Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700–1775 part I: Reviewing the Chapter A. Checklist of Learning Objectives



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CHAPTER 5 Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700–1775

PART I: Reviewing the Chapter

A. Checklist of Learning Objectives

After mastering this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Describe the demographic, ethnic, and social character of Britain’s colonies in the eighteenth century, and indicate how colonial society had changed since the seventeenth century.

2. Explain how the economic development of the colonies altered the patterns of social prestige and wealth, and brought growing class distinctions and class conflict to British North America.

3. Identify the major religious denominations of the eighteenth-century colonies, and indicate their role in early American society.

4. Explain the causes of the Great Awakening, and describe its effects on American religion, education, and politics.

5. Describe the origins and development of education, culture, and journalism in the colonies.

6. Describe the basic features of colonial politics, including the role of various official and informal political institutions.

7. Indicate the key qualities of daily existence in eighteenth-century colonial America, including forms of socialization and recreation.

B. Glossary

To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms.

1. sect A small religious group that has broken away from some larger mainstream church, often claiming superior or exclusive possession of religious truth. (A denomination is a branch of the church—usually Protestant—but makes no such exclusive claims.) “They belonged to several different Protestant sects. . . .”

2. agitators Persons who seek to excite or persuade the public on some issue. “Already experienced colonizers and agitators in Ireland, the Scots-Irish proved to be superb frontiersmen. . . .”

3. stratification The visible arrangement of society into a hierarchical pattern, with distinct social groups layered one on top of the other. “. . . colonial society . . . was beginning to show signs of stratification. . . .”

4. mobility The capacity to pass readily from one social or economic condition to another. (Social mobility may be upward, from a lower status to higher, or downward, from higher status to lower.)“. . . barriers to mobility . . . raised worries about the ‘Europeanization’ of America.”

5. elite A small, identifiable group at the top of a society or particular institution, usually possessing wealth, power, or special privileges. “. . . these elites now feathered their nests more finely.”

6. almshouse In the premodern era, a home for the poor, supported by charity or public funds. “Both Philadelphia and New York built almshouses in the 1730s. . . .”

7. gentry Landowners of substantial property, social standing, and leisure, but not titled nobility. “Wealth was concentrated in the hands of the largest slaveowners, widening the gap between the prosperous gentry and the ‘poor whites’. . . . ”

8. tenant farmer One who rents rather than owns land. “. . . the ‘poor whites’ . . . were increasingly forced to become tenant farmers.”

9. penal code The body of criminal laws specifying offenses and prescribing punishments. “But many convicts were the unfortunate victims . . . of a viciously unfair English penal code. . . .”

10. veto The executive power to prevent acts passed by the legislature from becoming law. “Thomas Jefferson, himself a slaveholder, assailed the British vetoes. . . .”

11. profession An occupation traditionally characterized by specialized skill, mastery of a body of knowledge, and publicly defined privileges and responsibilities. “Most honored of the professions was the Christian ministry.”

12. apprentice A person who works under a master to acquire instruction and skill in a trade or profession. “Aspiring young doctors served for a while as apprentices to older practitioners. . . .”

13. speculation Buying land or anything else in the hope of profiting by an expected rise in price. “Commercial ventures and land speculation . . . were the surest avenues to speedy wealth.”

14. revival In religion, a movement of renewed enthusiasm and commitment, often accompanied by special meetings or evangelical activity. “The stage was thus set for a rousing religious revival.”

15. secular Belonging to the worldly sphere, as distinct from the specifically sacred or churchly. “A more secular approach was evident late in the eighteenth century. . . .”

Part II: Checking Your Progress

A. True-False

Where the statement is true, circle T; where it is false, circle F.

1. T F Most of the spectacular growth of the colonial population came from immigration rather than natural increase.

2. T F The Scots-Irish were uprooted Scottish Protestants who largely settled in the Appalachian frontier and back country.

3. T F Compared with the seventeenth-century colonies, the eighteenth-century colonies were becoming more socially equal and democratic.

4. T F The lowest class of whites in the colonies consisted of the paupers and convicted criminals involuntarily shipped to America by British authorities.

5. T F When some North American colonists attempted to curtail the transatlantic slave trade, their efforts were thwarted by British government vetoes.

6. T F The most highly regarded professionals in the colonies were doctors and lawyers.

7. T F Besides agriculture, the most important colonial economic activities were fishing, shipping, and ocean-going trade.

8. T F The British government’s passage of the Molasses Act and other economic regulations effectively ended American merchants’ lucrative trade with the French West Indies.

9. T F The clergy of the established Anglican Church in the South and New York had a reputation for serious theology and high ethical standards.

