Colonization vocabulary



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United States History to 1877

COLONIZATION VOCABULARY

Mercantilism – colonies exist for the economic benefit of their mother country, a country's power depends on its wealth, GOLD=POWER

Representative Government – a system in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them

House of Burgesses – first representative assembly in the New World

Primary source – an original record of an event

Secondary source – interpretations of historians and writers

Joint-stock company – a company owned by a group of wealthy investors

Charter – a document that gives the holder the right to organize settlements in an area

The 13 English Colonies were located along the Atlantic Coastal Plains

Triangular trade/ Trans-Atlantic trade- a trade route that exchanged goods between the West Indies, the American colonies, and West Africa


GREAT AWAKENING – Religious revival during the early 1700’s that led to an increase in Protestant church membership and emphasized the equality of people in the eyes of God




EUROPEAN INFLUENCES

Spain

Religion, wealth, and fame

France

Established good relationships with American Indians, fur trade

England

Established 13 original colonies

IMPORTANT COLONIAL SETTLEMENTS

Massachusetts Bay Colony, Massachusetts

Puritans (wanted to purify the Church of England), John Winthrop

Plymouth, Massachusetts

(1620)

Pilgrims/Separatists (wanted to separate from the Church of England), Mayflower Compact (self-government), William Bradford

Connecticut

First written constitution in the New World – Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

Pennsylvania

Quakers – Pacifists, William Penn

Jamestown, Virginia (1607)

First permanent English settlement, Virginia House of Burgesses (first representative assembly), John Smith, Pocahontas, Cash Crop – Tobacco (John Rolfe)

Georgia

Haven for debtors, protection from Spanish Florida

CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION VOCABULARY

Militia - a group of civilians trained to fight in emergencies

Boycott - a refuse to buy items from a particular country

Repeal - to cancel an act or law

Propaganda - ideas or information designed and spread to influence opinion

Loyalists – American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

Patriots - American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won.

Minutemen – companies of civilian soldiers who boasted that they were ready to fight in a minute’s notice

Proclamation – something that is proclaimed; a public and official announcement

Liberty – freedom from external or foreign rule; independence

Committee of Correspondence – an organization that used meetings, letters, and pamphlets to spread political ideas through the colonies

Writs of Assistance – legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled



COLONIAL REGIONS

New England

Massachusetts

Rhode Island

Connecticut

New Hampshire


Cold winters, thin and rocky soil, fishing, whaling, shipping/trade, established primarily for religious reasons

Middle

New York


New Jersey

Delaware


Pennsylvania

Breadbasket Colonies, warm climate, farming (wheat, grains), ranching

Southern

Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia



Long growing season, cash crops (tobacco, rice, indigo), slave labor

REASONS DEMOCRACY FLOURISHED IN THE NEW WORLD

Distance from the King

Relatively small population

King was preoccupied

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

  • Britain and Colonies vs. France and Indians

  • Victory for Britain and the Colonies

  • Fought for Ohio River Valley, (NW Territory)




EFFECTS OF FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

  • George Washington makes critical mistakes but gains valuable military experience

  • Colonists realize they can fight

  • Colonists begin to think they no longer need British protection

  • Treaty of Paris (1763)

    • Ends French and Indian War and forces France to surrender claims to British

    • Western boundary of colonies moves west to Mississippi River

    • War debt causes Britain to tax colonists


  • JOIN, OR DIE

    • First political cartoon

    • Created by Benjamin Franklin

    • Attempt to unite colonists during the F/I War
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CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Navigation Acts

Laws that prohibited colonists from trading with countries other than England

Proclamation of 1763

Law preventing colonists from crossing the Appalachian Mountains following the French and Indian War

Sugar Act

Tax on sugar and other imported items, angered colonists because they had no representation in Parliament, “No taxation without representation”

Stamp Act

Tax on certificates, playing cards, printed paper, official documents, etc…

Stamp Act Congress

A group of men who met in New York to protest the Stamp Act

Quartering Act

Law that forced colonists to provide housing (quarters) for British soldiers who were in the colonists to enforce taxes and other laws

Sons of Liberty

A group of Patriots who persuaded by using intimidation, led by Samuel Adams

Writs of Assistance

A blank search warrant, used by British officers to search for smuggled goods

Townshend Act

Tax on glass, paper, lead, gold, paint, and tea

Boston Massacre

Fight between colonists and British soldiers, 5 colonists were killed, Crispus Attucks (African American) was the first to die for America

Tea Act

A law that prohibited colonists from buying tea from any company other than the British East India Company

Boston Tea Party

The Sons of Liberty dressed up as Mohawk Indians and dumped a shipment of tea into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act

Intolerable Acts

British Response to the Boston Tea Party

  • Shut down the port of Boston until colonists paid for tea they destroyed

  • Forced citizens to house (quarter) troops

  • Canceled town meetings

  • British officers accused of a crime would be tried in England

First Continental Congress

Meeting of delegates from all colonies except Georgia, declared Intolerable Acts violated their rights as English citizens, pledged to boycott British trade, began forming militias

Lexington and Concord

First battle of the Revolution, “Shot heard ‘round the world”, British marched to Concord to collect weapons, colonists met them at Lexington where the first shots of the Revolution were fired

