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CONFLUENCE JOURNAL OF

ENVIRONMENTAL

STUDIES

Volume 2, Number 1, June, 2007



Published By

THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND PLANNING KOGI STATE UNIVERSITY, ANYIGBA, NIGERIA.


CONFLUENCE JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

VOLUME 2 NUMBER 1, JUNE 2007

EDITORIAL BOARD.

Editor- in- Chief: Prof. D.O Ogbonna

Editor: Dr. A. Ogidiolu

Assistant Editor: Dr. M.E Ufuah

Associate Editor (Advertising): Mr. A.P Adejoh.

Associate Editor (Circulation): Mai. S. D. Musa.

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

f. A.A. Segynola, Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Ambrose

Alii University, Ekpoma. rof. S. Mebradu, Department of Geology, Adekunle Ajasin Univ., Akungba-

Akoko, Ondo State. f. K.B. Adeoye, Department of Soil Science, Kogi State University, Anyigba.

Dr. S.A. Mashi, Department of Geography, University of Abuja. Prof. E.A. Olofin, Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano. F. I. Aziegbe, Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Ambrose Alii

University, Ekpoma.

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Opening up the Rural areas in Kwara State through the Provision of Water Resources: The Policy Options



Dr. R.O. Oyegun,

Department of Geography, University of Benin, Edo State Nigeria.



Dr. H.I. Jimoh,

Department of Geography, University of Ilorin, Kwara State Nigeria.



&

Mr. K.A. I rove,

Department of Geography, University of Ilorin, Kwara State Nigeria.



Abstract

Many of the states in Nigeria have the provision of portable water supply for the people high on their priority list agenda. There arc however quite a number of options to doing this particularly in rural areas. This paper examined the various options in Kwara Stale based on the physical resources available and the subsequent analysis shows that the state has enough \\ater to open up the rural areas, not only for domestic purpose but also for industrial development too. Further, it was equally observed that the major hindrance to achieving this goal bothers largely on government commitments, finance and management.



Introduction

In the tropical developing countries a large amount of misery, sickness and death occur due to infectious water supplies related diseases. Such can be prevented by the use of multiple house-hold tap systems of safe water, but the provision of these in rural Africa is a

luxury.

People can be affected by different diseases as a result of the water they drink. Examples include Typhoid, Cholera, Bacillary Dysentery, Guinea Worm, Hookworm and many others. Though the way in which water improvements reduce diseases depends on the particular diseases involved, yet the local authority should be able to provide ideal system for ihc people by way of getting them clean water either by providing tap water, covered wells or sanitary dams and weirs.



Adequate provision of rural water may be looked upon in terms of quality of \\ater. its greater reliability, increased quantity of available water and a reduction of its distance from the consumer. A reduction in the walking distance of the water may lead to improved energy. The improved quality of the water may lead to improved health which can result in loner medical expenditure, improved sense of well-being, increased fitness hence increased productivity of agricultural workers leading to an increase in crop production and a lessening of disability effects of childhood infection.

If the goal of water provision in Kwara State is to supply water to every nook and corner of the state, the questions that follows thus forms the objectives of this study as follows:



  1. Is this feat realiseable?

  2. Are the physical resources available in the state sufficient enough to support this



1The study area

Kwara State lies between latitude 8°10' and 19° 50'N and between longitudes 3° 10-1 and 6° 05'E (Fig. 1). The area falls within the southern limits of the tropical Savannah /one of Nigeria with mean annual rainfall of 1200mm concentrated between the months of April] and October and mean annual temperature varying between 31,5°C and 35°C.

More than 90% of the state is underlain by the basement complex rock of the! Precambrian and Cambrian ages while the remaining part is underlain by cretaceous and younger sediments (Rahaman; 1976; Oyegun, 1983) undifferentiated metasediments are! found in numerous large patches of the state like Lafiagi, Oke-Ode. Oke Onigbin, Omu-Aran while the older granites arc also found in numerous patches in parts of Moro. Asa and Ifelodun Local Government Areas. Quartzites are found in North Western part of llorin (Oyegun 1983). Though, the general geology of the state gives the impression that the state is not a promising groundwater zone, the earth crust according to Oyegun (1983) holds water in myriads of columns and patches; with the hardrock overburden, saprolite or regolith serving as ground reservoir for storage and transmission of percolating ground water.