10. T F The Great Awakening was a revival of fervent religion after a period of religious decline caused by clerical dullness and overintellectualism and lay liberalism in doctrine.

11. T F Great Awakening revivalists like Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield tried to replace the older Puritan ideas of conversion and salvation with more rational and less emotional beliefs.

12. T F The Great Awakening was the first mass movement across the thirteen colonies to create a strong sense of common American identity and shared destiny.

13. T F By the late eighteenth century, the nine American colleges were comparable to the best university education offered in Europe.

14. T F The conviction of newspaper printer John Peter Zenger for seditious libel of a colonial governor stirred Americans’ opposition to British censorship of the press.

15. T F The central point of conflict in colonial politics was the relation between the democratically elected lower house of the assembly and the governors appointed by the king or colonial proprietor.

C. Identification


Supply the correct identification for each numbered description.

. __________ Corruption of a German word used as a term for German immigrants in Pennsylvania

. __________ Ethnic group that had already relocated once before immigrating to America and settling largely on the western frontier of the middle and southern colonies

. __________ Rebellious movement of North Carolina frontiersmen against eastern domination that included future President Andrew Jackson

. __________ Popular term for convicted criminals dumped on colonies by British authorities

. __________ Dread disease that afflicted one out of every five colonial Americans, including George Washington

. __________ Lucrative profession, especially prevalent in New England, that marketed its product to the Catholic nations of southern Europe

. __________ Small but profitable trade route that linked New England, Africa, and the West Indies

. __________ Popular colonial centers of recreation, gossip, and political debate

. __________ Term for tax-supported condition of Congregational and Anglican churches, but not of Baptists, Quakers, and Roman Catholics

. __________ Spectacular, emotional religious revival of the 1730s and 1740s

. __________ Ministers who supported the Great Awakening against the old light clergy who rejected it

. __________ Followers of a Dutch theologian who challenged traditional Calvinist doctrine by arguing for free will and the dispensation of divine grace beyond a few elect

. __________ The case that established the precedent that true statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel

. __________ The first American college not to be sponsored by a religious denomination, strongly supported by Benjamin Franklin

. __________ Benjamin Franklin’s highly popular collection of information, parables, and advice


D. Matching People, Places, and Events


Match the person, place, or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by inserting the correct letter on the blank line.

1. ___ Philadelphia

2. ___ African Americans

3. ___ Scots-Irish

4. ___ Paxton Boys and Regulators

5. ___ Patrick Henry

6. ___ Molasses Act

7. ___ Anglican church

8. ___ Jonathan Edwards

9. ___ George Whitefield

10. ___ Phillis Wheatley

11. ___ Benjamin Franklin

12. ___ John Peter Zenger

13. ___ Quakers

14. ___ Baptists

15. ___ John Singleton Copley


a. Itinerant British evangelist who spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies

b. Colonial printer whose case helped begin freedom of the press

c. Colonial painter who studied and worked in Britain

d. Leading city of the colonies; home of Benjamin Franklin

e. Largest non-English group in the colonies

f. Dominant religious group in colonial Pennsylvania, criticized by others for their attitudes toward Indians

g. Former slave who became a poet at an early age

h. Scots-Irish frontiersmen who protested against colonial elites of Pennsylvania and North Carolina

i. Attempt by British authorities to squelch colonial trade with French West Indies

j. Brilliant New England theologian who instigated the Great Awakening

k. Group that settled the frontier, made whiskey, and hated the British and other governmental authorities

l. Nonestablished religious group that benefited from the Great Awakening

m. Author, scientist, printer; “the first civilized American”

n. Eloquent lawyer-orator who argued in defense of colonial rights

o. Established religion in southern colonies and New York; weakened by lackadaisical clergy and too-close ties with British crown

E. Putting Things in Order


Put the following events in correct order by numbering them 1 to 10.

1. __________ Epochal freedom of the press case is settled.

2. __________ First southern college to train Anglican clergy is founded.

3. __________ Britain vetoes colonial effort to halt slave importation.

4. __________ Scots-Irish protestors stage armed marches.

5. __________ First medical attempts are made to prevent dreaded disease epidemics.

6. __________ Parliament attempts to restrict colonial trade with French West Indies.

7. __________ Princeton College is founded to train new light ministers.

8. __________ An eloquent British preacher spreads evangelical religion through the colonies.

9. __________ Benjamin Franklin starts printing his most famous publication.

10. __________ A fiery, intellectual preacher sets off a powerful religious revival in New England.

F. Matching Cause and Effect


Match the historical cause in the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line.