Battle of Bunker Hill

Colonists turned back the British soldiers three times before running out of ammunition and giving up the hill, “Don’t shoot until you see the whites of their eyes.”, Boosted morale because it showed the Americans they could fight

Olive Branch Petition

Adopted by the Continental Congress in 1775 in an attempt to avoid a war between the colonies and Britain

Common Sense”

Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine to urge colonists to unite in the fight against Britain, written for the common man



KEY PEOPLE OF THE REVOLUTION

Abigail Adams

Wrote to her husband (John Adams) at the Second Continental Congress urging him to “Remember the Ladies”, first advocate of women’s rights

John Adams

Defended the Redcoats during the Boston Massacre trial, 2nd U.S. President

Samuel Adams

Leader of the Sons of Liberty

James Armistead

African American slave who acted as a spy to help the Continental Army

Bernardo de Galvez

Spanish soldier who fought on the side of the Americans, primarily in the South

Crispus Attucks

African American killed during the Boston Massacre

Mercy Otis Warren

Female playwright whose literary works supported independence

Marquis de Lafayette

French soldier who provided training to Washington’s troops at Valley Forge

Benjamin Franklin

Author of the “Join or Die” cartoon, convinced the French to join the American war effort after the Battle of Saratoga

King George III

King of England during the Revolution

Wentworth Cheswell

Patriot, teacher, historian, first African American elected to public office

Patrick Henry

Radical patriot most noted for saying “Give me liberty, or give me death”

Thomas Jefferson

Primary author of the Declaration of Independence, 3rd U.S. President

John Paul Jones

Father of the American Navy, “I have not yet begun to fight.”

Thomas Paine

Author of Common Sense and The Crisis, “These are the times that try men’s souls…”

Paul Revere

Used propaganda to encourage Americans to join the Patriot cause, warned of the British attack at Lexington and Concord

Hyam Solomon

Jewish immigrant who helped to finance the Continental Army

George Washington

Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, 1st U.S. President

http://www.earlyamerica.com/image/review/winter96/massacre2.jpg



DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

  • Primary author – Thomas Jefferson

  • Written at the meeting of the Second Continental Congress, Pennsylvania State House (Philadelphia) - 1776

  • Included list of grievances against King George III to justify breaking ties with England

  • “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”



REVOLUTION VOCABULARY

Ally – to unite for a specific purpose

Blockade – cutting off trade using troops or ships

Grievance – something that is wrong or unfair, a complaint

Guerilla Warfare – using your surroundings to your advantage

Ordinance – a law or regulation

Petition – a formal request

Traitor – a person who commits treason by betraying his or her country

Treaty – a formal agreement

Tyranta cruel or unjust ruler

Unalienable rights – rights that cannot be taken away



EVENTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Lexington/

Concord

First battles of the Revolution

Started the American Revolution



Bunker Hill

Boosted morale for the colonies

Saratoga

Turning point of the war, French decided to help the Americans

Valley Forge

Washington’s winter camp, harsh conditions, soldiers trained by Lafayette and Von Steuben

Yorktown

Final battle of the Revolution, Cornwallis surrendered to Washington

Treaty of Paris (1783)

Ended the Revolution, England recognized the U.S. as an independent nation



GOVERNMENT VOCABULARY

American System - Plan introduced to make the United States economically self-sufficient

Compromise - A settlement in which each side gives up something

Cabinet - Group of advisors to the President

Constitution - Plan of government

Ratify - To approve

Veto - To cancel

Amend - To change




ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

  • America’s first written plan of government/Constitution

  • Weak central government

    • No power to tax – No money

    • No power to control disputes between the states

    • No authority to enforce any of its powers

  • Shays’ Rebellion demonstrated the weaknesses of the Articles and showed the need for a stronger central government

  • Strength – Northwest Ordinance

NORTHWEST ORDINANCE

Established the Northwest Territory - which later became the states Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and northeast Minnesota.

  • Set up governments and described steps for the orderly addition of new states

  • No slavery was allowed.

  • Native Americans “should be” treated fairly.

  • Towns were encouraged to build schools.

CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION

WHO?

55 Delegates from 12 states

WHAT?

Meeting to revise the Articles of Confederation and address America’s weak central government

WHEN?

1787

WHERE?

Philadelphia (Pennsylvania State House)

WHY?

Shays’ Rebellion demonstrated the need for a stronger central government

RESULT?

Delegates created a new Constitution with 7 basic principles: popular sovereignty, separation of powers (established 3 branches of government), limited government, individual rights, checks and balances, federalism, and republicanism

INFLUENTIAL POLITICAL IDEOLOGY

John Locke

Introduced the idea that people are born with inalienable rights – life, liberty, and property

William Blackstone

Discussed the right to pursue happiness in his writings

Charles de Montesquieu

Introduced the idea of separation of powers (executive, judicial, and legislative) in his writings

Thomas Hooker

His democratic principles were instrumental in the creation of America’s first written constitution, The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

William Penn

Established Pennsylvania as a safe haven for Quakers

Virginia Plan (Large States)

  • Bicameral (2 houses) System

  • Representation based on population

New Jersey Plan (Small States)

  • Unicameral (1 house)System

  • Equal Representation

Great Compromise

  • Bicameral (2 Houses)

    • Senate – Equal Representation

    • House of Representatives – Representation based on population
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