Compendium of Jainism

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Compendium of Jainism

Jain Academic Bowl Manual of 2015

JAINA Education Series - JES904

3rd Edition - January, 2015

description: b05 idol

Compiled by

JAINA Education Committee

Federation of Jain Associations in North America

Compendium of Jainism

Compendium of Jainism

Jain Academic Bowl Manual of 2015

JAINA Education Series - JES904

3rd Edition - January, 2015

ISBN (10 digit): 1-59406-066-5

ISBN (13 digit): 978-1-59406-066-3

This book has no copyright for Personal and Private Use

Please use the religious material respectfully

We are interested in your comments. Use following address for communication.

Compiled by:

JAINA Education Committee

Federation of Jain Associations in North America

Pravin K. Shah, Chairperson

509 Carriage Woods Circle

Raleigh, NC 27607-3969 USA

Email -

Telephone and Fax - 919-859-4994

Website –
Published and Distributed by:

Jain Education International

821E, Artesia Blvd

Carson, CA 90746-1203 USA

Email -

Telephone and Fax - 919-859-4994

Website –


Young Jains of America (YJA)


Young Jain Professionals (YJP) and


Jain Päthshälä Teachers of North America


For their continued efforts and commitment in promoting religious awareness, nonviolence, reverence for all life forms, protection of the environment, and a spirit of compassionate interdependence with nature and all living beings. As importantly, for their commitment to the practice of Jainism, consistent with our principles, including vegetarianism and an alcohol/drug free lifestyle.

We especially appreciate the efforts of all the Päthashälä Teachers in instilling the basic values of Jainism, and promoting principles of non-violence and compassion to all youth and adults.

Special thanks to all Jain Vegan and alcohol/drug free youths and adults for inspiring us to see the true connection between our beliefs and our choices.

A vegan and alcohol/drug free lifestyle stems from a desire to minimize harm to all animals as well as to our own body, mind, and soul. As a result, one avoids the use of all animal products such as milk, cheese, butter, ghee, ice cream, silk, wool, pearls, leather, meat, fish, chicken, eggs and refrains from all types of addictive substances such as alcohols and drugs.


The project of compiling, revising and editing of this book was accomplished by the dedicated group of Young Jains, Päthashälä teachers, scholars, and individuals of North America. The devoted contribution of all these supporters is evident on every page of this book and is gratefully acknowledged.

For Compiling Revising and Editing of the Compendium of Jainism Book (JAB Manual - 2015)

Hema Ojha

Houston TX

Harsh and Bhavisha Shroff

Chicago IL

Anjali Doshi

Chicago IL

Anish Doshi

Chicago IL

Shweta Shah

Raleigh NC

Megha Doshi

Ashburn VA

Priyal Gandhi

Ashburn VA

Siddharth Shah

Houston TX

Chintav Shah


Priti Shah

Dallas TX

Vinit Shah

Detroit MI

Mukesh Doshi

Chicago IL

Shibani Shah

Chicago IL

Pradip and Darshna Shah

Chicago IL

Charmi Vakharia


Mahendra J Shah

Detroit MI

Monica Shah

Hanover MD

Niral Shah

Detroit MI

Parinda Shah

Chicago IL

Punita Shah

Detroit MI

Rekha Banker

Raleigh NC

Shanti Mohnot

Pittsburg PA

Shilpi Desai

Houston TX

Suresh Shah

Detroit MI

Special thanks to our youth Priyal Gandhi, Anjali Doshi, Anish Doshi, Siddharth Shah and Chintav Shah for spelling consistency of Jain words and overall coordination of religious subject matters of this book.

Pravin K. Shah, Chairperson

JAINA Education Committee

The Arhats and Bhagavats (the worthy and venerable ones) of the past, present, and future, all say thus, speak thus, declare thus, explain thus:

All breathing, existing, living, sentient creatures should not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven away.

Lord Mahävir

Ächäränga Sutra (book 1, lect 4, lesson 1)

Translated by H. Jacobi


Jai Jinendra

We are living in the age of science and technology. The growth of the scientific knowledge and technology have given new dimensions to our life and influenced each and every field of our living. Science has done a great service to mankind by providing amenities of pleasant living and saved the human race from many miseries and uncertainties of the primitive past. It has also destroyed many superstitions and religious dogmas.