I Kwara Mat* (hawing th* 4wtyar»a.Sourc«:Min. of Lopdt a housing Darin
There are seven major rivers in the state (Wuruma, Moshi, Awan, Oshin, Oyun, Asa and Ero) all draining into River Niger which forms the Eastern and

Northern limit of the state. The drainage pattern is mainly idendritic which reflects the horizontal strata of the underlying geology.



The study method

The studx made use of secondary data collected from Kwara State water Corporation, Nigerian Population Commission and meteorological stations located in different parts of the state. From these J.ata sources, indices such as annual water need, precipitable water, precipitation efficiencies, \\ater opportunity ratios and bore-hole risk were computed tor major towns and cities in the state. The formulae for derivation of the above named indices are as follows:



Water need:

This was compiled AWC = N(365 x \idel equation (Dewer, 1967): equation (i)


2
Where,

WC = Annual water consumption/need

N = Number of residence

X = Water consumption in litres/day

(The value of 115 lit/head/day - National Average for Nigeria was substituted for X in

this equation).



Precipitable water:

This is defined as the amount of vapour in a vertical column of air with a cross section of 1cm2 and a fixed depth; expressed in centimeters or millimeters. Ojo (1977) expressed the relationship between precipitable water and dew point temperature thus:

W = 0.6225 + 0.0279Td equation (ii)

Where,


W = Precipitable water

111.

Td = Dew point temperature (°F)

Precipitation efficiency:

This is the fraction of the precipitable water over a particular location that is


available at the surface as rainfall (Ojo, 1977). This is obtained by dividing the mean
annual rainfall (r) by the number of rainy days in the year. Result obtained is then
expressed as a fraction of mean precipitable water and converted to percentages as
follows:
Pcff= r

365w x 100 equation (iii)

W •


Where,

Peff = Precipitation efficiency


r = Mean annual rainfall

w = Number of rainy days in the year W = Precipitable water iv. Borehole risk

The ratio of water yield per hour from boreholes in the basement complex and
cretaceous deposits was used as a column vector and matrix operator respectively to
derive the borehole risk value thus:
Vbc fl.O "1

[_2.4 J Where V = Vector

be = Yield ratio of basement to cretaceous rock

The vector was subsequently multiplied by a row vector whose entries an and a\2.where, geological areal coverage of basement rock and cretaceous within a given unit area of 400sqkm. The product of the matrix is given by

= Matrix operator


Where, All =

areal coverage by percent of basement rock


3

A12 = areal coverage by percent of cretaceous rock

Thus. R% - an hii.±bi: b 21 x 100 equation (iv)

240 1


Where R% - risk percent 240 is yield index if the whole unit area of 40()sqkm is all covered by cretaceous deposits.

Data presentation, Analysis and Discussion of Results Water Demand and supply

The climatic locations not withstanding, most Nations of the world have water resources problems high on their list of National priorities (Douglas, 1970). For many countries, the amount of water needed per person is unknown.

Table 1 shows a very high water opportunity ratio for all the sampled towns in Kwara State. Based on an annual average of 900mm rainfall in Kwara State and assuming about 70"o of this is lost through evaporation, the available water for every sqkm is about 192.i>()0million litres. On the third column in the same table are the computed water need for each town. The practical realization of these theoretical values is however dependent on other climatic considerations such as, the amount of precipitablc water and precipitation efficiency. Table 1: \Vater requirement in Kwara State by settlement

I.Li A 1 Towns Popula

tion Water required (million litres)

_L _4


Rainiall \ Water receiyed opportunity (million litres) ratio

A-.: A ton

4.012 168.4 ! 192.000 1.140

Oile

4.562 191.5 - 1.003

1 ,:: ! I .a Hani

23.274 976.9 " 197

Tsaragi

4.505 189,1 - 1.015

l:-j'n\!';:i _j_ Share

17,508 734.9

261

Oro-Ago

9.499 398.7

482

IK':;:: 1A\>t ! Wara

266 11.2

" ! 17,143

(ibako

381 16.0^

12.000

llv:1::". : ..>• Iponrin

1.895 79.5

- 1 2.415

Oke-Ovi

6.887 T 289.1

664

Ik :.- - : ' - F'utii |

347 14.6

13.151

llota J_

1.285 53.9

- i 3.562

!:c'.: vk . Omu-Aran i

10,207 428.4

'• 1 . 448

A-_:.barnii

2.838 119.1

" ! 1.612

K.:i.:: . Kaiama

9.868 414.2

" ! 464

\bnki

1.040 43.7 •' | 4.394

Moio Jjbba

2?.047 "" 925.4 "^ ^08

Shao

7.466 313.41" •r' 61 3

Ovun j.mbo

9.331 391.7 " 490

ir,;i-Ilc

19.383 813.7

- 236

Baruten \.u-ubosu

1.622 68.1 " 2.819

'k'..:a

7.535 316.3

" ; 54

Oft a •-;.;

84.725 3,556.3 " 54

i-.'r -~'.:;i

413 17.3

- i 1 1.09S

I-kiti Obb .•-::.•

2,736 114.8

1 .673

ri'uk.