Cause

Effect

. ___ The high natural fertility of the colonial population

. ___ The heavy immigration of Germans, Scots-Irish, Africans, and others into the colonies

. ___ The large profits made by merchants as military suppliers for imperial wars

. ___ American merchants’ search for non-British markets

. ___ Dry overintellectualism and loss of religious commitment

. ___ The Great Awakening

. ___ The Zenger case

. ___ The appointment of unpopular or incompetent royal governors to colonies

. ___ Upper-class fear of democratic excesses by poor whites

. ___ The lack of artistic concerns, cultural tradition, and leisure in the colonies




a. Prompted colonial assemblies to withhold royal governors’ salaries

b. Created the conditions for the Great Awakening to erupt in the early eighteenth century

c. Resulted in the development of a colonial melting pot, only one-half English by 1775

d. Was met by British attempts to restrict colonial trade, such as the Molasses Act

e. Increased the wealth of the eighteenth-century colonial elite

f. Led to the increase of American population to one-third of England’s in 1775

g. Forced the migration of colonial artists to Britain to study and pursue artistic careers

h. Marked the beginnings of freedom of printed political expression in the colonies

i. Reinforced colonial property qualifications for voting

j. Stimulated a fervent, emotional style of religion, denominational divisions, and a greater sense of intercolonial American identity


CHAPTER 6 The Duel for North America, 1608–1763


A. Checklist of Learning Objectives


After mastering this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Explain what caused the great contest for North America between Britain and France, and why Britain won.

2. Describe France’s colonial settlements and their expansion, and compare New France with Britain’s colonies in North America.

3. Explain how Britain’s colonists became embroiled in the home country’s wars with France.

4. Describe the colonists’ role in the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War), and indicate the consequences of the French defeat for Americans.

5. Indicate how and why the British victory in the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) became one of the causes of the American Revolution.


B. Glossary


To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms.

1. domestic Concerning the internal affairs of a country. “It was convulsed . . . by foreign wars and domestic strife. . . .”

2. minister In politics, a person appointed by the head of state to take charge of some department or agency of government. “France blossomed . . . led by a series of brilliant ministers. . . .”

3. autocratic Marked by strict authoritarian rule, without consent or participation by the populace. “This royal regime was almost completely autocratic.”

4. peasant A farmer or agricultural laborer, sometimes legally tied to the land and owing obligations to local nobles or gentry. “Landowning French peasants . . . had little economic motive to move.”

5. coureurs des bois French-Canadian fur trappers; literally, “runners of the woods.” “These colorful coureurs des bois . . .  were also runners of risks. . . .”

6. voyageurs French-Canadian explorers, adventurers, and traders. “Singing, paddle-swinging French voyageurs also recruited Indians. . . .”

7. flotilla A fleet of boats, usually smaller vessels. “The Indian fur flotilla . . . numbered four hundred canoes.”

8. ecological Concerning the relations between the biological organisms and their environment. “. . . they all but extinguished the beaver population in many areas, inflicting incalculable ecological damage.”

9. mutinous Concerning revolt by subordinate soldiers or seamen against their commanding officers. “But he failed to find the Mississippi delta,  . . .  and was murdered by his mutinous men.”

10. strategic Concerning the placement and planned movement of large-scale forces so as to gain political or military advantage in confrontation with the enemy. (By contrast, tactical refers to specific, variable, smaller-scale methods of waging conflict or achieving strategic objectives.) “Commanding the mouth of the Mississippi River, this strategic semitropical outpost also tapped the fur trade of the huge interior valley.”

11. guerilla warfare Unconventional combat waged by small military units using hit-and-run tactics. “. . . so the combatants waged a kind of primitive guerilla warfare.”

12. sallies (sally) In warfare, very rapid military movements, usually by small units, against an enemy force or position. “For their part the British colonists failed miserably in sallies against Quebec and Montreal. . . .”

13. siege A military operation of surrounding and attacking a fortified place, often over a sustained period. “After a ten-hour siege he was forced to surrender. . . .”

14. regulars Trained professional soldiers, as distinct from part-time militia or conscripts. “. . . they had fought bravely alongside the crack British regulars. . . .”

15. commissions An official government certification granting a commanding rank in the armed forces. “. . . the British refused to recognize any American militia commission. . . .”


A. True-False


Where the statement is true, circle T; where it is false, circle F.

1. T F French colonization was late developing because of the nation’s internal religious and political conflicts.

2. T F The French Empire in North America rested on an economic foundation of forestry and sugar production.

3. T F Early imperial conflicts in North America often saw the French and their Indian allies engaging in guerrilla warfare against British frontier outposts.

4. T F Colonists in British North America managed to avoid direct involvement in most of Britain’s world wars until the French and Indian War.

5. T F In the early seventeenth century, both France and England committed large regular forces to what they considered the crucial struggle for control of North America.