However, at the same time it has also uprooted the moral, religious, and cultural values of our society. Most of our traditional religious values and beliefs have been thrown away by this growth and outlook of scientific knowledge. We know much about the atom but not enough about the moral values needed for a meaningful life. Our life is full of excitements, emotional disorders, and conflicts of moral values. It seems that we live in the state of chaos. Thus, we do not only live in the age of science but also the age of anxiety and mental tensions.

Today what we need is mental peace; a complete integration into our personality, and the integration into the social environment. Jainism can meet this need of our times if we understand its true essence. The Jain philosophy fully advocates limitless power and energy of the human soul and its independency. It bestows full responsibility upon us, and us alone, to attain the highest goal of our lives - infinite bliss. Jainism is a unique religion of self that prescribes a code of conduct for all human beings irrespective of creed, caste, color, and religion.

Non-violence (Ahimsa), non-possession and non-attachment (Aparigraha), and a non-absolutistic (Anekäntaväda) viewpoint are fundamental principles of Jainism. If we observe these three principles, peace and harmony can certainly be attained within us as well as in the world. Non-violence is the backbone of Jain philosophy. It is the focal point of Jainism. The rational thinking and the rational conduct are auxiliary colors spread on the vast canvas of non-violence. Thus, the Jains have presented a deep and vivid study of non-violence.

In order to make Jain principles known to the world at large, Jain literature must be widely made available in English. In countries like the USA, Canada, UK, and Africa, where many Jains are settled permanently, children do not have access to Jain literature in English. It is also necessary to publish it in varieties of mediums (Books, Videos, Cassettes, CD, DVD, Web deployment) for the English-speaking people harboring interest in the Jain religion and its scriptures.

The current JAINA Education Committee is pleased to present the JAINA Education Series books in English for all ages of students. A great deal of effort has been taken for the preparation of this. Much care has also been taken to present Jainism in a non-sectarian way.

This book Compendium of Jainism is compiled using all Jain Pathashala text books and reference books of Jaina Education Series. This book will be used in the Jain Academic Bowl competition during JAINA and YJA conventions.

The committee members who prepared this material are Jain Päthashälä (Sunday school) teachers and not the Jain scholars. Hence, you may find some errors and also certain items may be applicable to one Jain sect and not applicable to other sects of Jainism. Please use the material objectively and provide positive suggestions so that we can easily incorporate them in the future revisions. The pdf file od all Päthashälä books are available from Jain eLibrary website

Many minds, and many blessings, directly and indirectly, have touched this noble project. We sincerely appreciate and thank every person who made this project successful. In compiling this book, we have utilized many sources and we are grateful to their authors and publishers for using their work liberally. We sincerely appreciate and thank every person and every organization that made this project successful.

All material published by the JAINA Education Committee is not a copy righted material for personal and private use. Please use it respectfully and distribute it on a cost basis. As always, if you have any suggestions for improvement, please feel free to contact us. In addition, if we have mentioned anything against the teachings of the Tirthankars, we ask for forgiveness.

Michchhämi Dukkadam.

Thank You and Jai Jinendra!

Pravin K. Shah, Chairperson

JAINA Education Committee

January, 2015

List of JAINA Education Series books:

Book Number







Jain Activity Book




Jainism I - Basics of Jainism




Jain Alphabet




Jain Moral Skits




Jain Story Book (English)




Jain Story Book (Gujarati)




First Step to Jainism




First Step in Jainism Work Book




Jain Philosophy and Practice I



16 up

Jain Philosophy and Practice II




Jainism – Reverence for Life




Compendium of Jainism for JAB




Essence of World Religions




The Book of Compassion (English)




The Book of Compassion (Gujarati)




