Conformist America: The Cold War at Home



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Conformist America: The Cold War at Home3

Questions:

What led to a sense of fear at home during the early Cold War?

How did the HUAC contribute to a culture of conformity and fear?

Why was Senator McCarthy an important figure of this period?

I. The National _______________ Act of 1947



  1. Created major ________________________________ that continue today:

  1. Department of ___________________ (DoD)

  2. Air Force (USAF)

  3. Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS)

  4. Central ____________________ Agency (CIA)

  5. National ________________ _________________ (NSC)




  1. We were slowly returning to a __________________________ mentality.

    1. Marshall Plan, Berlin Airlift, “proxy wars” abroad

    2. Creation of “_________________-industrial ____________________” at home: ________________ activities and culture led and inspired by government initiatives and technologies

II. Government Intervention

  1. House ___________________________________ Activities Committee (HUAC)-special Congressional committee to investigate suspected ________________________ and influence in the U.S.

    1. Led by Martin Dies (during WWII) and Francis Walter

  2. Loyalty Review Board (established by Truman)

    1. ____________________”: people denied a privilege based on suspected Communist ties

  3. HUAC’s investigation of espionage:

    1. _____________________, 1948, resulted in conviction for perjury, and convinced many of the usefulness of HUAC (later found innocent)

    2. Julius and Ethel ____________________, 1951-1953, convicted of passing information concerning the construction of ______________________________________ to the Soviets (executed by electric chair)

III. HUAC and the Public



  1. ________________________ 10”: list of 10 Hollywood producers, directors, actors, and writers investigated by HUAC; refused to testify in Congress, citing their 1st amendment rights

    1. HUAC and Congress find them _______________ and in contempt; serve jail sentences

    2. Hollywood 10 were blacklisted – could not be hired in the movie industry

  2. "If you can't crush the commies, you can nail a neighbor.”

  3. Anti-communist campaign extended into schools—hundreds of teachers were investigated and lost their jobs as a result of being named as teaching "subversive" or “anti-American” ideas

IV. Senator Joseph ____________________

  1. An anti-Communist activist, but ineffective legislator; needed an issue to win reelection

    1. Used growing anxiety over Communism to fuel his popularity

  2. Tactics:

    1. He claims there are Communists in _____________ Department

    2. Claimed he had a list of suspected communists: “___________________________________________...”




  1. Actions known as ________________________________ --- attacking suspected Communists without _________________ of their guilt

    1. Millions forced to take ___________________ oaths & investigated

    2. McCarthyism called a “witchhunt”; inspiration for Arthur Miller’s The Crucible




  1. McCarthy’s downfall

    1. Accuses members of U.S. ______________

    2. TV hearings show him _____________________ witnesses and he has no proof

    3. Loses public support; condemned by _________________


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