6. T F George Washington’s battle at Fort Necessity substantially resolved the issue of control of the Ohio Valley.

7. T F The delegates to the Albany Congress demonstrated a strong desire to overcome differences among different colonies and to control their own affairs.

8. T F William Pitt’s successful strategy was to concentrate British forces and focus on capturing the French strongholds of Louisbourg, Quebec, and Montreal.

9. T F British regular troops under General Braddock succeeded in capturing the key French forts in the Ohio Valley.

10. T F The French and Indian War left France with only Louisiana as a remnant of its once-mighty North American empire.

11. T F American soldiers gained new respect for British military men after the British success against the French.

12. T F The American colonists enthusiastically united in patriotic support of the British cause against the French.

13. T F The removal of the French threat made American colonists more secure and therefore less reliant on the mother country for protection.

14. T F A British commander used the biological warfare tactic of distributing blankets infected with smallpox to suppress Pontiac’s Indian uprising.

15. T F The British government’s attempt to prohibit colonial expansion across the Appalachian Mountains aroused colonial anger and defiance of the law.


C. Identification


Supply the correct identification for each numbered description.

. __________ French Protestants who were granted toleration by the Edict of Nantes in 1598 but not permitted to settle in New France

. __________ Absolute French monarch who reigned for seventy-two years

. __________ Animal whose pelt provided great profits for the French empire and enhanced European fashion at enormous ecological cost

. __________ Catholic religious order that explored the North American interior and sought to protect and convert the Indians

. __________ Far-running, high-living French fur trappers

. __________ Part of a certain British naval officer’s anatomy that set off an imperial war with Spain

. __________ Strategic French fortress conquered by New England settlers, handed back to the French in 1748, and finally conquered again by the British in 1759

. __________ Inland river territory, scene of fierce competition between the French and land- speculating English colonists

. __________ Bloodiest European theater of the Seven Years’ War, where Frederick the Great’s troops drained French strength away from North America

. __________ Unification effort that Benjamin Franklin nearly led to success by his eloquent leadership and cartoon artistry

. __________ Military aide to British General Braddock who defended the frontier after Braddock’s defeat

. __________ Fortress boldly and successfully assaulted by General Wolfe, spelling doom for New France

. __________ Prussian king whose defeats of the French and others in Germany provided a key to the British victory in the Seven Years’ War

. __________ Allies of the French against the British, who continued to fight under Pontiac even after the peace settlement in 1763

. __________ The larger European struggle of which the French and Indian War was part


D. Matching People, Places, and Events


Match the person, place, or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by inserting the correct letter on the blank line.

1. ___ Samuel de Champlain

2. ___ Robert de la Salle

3. ___ Albany

4. ___ War of Austrian Succession

5. ___ Fort Duquesne

6. ___ George Washington

7. ___ Benjamin Franklin

8. ___ General Braddock

9. ___ William Pitt

10. ___ Plains of Abraham

11. ___ Seven Years’ War

12. ___ Pontiac

13. ___ Proclamation of 1763

14. ___ New Orleans

15. ___ Acadians (Cajuns)


a. Advocate of colonial unity at a 1754 meeting in upstate New York

b. British document that aroused colonial anger but failed to stop frontier expansion

c. French colonists in Nova Scotia brutally uprooted by the victorious British and shipped to Louisiana

d. Conflict that started with the War of Jenkins’s Ear and ended with the return of Louisbourg to France

e. Strategic French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi

f. Indian leader whose frontier uprising caused the British to attempt to limit colonial expansion

g. Blundering British officer whose defeat gave the advantage to the French and Indians in the early stages of their war

h. The Father of New France, who established a crucial alliance with the Huron Indians

i. Site of the death of Generals Wolfe and Montcalm, where France’s New World empire also perished

j. Strategic French stronghold; later renamed after a great British statesman

k. Militia commander whose frontier skirmish in Pennsylvania touched off a world war

l. Site of a meeting that proposed greater unity and home rule among Britain’s North American colonies

m. Conflict that began with George Washington’s skirmish in Ohio and ended with the loss of France’s North American empire

n. French empire builder who explored the Mississippi Basin and named it after his monarch

o. Splendid British orator and organizer of the winning strategy against the French in North America

E. Putting Things in Order


Put the following events in correct order by numbering them from 1 to 10.

. __________ A Virginia militia commander attempts an unsuccessful invasion of the Ohio Valley.

. __________ The Great Commoner takes command of the British government and its war effort.

. __________ Toleration of French Huguenots brings religious peace to France.

. __________ New France is founded, one year after Jamestown.

. __________ Britain issues a proclamation to prohibit colonial expansion and thereby prevent another Indian war.

. __________ The second world war between France and Britain ends in British victory and the acquisition of Acadia.