4.293 180.2

1 .066

Oke-Fro Odo-( '< ..

13,641 572.6

335

Lloia

9,153 384.2 " 500

Isin l\\o

4,598 193.0 " 995

Oke-o:i:_:-..-. : 4.443 186.5 ' " 1.030

Pategi Pategi

15.054 631.9 - 304

l.adde

5 ")7^) ~)~>l ~( - 868

Source: Author's fieldwork

4

*Data based on an average of 900mm rainfall per annum and a 70% evaporation rate for a town of Isqkm. Population figures are 1996 projections



Precipitable water

On the average, the precipitable water over Kwara State using equation (ii) is about 3.25cm. This is quite considerable interms of water resources.

Groundwater assessment, borehole risk and borehole projects in Kwara State

The assessment of groundwatcr for Kwara State is based on the geophysical surveys of Nigeria, by the Federal Department of Water Resources, which delimits Nigeria into groundwater provinces.

The basement rocks are generally poor aquifer because of their limited storage capacity. On the other hand, the cretaceous formation, which makes up about 15% of Kwara State is an unconfirmed aquifer. It has large quantity of underground water in storage. This is evident from Table II, which shows the success ratio in the cretaceous formation and basement area as 2.40 to 1.0.

Table II: Boreholes Yield in Different Geological Formations



Geological formation

Borehole

location


State

Depth (m)

Static water level (m)

Yield ( lit/hi. 1

Basement complex

llorin Kaduna

Kwara Kaduna

28.9 45.0

3.9 .7.80

16.275

14.000


Cretaceous formation

Bldu

Kainji


Niger Niger

67 64

16.0 18.2

32.000 40.000

Source: Ayoade and Oyebande (1978)

The Kwara State Water Corporation was established by an Edict in 1972. Among other things, the corporation is charged with responsibility of supplying water in good and sufficient quantity to almost all parts of the state. One way in which the corporation has tried to do this is through the sinking of wells and the drilling of bore-holes. The bore-hole failure rate in the state is about 40% partly because the of the fact that degree of hydrogeological and geophysical surveys are superficial, and usually mostly done by direct labour (Kwara Water 1981. p. 8). When viewed in relation to the staffing position as shown in Table III, the reason for the failure rate should be obvious.



Table III: Kwara State Water Corporation Staffing Position as at December, 2006

; Cadre

Number needed

Number filled

Vacancies

Administrative officer

8

8




Accounts/Auditor

5

5




Hnuineers

8

7

1

Geologist/Geophysicist

4

-

4






liio-i. nemisi

-

-

~




Technical officers

12

8

4

-

Superintendents

8

6

2

,\

Foreman

10

6

4

0

Executive officers

8

4

4

10

Secretarial staff

12

12

-

11

Stores officers

8

8

-

12

Techncial assistants

5

5




13

Craftsmen/Artisans

45

40

_s




Total

135

111

24

Source: Kwara State Water Corporation (2006)

5


In spite of these hindrances, the Kwara State Government is one of the mosJ committed state governments in Nigeria in water production and provision for its ruraj citi/ens.

There is a lot of guess work in the siting of bore-holes, however, a general appraisal] of ground water potential of the country-side is possible where a good geological map is available.

The bore-hole risk percentage computed for the state using equation (iv) shows that.
there is a minimum of 50% risk involved in drilling in the basement complex rock area oil
Kwara State, as against 15% in areas of cretaceous deposits; Field surveys carried out alsol
shows that many of the existing and proposed bore-hole locations are in the high risk area!
The decision therefore, to site bore-hole is other than geophyscial; it is more often than not to)
suit people aspiration and agitation. |

The Kwara State Government has an ambitious bore-hole programme covering alii local government areas of the state. The Federal Government is also supplementing the] Kwara State Bore-hole programme.



