Colonization vocabulary



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CONVENTION COMPROMISES

3/5 Compromise

Slaves were counted as 3/5 of a person for purposes of taxation and representation




Preamble to the Constitution – explains the purpose of the Constitution, “We the People”




7 PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT

Individual Rights

Basic civil rights and liberties guaranteed to all citizens by the Bill of Rights

Federalism

Powers are divided and/or shared between federal and state governments

Separation of Powers

The government is divided into three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial

Popular Sovereignty

People hold the final authority in government. People Possess the Power

Republicanism

A form of government where people rule through elected representatives

Checks and Balances

Each branch of government checks the power of the other two branches so that no one branch becomes too powerful

Limited Government

The government is not all powerful. It is limited by the powers given to it by the people, The government must obey rules and laws too.

3 BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT




Head of the Branch

Powers

Legislative

Congress (Senate and House of Representatives)

Makes Laws

Executive

President and Cabinet

Enforces Laws

Judicial

Supreme Court and Federal Courts

Interprets Laws




AMENDMENT PROCESS

Purpose – to allow the Constitution to change over time




2/3 vote of both houses of Congress




3/4 approval of state legislatures

OR

OR

2/3 of all state legislatures call for a national convention

3/4 approval of state conventions

RATIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION

FederalistsSupported ratification

  • Published Federalist Papers to provide arguments for ratification

  • Leaders – Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay

Anti-FederalistsOpposed ratification

  • Published Anti-Federalist Papers to provide arguments against ratification

  • Wanted a Bill of Rights

  • Leaders – Thomas Jefferson, George Mason, Mercy Otis Warren, Richard Henry Lee

BILL OF RIGHTS

1

Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition

2

Right to bear arms

3

No quartering of troops

4

No unreasonable search and seizure

5

Rights of the accused – protection against self-incrimination

6

Right to a speedy trial

7

Right to a jury trial in civil cases

8

Prohibits the use of cruel and unusual punishment

9

Powers reserved to the people

10

Powers not granted to the federal government are reserved to the states

INFLUENTIAL HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

Magna Carta (1215)

First document that limited the power of the king, established due process and the right to a speedy and fair trial

English Bill of Rights (1689)

Guaranteed rights to English citizens

Mayflower Compact (1620)

Established self-government in the colonies, agreement to majority rule, created a “civil body politic”

CIVIC DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

Duties

Responsibilities

  • Obey rules and laws

  • Jury duty

  • Pay taxes

  • Vote

  • Volunteer

  • Stay informed of issues

NEW NATION VOCABULARY

Precedent – tradition

Nationalism – support of one’s country; loyalty

Cabinet – group of advisors

Doctrine – policy

Tariff – tax on imports/exports

Acquire/acquisition – to get

Spoils system – the practice of giving government jobs to supporters

Political parties – organizations for influencing government action

Neutrality – not taking sides

Nullify/nullification – to cancel

NEW NATION PRESIDENTS




President

Key Issues

1

George Washington

  • War Debt – Hamilton’s Financial Plan – National Bank/Capital moved to South

  • Whiskey Rebellion – showed the strength of the new federal government

  • Precedents – served 2 terms, selected cabinet

  • ”Farewell Address” – Neutrality, Avoid Political Parties

2

John Adams

  • Alien and Sedition Act

  • XYZ Affair

3

Thomas Jefferson

  • Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark

  • Marbury vs. Madison – Judicial Review

  • Embargo Act

4

James Madison

  • War of 1812 – Caused by the impressment of American sailors by the British and Indian uprisings

5

James Monroe

  • “Era of Good Feelings”

  • Monroe Doctrine

  • McCulloch v. Maryland – strengthened federal government over states

  • Gibbons vs. Ogden – strengthened federal government over states

6

John Q. Adams

  • Protective tariffs – protected American businesses, angered Southerners

7

Andrew Jackson

  • Jacksonian Democracy - “Let the People Rule”