. __________ British victory on the Plains of Abraham seals the fate of New France.

. __________ Return of Louisbourg fortress at the end of King George’s War angers colonial New Englanders

. __________ War begins badly for the British when Braddock fails to take Fort Duquesne.

. __________ A great empire builder explores Louisiana and claims it for the French king.

F. Matching Cause and Effect


Match the historical cause in the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line.

Cause

Effect

. ___ The French fur trade

. ___ The four world wars between 1688 and 1763

. ___ Competition for land and furs in the Ohio Valley

. ___ The summoning of the Albany Congress by the British

. ___ William Pitt’s assumption of control of British government and strategy

. ___ Wolfe’s victory over Montcalm at Quebec

. ___ The colonial militia’s military success in the French and Indian War

. ___ Colonial American smuggling and trading with French enemy

. ___ British issuance of the Proclamation of 1763

. ___ Braddock’s defeat at Fort Duquesne




a. Resulted in decisive French defeat and British domination of North America

b. Prompted widespread Indian assaults on the weakly defended colonial frontier

c. Led to Washington’s expedition and battle with the French at Fort Necessity

d. Heightened colonial anger and encouraged illegal westward expansion

e. Increased American military confidence and resentment of British redcoats

f. Decimated beaver populations while spreading the French empire

g. Were echoed by four small wars between French and British subjects in North America

h. Represented the first major attempt at intercolonial unity

i. Increased British government’s disdain for colonial Americans and raised doubts about their loyalty to the empire

j. Ended a string of defeats and turned the French and Indian War in Britain’s favor


CHAPTER 7 The Road to Revolution, 1763–1775


A. Checklist of Learning Objectives


After mastering this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Explain the ideas of republicanism and radical Whiggery that Britain’s American colonists had adopted by the eighteenth century.

2. Describe the theory and practice of mercantilism, and explain why Americans resented it.

3. Explain why Britain adopted policies of tighter political control and higher taxation of Americans after 1763 and how these policies sparked fierce colonial resentment.

4. Describe the first major new British taxes on the colonies and how colonial resistance forced repeal of all taxes, except the tax on tea, by 1770.

5. Explain how colonial agitators kept resistance alive from 1770–1773.

6. Indicate why the forcible importation of taxable British tea sparked the Boston Tea Party, the Intolerable Acts, and the outbreak of conflict between Britain and the colonists.

7. Assess the balance of forces between the British and the American rebels as the two sides prepared for war.


B. Glossary


To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms.

1. patronage A system in which benefits, including jobs, money, or protection are granted in exchange for political support. “The Whigs mounted withering attacks on the use of patronage and bribes by the king’s ministers. . . .”

2. mercantilism The economic theory that all parts of a nation’s or empire’s economy should be coordinated for the good of the whole state; hence, that colonial economic welfare should be subordinated to that of the imperial power. “The British authorities nevertheless embraced a theory called mercantilism. . . .”

3. depreciate To decrease in value, as in the decline of the purchasing power of money. “. . . dire financial need forced many of the colonies to issue paper money, which swiftly depreciated.”

4. veto The constitutional right of a ruler or executive to block legislation passed by another unit of government. “This royal veto was used rather sparingly. . . .”

5. monopoly The complete control of a product or sphere of economic activity by a single producer or business. “Virginia tobacco planters enjoyed a monopoly in the British market. . . .”

6. admiralty courts In British law, special administrative courts designed to handle maritime cases without a jury. “Both the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act provided for trying offenders in the hated admiralty courts. . . .”

7. virtual representation The political theory that a class of persons is represented in a lawmaking body without direct vote. “Elaborating the theory of ‘virtual representation,’ Grenville claimed that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects, even . . . Americans. . . .”

8. nonimportation agreement Pledges to boycott, or decline to purchase, certain goods from abroad. “More effective than the congress was the widespread adoption of nonimportation agreements. . . .”

9. mulatto A person of mixed African and European ancestry. “. . . Crispus Attucks [was] described . . . as a powerfully built runaway ‘mulatto.’. . . ”

10. duty(duties) A customs tax on the export or import of goods. “. . . finally persuaded Parliament to repeal the Townshend revenue duties.”

11. propaganda (propagandist)  A systematic program or particular materials designed to promote certain ideas; sometimes but not always the term is used negatively, implying the use of manipulative or deceptive means. (A propagandist is one who engages in such practices.) “Resistance was further kindled by a master propagandist and engineer of rebellion, Samuel Adams of Boston. . . .”

12. boycott An organized refusal to deal with some person, organization, or product. “The Association called for a complete boycott of British goods. . . .”