Bore-hole programme in Kwara State started in the 1950's with a very high failure! rate. For example, in 1956, about 14 bore-holes were drilled in'Offa province and all wcrej abandoned because they were unproductive. The failure rate decreased from 100% in the! 1950's to about 40% in the 1960's and up till now. At present (December, 2006) there are! over 250 producing bore-holes in Kwara State and drilled by the state, Federal Government! and other International agencies such as UNDP, UNICEF among others. Table IV shows thej depth and yield range of bore-holes for each local government.

Table IV: Bore-holes in Kwara State by Local Government Areas as at December, 2006




LGA

No of bore-holes

Depth range (m)

Yield ranue Lit hi

1

Asa

4.5

32

0.25

2

Hdu

30

45

2.5

•^

Ifelodun

25

35

0.25

4

Ilorin West

30

30

0.31

5

Irepodun

20

: 32

0.32

6

Kaiama

15

45

0.3

7

Moro

25

32

0.3

8

Ovun

25

30

0.35

9

Barmen

23

: 32

0.2

10

OtTa

30

30

0.35

11

Ilorin East

20

30

0.25

12

Ekiti

15

! 30

0.35

13

Ilonn South

13

32

0.3

14

Oke-Ero

12

35

0.35

15

Isin

15

32

0.5

16

Patim

25

45m

^




Total

368







Source: Kwara State Water Corporation, Ilorin (2006)

The highest yield from bore-hole in Kwara State is on cretaceous rock at Patigi Local | Government Area producing at 3 lit/sec. A single bore-hole may cost between N120,000-150,000 and takes an average of 15 days of site operation to complete. Bore-hole drilling is therefore a very costly venture for any state government. However, if the rural communities are to be served with adequate water, the numerous regolith acquitiers both in the basement complex and sedimentary areas of Nigeria must be tapped through either bore-holes or wells.

6

The options to efficient water supply in Kwara State

There arc a number of options to efficient water supply system in Kwara State. The success of these schemes must be based on the understanding that water supply scheme is essentially a transport undertaking. The following options can be examined namely:

a. Establishment of water storage centres: The storage centres could be a dam storage or
a storage reservoir. The pipelines can be laid along the major roads. This is what is
being done in the state presently, but it is a very costly scheme.

b. Establishment of water retail outlets similar to those for petrol stations. Water supply


to the underground storages at those depots should be from rainfall during the rainy
season, and by trailer tankers in the dry season.

c. Establishment of water panel stations to feed underground storage tanks, from which


water can be pumped. If a storage reservoir can hold up to 10,000 cubic meter of
water, eight of such reservoirs would be required for a population of 10,000 people, if
the average daily consumption is 60 lit/day for an area having four months of dry
season. Such water can be stored during the raining season.

d. The use of regolith aquifers in rural areas.



This last option appears to be clearly the best and most preferable in a state where political boundaries keep changing and surface water arc often unwholesome and unreliable. Moreover, the development of surface water is costly compared with the development of \\ells and boreholes. The regolith aquifers in the basement complex are ubiquitors (Oinorinbola, 1983) although the thickness of each regolith patch varies from place to place. This uneven nature of the basal platform and the depth to it, determines the amount of water available in the regolith. In the Ilorin area for example, the average depth to water is about 6.00 meters as evidenced by the log of the Philip-Morris Bore-hole No. 1 (Table V).

Table V: Philip Morris Bore-hole Log No 1 for Ilorin

Tickness of Bed

Lithology

Absence of water

0 - 3m

Brown to soil

-

0,30- 0.9m

Laterite

.

0.9 - 2.0m

Weathered micaceous crystalline rocks

-

2.0 4.0m

Weathered micaceous quartzo feldspathic rock (clay)




4.0 - 5.50

Kaolinitized feldspathic rock clay

Water present

5.50 -9.00

White kaolinitized feldspathic rock (clay)

- Do -

9- 12.50

Weathered Schistose micaceous crystalline rock

- Do -

12.50 - 13.00

Quartzo feldspathic (pegmatic rock)

- Do -

13.00- 16.50

Weathered schistose macaccous crystalline rock

- Do -

16.50-21.00

Pegmatitic rock

-Do-

Below 2 1.00

Granite crystalline rock

-Do-

Source: Oyegun (1983)

Furthermore, some useful descriptive statistics have been given by Oinorinbola (1983)

regarding some geohydrological parameters (Table VI)

Table VI: Some Geohydrological parameters in Ilorin Area.