  • Spoils System – Kitchen Cabinet, Pet banks

  • Nullification Crisis – Issue of states’ rights

  • Indian Removal Act

  • Worcester v. Georgia – declared Indian nations to be sovereign

  • Trail of Tears

POLITICAL PARTIES




Federalist

Democratic Republican

Leader

Alexander Hamilton

Thomas Jefferson

Political Views

Supported a strong Federal government

Supported states’ rights

Interpretation of the Constitution

Loose interpretation

(Making the Constitution mean what you want it to mean)



Strict interpretation

(believing that the people of the government could only do what the Constitution said it could do)



Supporters

Northerners – industry, trade, business

Southerners – farmers, common man

LANDMARK SUPREME COURT CASES

Marbury v. Madison

Established judicial review – the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional

McCulloch v. Maryland

Power of Federal bank over State bank - limited states’ rights

Gibbons v. Ogden

(river trade)



Federal powers are superior to state powers

Worcester v. Georgia

Declared that Indian nations were sovereign – victory for American Indians

Dred Scott v. Sanford

Former slave sued owner for freedom, Missouri Compromise of 1820 ruled unconstitutional, “slaves are property – not citizens”

Plessy v. Ferguson (railroad car)

Separate but equal is okay

Brown v. Board of Education (school integration)

Established that Plessy v. Ferguson was unconstitutional - Separate is not equal

Manifest Destiny

Louisiana Purchase 1803 (doubled size of U.S.)

Mexican Cession

Texas


Gadsden Purchase

Oregon Territory

U.S. 1783

Florida


1819

1819


MANIFEST DESTINY VOCABULARY

Manifest Destiny – the belief that the U.S. must extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific

Emigrants – a person who leaves a country to live elsewhere (EXITS their country)

Cede – to give up by treaty

Forty-Niners – people who went to California during the Gold Rush of 1849

Boomtown – a community experiencing sudden growth in business or population

Immigrant – a person who leaves one country to settle permanently in another (goes Into another country to live)


INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Change from Rural to Urban – primarily in the North

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION VOCABULARY

Urban/urbanization – city life

Cotton Gin – removed seed from cotton

Rural – country/farm life

Mill – a factory or building with machinery

Innovation – introduction of new things or methods

Textile – cloth/fabric

Industrialization – large-scale manufacturing and technology in an area

Manufactured – made by machine

Interchangeable parts – uniform pieces made in large amounts that can replace identical pieces

Lowell Girls – factory workers in textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts

Canal/Lock – Steamboat – Robert Fulton

Factory System – Samuel Slater



  • Improved transportation (people and goods)

  • Improved communication

  • Increased industrialization in the North

  • Changed the way goods were made

  • Chinese immigrants were instrumental in building the transcontinental railroad

Cotton Gin and Interchangeable Parts – Eli Whitney

Railroad – Steam Locomotive – Peter Cooper



Telegraph – Samuel Morse


REFORM VOCABULARY

Temperance – oppose alcohol

Abolition/abolitionist – to end slavery/someone who wanted to end slavery


Reform – change

Suffrageright to vote

REFORM MOVEMENTS

Movement

Purpose

Leaders

Women’s Rights

To help women gain the right to vote

  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton

  • Sojourner Truth

  • Susan B. Anthony

Abolition

To end slavery

  • Frederick Douglas

  • Sojourner Truth

Temperance

To oppose the use and sale of alcohol

Education

To advocate free and equal education

Horace Mann - “Mann, I love education!”

Second Great Awakening Religious revival that swept through the U.S. in the mid-1800’s

Social Reform

SECTIONALISM – LOYALTY TO A REGION




North

South

Geography and Climate

Thin, rocky soil; good harbors

Fertile soil, long growing season

Social

  • Poor whites = small farms

  • Wealthy = plantations




Economy

  • Industry and trade

  • Urban

  • Supported tariffs/tax (encouraged Americans to buy American-made goods)

  • Agriculture (farming)

  • Rural

  • Dependent on slave labor

  • Opposed tariffs (cost more to buy European goods)




Political Views

  • Supported a strong federal government

  • Supported states’ rights

NORTH VS. SOUTH




North

South

President

Abraham Lincoln

Jefferson Davis

Commanding General

Ulysses S. Grant

Robert E. Lee

Advantages

Communication, industry, strong economy, large population, transportation, strong navy

Strong military leaders, knowledge of terrain
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