English Pratikraman




Jain Puja Book - Ashta Prakari Puja, Dreams, and Shanti Kalash




Pratikraman Sutra Book




Ashtapad Maha-Tirth Book of New York Jain Center

Table of Contents

Compendium of Jainism 1

Compendium of Jainism 2

Table of Contents 12


A01 - Jain Prayers 14

01 Namaskär Mahämangal Sutra 14

02 Divine Refuge Prayer 15

03 Religious Stutis 15

04 Universal Forgiveness Stotra - Khämemi Savva Jive Sutra 17

05 Reflection on Universal Peace - Upsargäh Kshayam Yänti Sutra 18

06 Reflection on Universal Friendship - Shivmastu SarvaJagatah Sutra 18

07 Reflection on Spirituality and Pure Consciousness 19

08 Reflection on True Teacher (Sadguru) 19

09 Divine Gratitude Prayer 20

A02 - Dharma: Religion 21

01 Introduction 21

02 What is Religion? 22

03 Meaning of Jainism 23

04 Why Do We Pray? 24

A03 - Basics of Jainism 25

01 What is Jainism? 25

02 Main Principles/Tenets of Jainism 25

03 Jain Temple 26

04 Idol (Murti) 27


B01 - Fundamental Beliefs of Jainism 29

B02 - Jain Path of Liberation - Ratna Trayi 30

01 Samyag Darshan (Right Perception or Faith) 30

02 Samyag Jnän (Right Knowledge) 31

03 Samyag-Chäritra and Spiritual Stages (Gunasthänak) 32

B03 - Basics of Jainism 35

01 Soul (Ätmä) 35

02 Classification of living beings (Jiva) 35

03 Karma 36

B04 - Six Universal Substances I: Jiva or Living Being 38

01 Jain Reality 38

02 Shad Dravyas (Six Universal Substances) 38

03 Jiva (Soul or Living being) 39

04 Paryäpti (Power) and Präna (Vitality) 41

05 Four Realms 44

06 Conclusion 45

B05 - Six Universal Substances II: Non-Living Substances 46

01 Ajiva (Non-living Substances) 46

02 Classification of Ajiva 46

B06 - Nav Tattva Part I: Jiva, Ajiva, Punya, Päp, Äsrava 51

01 Introduction 51

02 Jiva (Living Beings) 52

03 Punya and Päp (Good Deeds and Bad Deeds) 53

04 Äsrava and Bandha (Inflow of Karmas and Bondage of Karmas) 55

B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha 57

01 Introduction 57

02 Samvar (Prevention of Karmas) 57

03 Nirjarä (Partial Eradication of Karmas) 60

04 Moksha (Total Liberation from Karma) 64

05 Summary 64

B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation 67

01 Introduction 67

02 Bandha (Characteristics and Process of the Bondage) 68

03 Four Characteristics of Bondage: 69

04 Classification of Karma 70

B09 - Theory of Karma: Q and A 76

B10 - Punya and Päp Karma 78

01 Introduction 78

02 Punya (Virtuous or Wholesome) Karma 78

03 Päp (Non-virtuous or Unwholesome) Karma 81

04 Four Fold Combinations of Punya and Päp 90

05 Relationship among Ghäti, Aghäti, Punya and Päp Karma 92

06 Classification of Punya (Shubha) and Päp (Ashubha) Karma 93

07 Practical Aspects of Punya Karma and Päp Karma 95

08 Summary 96

B11 - Anekäntaväda I - Theory of Multiplicity 98

01 Introduction 98

02 Application of Anekäntaväda 99

03 How to know a Substance? 100

04 Summary 102

B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda 103

01 Introduction 103

02 Aim and Subject matter of Jain Logic 103

03 Classification of Pramäna 104

04 Summary of Pramäna 106

05 Naya-väda 107

06 Classification of Naya 109

07 Summary of Naya 112

08 Syädväda or Sapta-Bhanga (Seven Predications) 113

09 Is “Self” Permanent or Transitory? 116

10 Importance of Anekäntaväda 116

11 Anekäntaväda and Ahimsa 117

B13 - Anekäntaväda III - Five Samaväya or Causal Factors 118

01 Introduction 118

02 Samaväya 118

03 Significance of Samaväya 120

04 Summary 121

B14 - Fourteen Gunasthäna: Stages of Spiritual Development 122

01 Introduction 122

02 Fourteen Gunasthänas 123

03 Summary 127

04 Relationships among Gunasthäna, Karma, Leshyä, and Dhyäna 127


C01 - Pancha Paramesthi 130

01 Namaskär Mantra 130

02 Arihanta 131

03 Siddha 136

04 Ächärya 136

05 Upädhyäy 141

06 Sädhus and Sädhvis 141

C02 - Jain Ascetics: Sädhus and Sädhvis 144

01 Introduction 144

02 Mahä-vratas (Major Vows) 144

03 Rules of Conduct for Specific Activities 145

04 Summary 147

C03 - Jain Lay people: Shrävaks and Shrävikäs 148

01 Introduction 148

02 Vratas For Shrävaks and Shrävikäs (Twelve Vows of Laity) 148

