence; used when the subbodinate clause is a verbal sentence. (2) unexpected situation (3) The main sentence should be a fact, but not an "emotive" expression.

  • しかし/でも:(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or sentence. (2) The content of the main sentence is diffrent from the previous sentence. (3) contrast two opposite things. (4) The main sentence is the speaker's opinion and reaction to the previous sentence. (5) in dialog, to suggest a topic used by men (でも by women)

  • けれども/けど/けども:(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or sentence. (2) The content of the main sentence is diffrent from the previous sentence. (3) support the previous sentence more than しかし (4) The main sentence can be the speker's opinion, question, emotion, unexpected thought, doubt, suspition, etc. (5) used just to connect two senences to get attention or soften the speaker's talk.

  • だが/ですが:(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) The main sentence is diffrent from the previous sentence. (3) contrast two opposite things. (4) 書き言葉/丁寧な言い方

  • が:(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or sentence. (2) The main sentence can be the speaker's surprise, unexpected matter OR the speaker's judgement, opinion, reaction. (3) used just to connect two senences to get attention or soften the speaker's talk.

  • ところで:(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) to change a topic

  • また:(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or sentence. (2) also/besides

  • 例えば:(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or sentence. (2) to bring up an example

  • それなのに:(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) The content of the main sentence is unexpectedly opposite of the expected result of the previous sentence. (3) The main sentence shows blaming, suprise, unsatisfaction -- negative connotation.


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