13. inflation An increase in the supply of currency relative to the goods available, leading to a decline in the purchasing power of money. “Inflation of the currency inevitably skyrocketed prices.”

14. desert To leave official government or military service without permission. “. . . hundreds of anxious husbands and fathers deserted.”

A. True-False


Where the statement is true, circle T; where it is false, circle F.

1. T F The republican idea of a just society, in which selfish interests were subordinated to the common good, took deep root in Britain’s North American colonies.

2. T F The theory of mercantilism held that colonies existed primarily to provide the mother country with raw materials as well as a market for exports.

3. T F British mercantilism prohibited the colonies from printing their own paper money.

4. T F In practice, British mercantilism provided the colonies with substantial economic benefits such as military protection and guaranteed markets for certain goods.

5. T F The fundamental motive behind the steep new taxes in the 1760s was to repay the large debt that Britain had incurred in defending its North American colonies.

6. T F Americans generally accepted the right of Parliament to tax the colonies to provide money for defense, but denied its right to legislate about colonial affairs.

7. T F When Americans first cried “no taxation without representation,” what they wanted was to have their own representatives elected to the British Parliament.

8. T F The colonies finally forced repeal of the Stamp Act by organizing political protests and enforcing nonimportation agreements against British goods.

9. T F The new British Townshend Acts were not direct taxes, but rather required colonists to shelter and feed British troops in their homes.

10. T F The Boston Massacre provoked colonial outrage because the British troops suddenly opened fire on peaceful Boston citizens without any provocation.

11. T F After the repeal of the Townshend Act, the spirit of colonial resistance was kept alive largely by agitators like Samuel Adams and his Committees of Correspondence.

12. T F Even though the Quebec Act was not really part of the Intolerable Acts, the colonists thought it especially oppressive because of their fear that it would expand Roman Catholicism.

13. T F The First Continental Congress proclaimed that the colonies would declare independence from Britain unless their grievances were redressed.

14. T F One fundamental American asset in the impending war with Britain was an extensive stockpile of military weapons and supplies.

15. T F A key British advantage was that they did not have to defeat all the rebellious American forces, but only fight to a draw in order to crush the Revolution.


C. Identification


Supply the correct identification for each numbered description.

. __________ The basic economic and political theory by which seventeenth- and eighteenth- century European powers governed their overseas colonies

. __________ The early modern political theory, modeled on ancient Greek and Roman ideas, that a just and stable society required citizens to subordinate their individual interests to support the common good

. __________ The eighteenth-century British political theorists, popular in the colonies, who argued that centralized government power inevitably led to political corruption and destruction of individual rights and liberties

. __________ The first law, passed in 1764, that aimed specifically to raise revenue in the colonies for benefit of the British crown

. __________ British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

. __________ The effective form of organized colonial resistance against the Stamp Act, which made homespun clothing fashionable

. __________ The product taxed under the Townshend Acts that generated the greatest colonial resistance

. __________ Underground networks of communication and propaganda, initiated by Samuel Adams, that sustained colonial resistance even when public anger died down from 1770–1773

. __________ A spectacular protest by men disguised as Indians that actually destroyed large quantities of a valuable product and provoked fierce governmental repression

. __________ Religion that was granted toleration in the trans-Allegheny West by the Quebec Act, arousing deep colonial hostility

. __________ German mercenaries hired by George III to fight the American revolutionaries

. __________ Paper currency authorized by Congress to finance the Revolution depreciated to near worthlessness

. __________ Effective organization created by the First Continental Congress to provide a total, unified boycott of all British goods

. __________ Rapidly mobilized colonial militiamen whose refusal to disperse sparked the first battle of the Revolution

. __________ Popular term for British regular troops, scorned as “lobster backs” and “bloody backs” by Bostonians and other colonials


D. Matching People, Places, and Events


Match the person, place, or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by inserting the correct letter on the blank line.

. ___ John Adams

. ___ George Grenville

. ___ Stamp Act

. ___ Sons and Daughters of Liberty

. ___ “Champagne Charley” Townshend

. ___ Crispus Attucks

. ___ George III

. ___ Samuel Adams

. ___ Boston Tea Party

. ___ Intolerable Acts

. ___ Thomas Hutchinson

. ___ The Association

. ___ Marquis de Lafayette

. ___ Baron von Steuben

. ___ Quartering Act


a. British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act

b. Legislation passed in 1765, but repealed the next year, after colonial resistance made it impossible to enforce

c. The organization created by the First Continental Congress to enforce a total boycott of all British goods in America

d. Legislation that required colonists to feed and shelter British troops; disobeyed in New York and elsewhere

e. Nineteen-year-old major general in the Revolutionary army

f. Massachusetts leader who successfully opposed compromise and promoted colonial rights in the First Continental Congress

