Colonization vocabulary



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CIVIL WAR VOCABULARY

Yankee- supporter of the North

Rebel - supporter of the South

Casualty - people who are killed, wounded, or missing during a war

Draft - A system of required service in the armed forces (Conscription Act of 1863 – first wartime draft in U.S. History)

States’ rights - the idea that states possess certain rights and powers

Assassination - To kill suddenly, especially a politically prominent person

Secede/Secession – To leave or break away

Sectionalism - promoting the interests of a region instead of the entire country

Emancipation - freedom from slavery

ROAD TO CIVIL WAR

3/5 Compromise

Constitutional Convention compromise where slaves were counted as 3/5 of a person for purposes of taxation and representation

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Virginia and Kentucky declared Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional; example of states’ rights

Missouri Compromise

brought Maine (free) and Missouri (slave) into the Union, any new states south of the 36o 30’ parallel would be open to slavery

Nat Turner’s Rebellion

slave revolt in Virginia which led to fear in Southern states

Nullification Crisis

South Carolina declared Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional; example of states’ rights, Henry Clay developed a compromise that lowered the tariffs over a period of years and prevented South Carolina from seceding

Gag Rule

outlawed the discussion of slavery in Congress

Industrial Revolution

led to a more industrialized North and a more agricultural South

Compromise of 1850

  • proposed by Henry Clay

  • California admitted as a free state

  • Mexican Cession divided into two territories (popular sovereignty used to decide slavery issue)

  • Slave trade abolished in Washington D.C.

  • Fugitive Slave Law enforced

  • Texas gave up claims to New Mexico and Colorado in exchange for debt payments

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe portraying slavery as cruel and degrading

Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • abolished Missouri Compromise

  • popular sovereignty determined whether to allow slavery in Kansas and Nebraska

  • led to “Bloody Kansas”

Dred Scott Case

Supreme Court ruled that slaves could not sue in court since they are property

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Douglas showed how popular sovereignty could be used to end slavery; Lincoln gave “House Divided” speech (“A house divided against itself cannot stand…”)

John Brown’s Raid

Raid on Federal arsenal to supply slaves with weapons, Brown hanged and recognized as a martyr by abolitionists

Election of 1860

Lincoln elected President, South feared Lincoln would end slavery, led to the secession of Southern states

Secession of South Carolina

feared Lincoln would end slavery, other states followed and formed the Confederate States of America

KEY PEOPLE IN THE EVENTS LEADING UP TO THE CIVIL WAR

Daniel Webster

Supported the Compromise of 1850, believed geography would prevent slavery from expanding into the West since the land was not good for plantations


John C. Calhoun

Strong supporter of states’ rights, believed no one had the authority to ban slavery from a territory, opposed the Compromise of 1850, believed the only way to save the Union was to protect slavery, resigned as Jackson’s Vice-President after disagreements over the power of the federal government

Henry Clay

Great Compromiser, wrote the Missouri Compromise, the compromise to lower tariffs (during Nullification Crisis), and the Compromise of 1850


John Quincy Adams

6th President of the U.S., outspoken against slavery despite Jackson’s Gag Rule



CIVIL WAR BATTLES AND EVENTS

Fort Sumter

First shots of the Civil War

Battle of Antietam

Bloodiest one day battle in U.S. History

Emancipation Proclamation

Lincoln’s proclamation that freed the slaves in the rebelling states

Battle of Gettysburg

Turning point of the war, European countries chose not to provide military and economic support to the South after the Confederacy was defeated at Gettysburg

Gettysburg Address

Lincoln’s speech dedicating the cemetery at Gettysburg

Battle of Vicksburg

3 month siege that divided the South and gave the North control of the Mississippi River

Sherman’s March

Total War, Destruction of anything that could provide aid to the South (Railroads, farms, factories, etc…)

Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia

Last battle, Lee surrendered to Grant

LINCOLN

First Inaugural Address

Assured the South that he had no plan to end slavery in the states and territories where it already existed

Second Inaugural Address

Gave a message of forgiveness and bringing the nation together again, “With malice toward none”


Assassination

Lincoln was assassinated by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C. in April of 1865, Vice President Andrew Johnson took over as the President of the United States

PEOPLE OF THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION ERA

Clara Barton

Established the Red Cross

William Carney

African American soldier who was awarded the Medal of Honor

Philip Bazaar

South American Navy seaman who was awarded the Medal of Honor

Hiram Rhodes Revels

Helped to organize two regiments of the United States Colored Troops, First African American to serve in the United States Senate, represented Mississippi during Reconstruction

Stonewall Jackson

Confederate commander: hero at the Frist Battle of Bull Run; accidentally shot by his own men at Chancellorsville and died 8 days later



RECONSTRUCTION VOCABULARY

Ku Klux Klan - organization in the South that used violence and intimidation to prevent African Americans from voting and holding office and to keep them segregated

Sharecropping/Tenant Farming - A farm worker who works someone else’s land and pays for its use by giving the landowner a share of the crops grown


Segregation - The separation of a race, class, or group

Scalawags - Southerners who supported Reconstruction

Carpetbaggers - Northerners who moved to the South after the Civil War to take advantage of economic opportunities

Freedmen’s Bureau - Set up by the government to help freed African Americans by creating schools, providing food and clothing and medical services

Black Codes - Laws passed in the South just after the Civil War aimed at controlling freedmen

Poll Tax - A tax of a fixed amount per person that had to be paid before the person could vote

Grandfather Clause - Allowed individuals who did not pass the literacy test to vote if their fathers or grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction began

Jim Crow Laws- Laws passed in Southern states to enforce segregation


RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS

13th

14th

15th

sFreed the slaves

Gave citizenship to African Americans; anyone born in the US

Gave ALL men, regardless of race or color, the right to vote.

FREE

CITIZENS

VOTE

RECONSTRUCTION PRESIDENTS

Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865)

Andrew Johnson (1865-1869)

Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877)



LEGISLATIVE REFORM

Johnson’s Impeachment

Johnson was impeached for violating the Tenure of Office Act, the Senate was one vote short of the 2/3 necessary to find him guilty

Homestead Act

Congressional Act that gave undeveloped land west of the Mississippi to individuals who were willing to settle there

Dawes Act

Congressional Act that focused on providing reservation land to individual American Indians as opposed to providing reservations to entire tribes; an attempt to recognize American Indians as individuals

Morrill Act

Congressional Act that gave federal lands to western states for the purpose of building universities; these universities were focused on agriculture and mechanic arts

RECONSTRUCTION PLANS

Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan

  • 10 percent loyalty to Union before a state would be readmitted

  • Southern states had to ban slavery in their state constitution

  • Supported African Americans’ right to vote, but did not require the South to give them this right

  • Amnesty offered to all white southerners except Confederate leaders

  • No protection offered for freed African Americans

Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction

  • 50 percent of state residents would need to swear an oath to the United States before being readmitted

  • The Confederate States were divided into 5 military districts, and 20,000 troops sent to the South

  • Each state had to write a new state constitution and have it approved by Congress

  • All states had to ratify the Reconstruction Amendments

  • Prevented Confederate leaders from being involved

  • Legislation was passed to protect and support African Americans

HOT DATES

1607

Jamestown established, first permanent English colony

1620

Mayflower Compact was signed, self rule-government

1776

Declaration of Independence was signed

1787

Constitutional Convention to draft a new Constitution

1803

Louisiana Territory was purchased from France, doubled the size of the U.S.

1861-1865

Civil War
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