Concerning Israeli Borders and Terrorism



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1 Charles D. Smith. 2001. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A History With Documents, 4th Edition. Boston, New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, 6.

2 Ibid, 2-3.

3 Ibid, 3-4.

4 Ibid, 9.

5 Ibid

th Ibid, 14.

6 Ibid, 13.

7 Ibid, 69.

8 Ibid, 67-74.

9 Ibid, 62-70.

10 Ibid, 64-70.

11 Ibid, 65.

12 Ibid, 75.

13 Ibid, 105-106.

14 Ibid, 107.

15 Ibid, 108.

16 Ibid, 102.

17 Ibid, 102-103.

18 Ibid, 108.

19 Ibid, 106.

20 Ibid, 139-140.

21 Ibid, 140.

22 Ibid, 166, 1939 White Paper reprinted in text, Article II, 14 (1).

23 Ibid, 1939 White Paper reprinted in text, Article II, 14 (3).

24 Ibid, 1939 White Paper reprinted in text, Article III, 16.

25 Charles D. Smith, 2001. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A History With Documents, 4th Edition.

Boston, New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, 176.



26 Ibid.

27 Ibid, 177.

28 Ibid, 172.

29 Ibid, 49-52.

st Ibid, 118.

30 Smith, 107, The Mandate for Palestine, Article 4

31 Ibid, 195.

th Ibid, 194.

32 Ibid, 194-195.

33 Deborah J. Gerner. 1994. One Land, Two Peoples: The Conflict over Palestine, 2nd Edition. Boulder, CO, and London, 43.

34 Ibid.

35 Ibid, 44.

36 Ibid.

37 UN Chronicle. 1975 (December) No. 11: 56-57. “… Determines that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination. Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations (GA Resolution 3379) on November 10, 1975 by a vote of 72-35-32.

38 Smith, 195-196.

39 Note: The political/historical context of the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and the historical documents related to it are primarily drawn from Smith. Specifically, the section on the creation of the P.L.O. and Nasser’s political use of the P.L.O. is based upon material presented by Smith.

40 Adopted by a vote a 9-0-2 by the Security Council of the United Nations on November 24, 1953 with Lebanon and the U.S.S.R. as the two abstentions (SC Resolution 101, 1953).

http: //daccessdds.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NRO/089/74/IMG/NR008974.pdf?OpenElement

The above internet citation includes un.org and that is the official UN website.


41 Adopted by the Security Council of the United Nations on January 19, 1956 (SC Resolution 111, 1956).

http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NRO/109/45/IMG/NR010945..pdf.OpenElement.



42 Derek Bowett, 1972. “Reprisals Involving Recourse To Armed Force,” American Journal of International Law, Volume 66, No. 1: 7.

43 Ibid, 13.

44 Judith Gail Gardam, 1993. “Proportionality and Force in International Law.” American Journal of International Law, Volume 87, No. 3 (July): 406.

45 Smith, 226.

46 Ibid.

47 Reprinted in Footnote 14 in Michael Curtis, 1991. “International Law and the Territories.”

Harvard International Law Journal, Volume 32, No. 2, (Spring): 459.

48 Smith, 269.

49 Ibid, 282.

50 Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations.

http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/chapter7.htm



51 Louis Rene Beres. 1991. “Israel, Force, and International Law: Assessing Anticipatory Self-Defense.”

The Jerusalem Journal of InternationalRelations, Volume 13, No. 2 ( June): 4.

52 The Avalon Project at Yale Law School; http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/lawofwar/geneva07.htm

Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, August 12, 1949

Art. 2. In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peace-time, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by one of them.


The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.
Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.

53 James Brown Scott. 1908. Texts Of The Peace Conferences At The Hague, 1899 and 1907. Boston and London: Ginn and Company. 218.

54 Scott, 219.

55 Scott, 395 in Appendix, II. Occupied Territory, No. 49. This is from the Institute of International Law that was meeting at Oxford on September 9, 1880.

56 Scott, 225.

57 Scott, 395 in Appendix, II. Occupied Territory, No. 46. This is from the Institute of International Law that was meeting at Oxford on September 9, 1880.

58 Scott, 395 in Appendix, II. Occupied Territory, No. 48. This is from the Institute of International Law that was meeting at Oxford on September 9, 1880.

59 Scott, 224.

60 Ibid, 225.

61 Article 1. The Purposes of the United Nations are: Section 1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;

Article 2, Section 3. All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.

Article 2, Section 4. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.


62 Smith, 343. Sections of Article 9 and Article 10 of the Palestinian National Charter.

63 Smith, 330-331.

64 Yonah Alexander and Joshua Sinai, 1989. Terrorism: The PLO Connection. New York: Crane Russak, 56.

65 Samih K. Farsoun and Christina E. Zacharia. 1997. Palestine and the Palestinians. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 178.

66 Ibid, 30-31.

67 Martin C. Boire. 1984. “Terrorism Reconsidered as Punishment: Toward an Evaluation of the Acceptability of Terrorism as a Method of Societal Change or Maintenance.” Stanford Journal of International Law, Volume 20, No. 1(Spring): 58.

68 Alexander and Sinai, 43.

69 Ibid.

70 Ibid, 213.

71 Farsoun and Zacharua, 182.

72 Alexander and Sinai, 43.

th Scott, 59. The Hague Peace Conference of 1899, Section II- ON HOSTILITIES, Article 23-

Besides the prohibitions provided by special Conventions, it is especially prohibited:

b. To kill or wound treacherously individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army;


73 Charter of the United Nations, Article 42 authorizes the Security Council to use military action.

Article 42: Should the Security Council consider that measures provided in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.

Internet citation: http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/chapter7.htm


74 Charter of the United Nations, Article 41 authorizes the Security Council to use non-military action.

Article 41: The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations. Internet citation: http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/chapter7.htm



th Smith, 341. Document 8.1- Text of U.N. Security Council Resolution 242.

75 Ibid.

76 Brooks McClure. 1980. “Operational Aspects of Terrorism.” Willamette Law Review, Volume 17, No. 1 (Winter): 173.

77 Anthony Clark Arend. 1990. “International Law and the Recourse to Force: A Shift in Paradigms.”

Stanford Journal of International Law, Volume 27, No.1( Fall): 11. GA Res. 3314,

29 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 31), U.N. Doc. A/9631 (1974), art. 7, at 144.





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