g. Minister whose clever attempt to impose import taxes nearly succeeded, but eventually brewed trouble for Britain

h. Zealous defender of the common people’s rights and organizer of underground propaganda committees

i. Harsh measures of retaliation for a tea party, including the Boston Port Act closing that city’s harbor

j. Stubborn ruler, lustful for power, who promoted harsh ministers like Lord North

k. Alleged leader of radical protesters killed in Boston Massacre

l. Organizational genius who turned raw colonial recruits into tough professional soldiers

m. Male and female organizations that enforced the nonimportation agreements, sometimes by coercive means

n. British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston Tea Party

o. Event organized by men disguised as Indians to sabotage British support of a British East India Company monopoly

E. Putting Things in Order


Put the following events in correct order by numbering them from 1 to 10.

. __________ Britain attempts to gain revenue by a tax on papers and documents, creating a colonial uproar.

. __________ Britain closes the port of Boston and opens the western frontier to Catholicism.

. __________ Crispus Attucks leads a crowd in an attack on British troops, and eleven people are killed.

. __________ Colonial Minute Men fire “the shot heard around the world” in the first battle of the Revolution.

. __________ A British minister cleverly attempts to gain revenue and dampen colonial protest by imposing an import tax only on certain specialized products.

. __________ A British agency is established with broad but generally ineffective power over colonial commerce.

. __________ Samuel Adams and others organize revolutionary cells of communication and agitation across the colonies.

. __________ Parliament repeals a direct tax in response to colonial protest but declares that it has the right to tax colonies.

. __________ A band of men disguised as Indians dumps the rich cargo of the British East India Company into Boston Harbor, provoking a harsh British response.

. __________ First acts are passed by Parliament to regulate colonial trade based on mercantilist principles.

F. Matching Cause and Effect


Match the historical cause in the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line.

Cause

Effect

. ___ America’s distance from Britain and the growth of colonial self-government

. ___ British mercantilism

. ___ The large British debt incurred defending the colonies in the French and Indian War

. ___ Passage of the Stamp Act

. ___ British troops sent to enforce order in Boston

. ___ The British government’s attempt to maintain the East India Company’s tea monopoly

. ___ The Boston Tea Party

. ___ The Intolerable Acts

. ___ A British attempt to seize the colonial militia’s gunpowder supplies

. ___ The Continental Congress’s reluctance to tax Americans for war




a. Prompted the summoning of the First Continental Congress

b. Led Grenville to propose the Sugar Act, Quartering Act, and Stamp Act

c. Precipitated the Battle of Lexington and Concord

d. Fired on colonial citizens in the Boston Massacre

e. Prompted passage of the Intolerable Acts, including the Boston Port Act

f. Resulted in the printing of large amounts of paper currency and skyrocketing inflation

g. Enforced restrictions on colonial manufacturing, trade, and paper currency

h. Led to gradual development of a colonial sense of independence years before the Revolution

i. Spurred patriots to stage Boston Tea Party

j. Was greeted in the colonies by the nonimportation agreements, the Stamp Act Congress, and the forced resignation of stamp agents



CHAPTER 8 America Secedes from the Empire, 1775–1783

A. Checklist of Learning Objectives


After mastering this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Explain how American colonists could continue to proclaim their loyalty to the British crown even while they engaged in major military hostilities with Britain after April 1775.

2. Explain why Thomas Paine’s Common Sense finally inspired Americans to declare their independence in the summer of 1776, and outline the principal ideas of republicanism that Paine and other American revolutionary leaders promoted.

3. Explain both the specific political grievances and the universal ideals and principles that Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence used to justify America’s separation from Britain.

4. Show why the American Revolution should be understood as a civil war between Americans as well as a war with Britain, and describe the motivations and treatment of the Loyalists.

5. Describe how Britain’s original strategic plan to crush the Revolution was foiled, especially by the Battle of Saratoga.

6. Describe the fundamental military strategy that Washington and his generals, especially Nathanael Greene, adopted, and why it proved successful.

7. Describe the key role of the French alliance in winning American independence, including the final victory at Yorktown.

8. Describe the terms of the Treaty of Paris, and explain why America was able to achieve a diplomatic victory that far exceeded its military and economic strength.

B. Glossary


To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms.

1. mercenary A professional soldier who serves in a foreign army for pay. “. . . the Americans called all the European mercenaries Hessians.”

2. indictment A formal written accusation charging someone with a crime. “The overdrawn bill of indictment included imposing taxes without consent. . . .”

3. dictatorship A form of government characterized by absolute state power and unlimited, arbitrary control by the ruler or rulers. “The [charges] included . . . establishing a military dictatorship. . . .”