03 Summary 154

C04 - Bhävanäs (Reflections) 155

01 Introduction 155

02 Twelve Main Bhävanäs 155

03 Four Auxiliary Bhävanäs (Compassionate Reflections) 157

04 Summary 158

C05 - Leshyäs (State of Mind and Karmic Stains) 159

01 Introduction 159

02 Classification of Leshyäs 159

C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct 161

01 Introduction 161

02 Panchächär (Five Codes of Conduct) 161

03 Summary 172

C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment 173

01 Jain Ethics 173

02 Three Cardinal Principles of Conduct 173

03 Survival of Life vs Ethical Living 175

04 Ethical Living and Dairy Products 175

05 Jainism and the Environment What does Jainism teach about ecology? 176

06 Summary and Recommendations 179

07 Jain Conduct and its Relevance to Modern Times 179

C08 - Application of Nonviolence 181

01 Introduction 181

02 Animal Cruelty and Ecological Impact 182

03 Ecological Impact of Non-vegetarianism 182

04 Abstinence from Drinking Alcoholic Beverages 183

05 Refraining from Consumption of Honey 184

06 Conscious Consumer 184

07 Summary 187

C09 - Jain Yoga 189

01 Introduction 189

02 Meaning of Yoga in Jain Tradition 189

03 Four Primary Paths to Yoga 189

04 Yoga Benefits 195

05 Yogic Diet 196

06 Yogic Samkalpa (Oath) For Meditation 196

07 Method of Yoga Meditation 196

08 Summary 197

C10 - Jainism in Action 198

01 Nutrition, Health and Spirituality 198

02 Yoga, Health and Spirituality 199

C11- Living Values 203

01 Introduction 203

02 Anger/Forgiveness (Kshama) 203

03 Ego (Pride)/Humility (Vinay) 204

04 Deceit/Honesty (Straightforwardness) 205

05 Greed/Contentment (Santosh) 205

06 Compassion 206

07 Friendship 207

08 The Power of Determination 208

09 Self Reliance 209


D01 - Jain Symbols 212

01 Jai Jinendra - Greeting 212

02 Michchhämi Dukkadam - Greeting 212

03 Jinälaya - Jain Temple (Deräsar or Mandir) 212

04 Om 212

05 Hrim 213

06 Arhum 213

07 Swastika 213

08 Tilak 213

09 Universal Jain Symbol 213

10 Federation of Jaina Logo 214

11 Ärti 214

12 Mangal Deevo 214

13 Ashta Mangal 214

14 Mäna Stambha 215

D02 - Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals 216

01 Länchhans (Emblems Or Symbols) 216

02 Tirthankars 216

03 Dreams of A Tirthankar’s Mother 219

04 Ashta Prakäri Pujä / Ashta Dravya Pujä 223

05 Special Pujas 224

06 Pujan 225

D03 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) 226

01 Introduction 226

02 Recommendations 226

03 Shvetämbar Tradition Pujä 227

04 Digambar Tradition Pujä 235

D04 - Importance of Proper Performance of a Ritual 239

01 Kriyä Yoga 239

02 Jnän Yoga 239

D05 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) 240

01 Introduction 240

02 Six Essential Observances of Shvetämbar tradition 240

03 Six Essential Observances of Digambar Tradition 247

D06 - Paryushan and Das Lakshana Parva 251

01 Paryushan 251

02 Das Lakshana Parva 252

03 Forgiveness Day 255

D07 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations 257

01 Kalyänaks - Auspicious Events 257

02 Paryushan Mahä Parva 258

03 Das Lakshana Parva 259

04 Mahävir Janma Kalyänak (Mahävir Jayanti) 260

05 Diwäli 260

06 New Year 262

07 Bhäibeej (Festival for brother) 262

08 Jnän Panchami (Holy day for worshipping Knowledge) 262

09 Dev Diwäli or Kartaki Poonam 262

10 Navpad Oli 263

11 Maun Agiyäras 263

12 Posh Dashami 263

13 Varsitap 263

14 Akshaya Tritiya - Varsitap Pärnä 263

15 Fägun Sud Teras 264

16 Twelve Tithis 264

17 Chaumäsi Chaudas 264

18 Mastaka Abhisheka - The Head Anointing Ceremony 264

D08 - Jain Temples & Pilgrimage Places 265

01 Digambar and Shvetämbar Images 265

02 Few Recommendations regarding Offerings at the Temple 265

03 Jain Pilgrimage Places (Jain Tirths) 266

04 Summary 271

D09 - Yakshas and Yakshinis 272

01 Chakreshwari Devi 273

02 Ambikä Devi 273

03 Padmävati Devi 273

04 Saraswati Devi 273

05 Lakshmi Devi 273

06 Manibhadra Dev 273

07 Ghantäkarna Vir 273

08 Näkodä Bhairava 273

09 Bhomiyäji 274

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