Conceptual Integrated Science (Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh) Chapter 22 Plate Tectonics

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 Conceptual Integrated Science (Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh) Chapter 22 Plate Tectonics Multiple-Choice Questions 1) It has been known that Earth has a layered internal structure since A) this was discovered by the Ancient Greeks. B) the early part of the 20th century. C) 18th century geologists made the first fossil discoveries. D) scientists determined the cause of earthquakes. Answer: B Diff: 1 Topic: History of Earth Science 2) Modern geology was launched when A) James Hutton articulated the Principle of Uniformitarianism. B) Earth's layered internal structure was discovered. C) radiometric techniques became available for dating rock. D) Leonardo da Vinci explained how mountains are created by uplifted rock. Answer: A Diff: 1 Topic: History of Earth Science 3) Isaac Newton calculated that Earth's average density is about twice the density of surface rock. This led Newton to the conclusion that A) Earth must have a layered structure. B) Earth's interior must contain material more dense than surface rock. C) Earth's interior must be made of iron. Answer: B Diff: 1 Topic: History of Earth Science 4) Ancient Greeks knew Earth's diameter12,750 kmto a good approximation. How did they know this? A) They drilled a hole to Earth's center. B) They employed the Principle of Uniformitarianism. C) They applied geometry to take measurements of shadows. D) They determined the age of Earth and the rate of its growth. Answer: C Diff: 3 Topic: History of Earth Science 5) Before the twentieth century, earth scientists A) mainly investigated phenomena observable at Earth's surface. B) applied religion to the study of Earth. C) made important discoveries regarding Earth's interior. D) There were no earth scientists before the twentieth century. Answer: A Diff: 1 Topic: History of Earth Science 6) The velocity of a seismic wave depends on A) the type of material it travels through. B) its amplitude. C) its frequency. Answer: A Diff: 1 Topic: Seismic Waves 7) Seismic waves are classified as body waves and surface waves. An example of a body wave is a A) primary wave (P-wave). B) Love wave. C) Rayleigh wave. D) tertiary wave (T-wave). Answer: A Diff: 1 Topic: Seismic Waves 8) Motion of a P-wave is A) side to side. B) transverse. C) longitudinal. D) up and down. Answer: C Diff: 1 Topic: Seismic Waves 9) The fastest seismic wave is a A) primary wave. B) secondary wave. C) tertiary wave. D) Rayleigh wave. Answer: A Diff: 1 Topic: Seismic Waves 10) Earthquake P-waves A) travel in straight lines through Earth's core. B) cannot propagate through Earth's core. C) are transverse vibrations similar to sound waves. D) are longitudinal vibrations similar to sound waves. Answer: D Diff: 1 Topic: Seismic Waves 11) Secondary waves can travel through all areas of the earth except the A) surface. B) outer core. C) inner core. D) mantle. Answer: B Diff: 2 Topic: Seismic Waves 12) The propagation of seismic waves through Earth's interior provides evidence of internal layering. The first boundary discovered was the boundary between the A) upper and lower mantle. B) inner and outer core. C) outer core and the mantle. D) mantle and the crust. Answer: C Diff: 1 Topic: Seismic Waves 13) Earth's internal layers were discovered by studying A) seismic waves. B) the Mohorovicic discontinuity. C) Rayleigh and Love waves. D) convection cells. Answer: A Diff: 1 Topic: Seismic Waves 14) Earth's liquid and solid layers were discovered by studying the propagation of seismic waves through Earth's interior. P-waves ________; S-waves ________. A) compress and expand the rock as they move through it; vibrate the particles of their medium up and down and side-to-side B) can travel through solid granite, magma, water, or air; can travel only through solidsnot in fluids C) are the fastest of all seismic waves and the first to register on a seismograph; are the second to register on a seismograph D) all of the above Answer: D Diff: 2 Topic: Seismic Waves 15) The Mohorovicic discontinuity marks the change in rock density between the A) inner and outer core. B) core and the mantle. C) mantle and the crustal surface. D) asthenosphere and lithosphere. Answer: C Diff: 1 Topic: Seismic Waves 16) Because S-waves do not travel through Earth's outer core, scientists inferred that the outer core is A) impenetrable. B) molten liquid. C) solid. D) very dense. Answer: B Diff: 2 Topic: Seismic Waves 17) P-waves refract at the boundary between inner and outer core because A) there is a change of phase between inner and outer core. B) there is a change in chemical composition between inner and outer core. C) they gain speed. D) they lose speed. Answer: A Diff: 3 Topic: Seismic Waves 18) Which waves indicate the most extensive shadow? Why? A) P wavesbecause they cannot travel through the liquid outer core B) P wavesbecause they cannot travel through the solid inner core C) S wavesbecause they cannot travel through the liquid outer core D) S wavesbecause they cannot travel through the solid inner core Answer: C Diff: 3 Topic: Seismic Waves 19) Seismic waves are like A) X-rays, because they let us see into Earth. B) radio waves, because they are of similar length. C) sound waves, because they are longitudinal. D) ocean waves, because they are transverse. Answer: C Diff: 2 Topic: Seismic Waves 20) Surface waves are useful for investigating Earth's interior because they A) refract at the boundaries between Earth's layers. B) reflect at the boundaries between Earth's layers. C) cast shadows indicating Earth's layers. D) none of the above Answer: D Diff: 2 Topic: Seismic Waves 21) Body waves A) come in two principal types. B) refract at Earth's boundary layers. C) travel through Earth's interior following an earthquake. D) all of the above Answer: D Diff: 1 Topic: Seismic Waves 22) Earth's magnetic field is attributed to the A) flow of molten liquid in Earth's inner core. B) flow of molten fluid in Earth's outer core. C) movement of lithospheric plates in the outer mantle. D) movement of lithospheric plates at Earth's surface. Answer: B Diff: 2 Topic: The Earth's Internal Layers 23) The mantle can be separated into two different portionsthe lower mantle and the upper mantle. The lower mantle is A) completely solid due to extreme pressure that prevents rocks from melting. B) composed of putty that flows like molasses. C) rigid and cannot flow. D) predominantly liquid. Answer: A Diff: 3 Topic: The Earth's Internal Layers 24) The upper mantle can be divided into two zones, the A) asthenosphere in the lower upper mantle and part of the lithosphere in the upper part of the upper mantle. B) asthenosphere in the upper, upper mantle and the lithosphere in the lower upper mantle. C) Moho and the lithosphere. D) continental mantle and the oceanic mantle. Answer: A Diff: 2 Topic: The Earth's Internal Layers 25) We can say that Earth's crust floats on the mantle because A) the mantle is very hot and flows from internal convection. B)
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