Mean

Standard deviation

Coefficient of variation (%)

Saturatec zone thickness

11.46

4.20

37

Porosity (%)

38.50

2.02

5

Specific yield (%)

20.35

2.32

11

Permeability (cm'hr)

0.19

0.04

21

Percent clay

44

8

18

Percenl slit

28

5

18

Percent sand

28

6

2!

Source: Oinorinbola (1983

7


Groundwater is often not affected by the vagaries of weather; it is also clean, anc according to De Wiest (1967), it is more abundant but less expensive to develop, than surface water, for example, the Asa-Dam in Ilorin cost the Kwara State Government N24 million to build. If the average cost of sinking a well then was N20,000, the 24 million naira would have given 1,200 bore-holes; enough for every large community in Kwara State. One other major advantage of bore-holes is that the water is portable, that is, it is found where needed.

In other to open up the rural areas and attract small scale industries, such as block making, the best option is well sinking. Large scale irrigation farms, or small scale farm holdings can depend solely on water from bore-holes to make them productive all year round The above assertions are based on the assumption that, water containing regolith aquifers are generally widespread throughout the Nigerian basement complex area. This assumption has been reliably proved by the work of scholars (Assez, 1972; Faniran and Oniorinbola, 1980; Omorinbola, 1983).

The four options outlined above imply that


  1. Rain water is the source of all water

  2. Such water can be collected in the air before reaching the surface by use of water
    panels/house roofs (Traditional method)

  3. The water can be collected on the surface by dependence on streams and rivers.

  4. The water can be collected from underground by tapping it through wells and bore­
    holes, (use of well is traditional).

Apart from pure economic, and geohydrological consideration, the choice of any of the options by a state government is often coloured by politics. This is unfortunately a major hindrance to optimal use of evidences by the executive branch of Government. More confidence should be put in the technical services by the government if the benefits of nature are to be fully tapped to the advantage of all the people. Conclusion

Kwara State of Nigeria with resources such as the two large rivers, the Niger anc Benue and hundreds of perennial streams supplementable by underground sources has enough water to open up the rural areas, both for domestic and industrial uses. The major reasons for the inability of the government in the state to make water available to all parts oi the state is due largely to finance and management problems. The first causality in an}' meaningful water supply scheme in the state will be the central authority of water such as Water Coiporation; it should be decentralized into mini river basin authorities manned by competent staff. The major rivers must be gauged and everyday record must be kept. In this regard, rural primary school pupils can be taught how to read and record rate values in stream near their schools. They should be made to take, at least three daily records. Such pupils, if they pro\e competent, can be awarded certificates as gauge readers, when they leave schoc as a way of encouraging others. The supervision should fall on the village headmasters. No remunerations should be involved at all. Recommendation

For adequate provision of water supply in the state, the following recommendations are therefore put forward as most promising alternatives:


  1. To collect and store rainwater for use in the dry season to offset demands especially
    for agriculture

  2. To tap the numerous regolith aquifers within the basement rock within the high risk
    /one area

  3. To sink private wells in compounds

  4. To build numerous small dams and storage reservoirs in the perennial streams
    throughout the slate. The State Government would have to be very committed for am
    of the schemes to succeed.

8

References

Azeez, L.O. (1972) Rural water supply in the Basement Complex of Wester State, Nigeria,



Hydrol. Soi. Bull. Vol. 17. Pp 97-110

Dewer, R.J.M. (1967) Geohydrology. Wiley New York, 366pp. Doughlas, I (1972) Evaluating the Human Environment in Essays. In: Cooke and Doomkamp

(ed.) Applied Geography pp. 57-87 Faniran; A. and Omorinbola, E.O. (1980) Evaluating the shallow groundwater reserves in

Basement Complex areas; a case study of Southwestern Nigeria. Journ. Min. Geol.

Vol. 1.17pp. 65-79 Kwara Water (1981) A magazine published by the Kwara State Water Corporation, Maiden

issue


Ojo, O. (1977) "The climates oj West Africa"": Heinemann, London. Oyegun, R.O. (1983) "Water Resources in Kwara State" Matanmi and Sons Printing and

Publishing Co. Ltd. Ilorin. 113pp. Omorinbola, E.O. (1983) Utilizing Regolith aquifers for rural development in Nigeria. Paper



presented at the 26'1' Annual Conference of the Nigerian Geographical Associations, held at University of Ilorin. Kwara State. Feb. 1983

Rahaman, M.A. (1976) A review of the basement geology of S.W. Nigeria. In: Kogbe, C.A. (ed.) Geology of Nigeria, Elizabethan Pub. Lagos pp. 41-58





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