4. neutral A nation or person not taking sides in a war. “Many colonists were apathetic or neutral. . . .”

5. civilian A citizen not in military service. “The opposing forces contended . . . for the allegiance . . . of the civilian population.”

6. traitor One who betrays a country by aiding an enemy. “. . . they regarded their opponents, not themselves, as traitors.”

7. confiscate To seize private property for public use, often as a penalty. “The estates of many of the fugitives were confiscated. . . .”

8. envoy A messenger or agent sent by a government on official business. “Benjamin Franklin, recently sent to Paris as an envoy, truthfully jested that Howe had not captured Philadelphia. . . .”

9. rabble A mass of disorderly and crude common people. “This rabble was nevertheless whipped into a professional army. . . .”

10. blockade The isolation of a place by hostile ships or troops, preventing the movement of people or goods. “Now the French had powerful fleets. . . in a position to jeopardize Britain’s blockade and lines of supply.”

11. privateer A private vessel temporarily authorized to capture or plunder enemy ships in wartime. “More numerous and damaging than ships of the regular American navy were swift privateers.”

12. graft Taking advantage of one’s official position to gain money or property by illegal means. “It had the unfortunate effect of . . . involving Americans, including Benedict Arnold, in speculation and graft.”

A. True-False


Where the statement is true, circle T; where it is false, circle F.

. T F George Washington was chosen commander of the American army primarily because of his military abilities and experience.

. T F Following the Battle of Bunker Hill, King George made one last attempt at reconciliation with his American subjects and their Continental Congress.

. T F The American invasion of Canada in 1775 was based in part on the false belief that oppressed French Canadians would rise up in revolt and join the thirteen colonies in revolt.

. T F Tom Paine’s Common Sense was most important because it advocated not only American independence but a republican form of government based on consent of the people.

. T F The Declaration of Independence justified American independence not on the basis of the historic rights of Englishmen, but on the basis of the universal natural rights of all humankind.

. T F The Declaration of Independence made the colonists seditious rebels against the king and enabled them to seek foreign assistance for their cause.

. T F The Loyalists considered the Patriots to be the traitors to their country (Britain) and themselves to be the true patriots.

. T F Most Loyalists were executed or driven from the country after the Patriot victory.

. T F The Loyalists were strongest in New England and Virginia.

. T F The most critical result of General Burgoyne’s defeat at Saratoga in 1777 was that it led to the American alliance with France.

. T F Americans’ enlightened revolutionary idealism made them believe that the rule of law and free commercial trade, not traditional power politics, should be the basis of all international relations.

. T F By using delay and strategic retreat, General Nathanael Greene successfully thwarted the British attempt to crush the Revolution in the South 1780–1781.

. T F At Yorktown, the Americans finally showed that they could win an important battle without French assistance.

. T F American diplomats in Paris were successful in guaranteeing American political independence but failed to gain the territorial concessions they wanted.

. T F Although Britain lost its North American colonies in the Revolutionary War, it gained strategic and military dividends that paid off in the much larger wars with Napoleon for control of Europe.


C. Identification


Supply the correct identification for each numbered description.

. __________ The body that chose George Washington commander of the Continental Army

. __________ The British colony that Americans invaded in 1775 in hopes of adding it to the rebellious thirteen

. __________ The inflammatory pamphlet that demanded independence and heaped scorn on “the Royal Brute of Great Britain”

. __________ The document that provided a passionate explanation and justification of Richard Henry Lee’s official resolution passed by Congress on July 2, 1776

. __________ Another name for the American Tories

. __________ One of George Washington’s most brilliant military victories, when he surprised the British and Hessians the day after Christmas, 1776

. __________ Pennsylvania valley where Washington’s army nearly starved and froze to death in the winter of 1777–1778

. __________ The river valley that was the focus of Britain’s early military strategy and the scene of Burgoyne’s surrender at Saratoga in 1777

. __________ Term for the alliance of Catherine the Great of Russia and other European powers who did not declare war but assumed a hostile neutrality toward Britain

. __________ English translation of the new American republic’s official motto, novus ordo seculorum

. __________ Self-denying document drafted by Congress in 1776 to guide American diplomacy that specified no political or military alliances but only commercial relations

. __________ Legalized pirates, more than a thousand strong, who inflicted heavy damage on British shipping

. __________ British political party that replaced Lord North’s Tories in 1782 and made a generous treaty with the United States

. __________ The key American fort on the Hudson River that General Benedict Arnold attempted to hand over to the British

. __________ Treaty between the United States and the Iroquois that represented the first Indian treaty ever signed by the new nation.


D. Matching People, Places, and Events


Match the person, place, or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by inserting the correct letter on the blank line.

1. ___ George Washington

2. ___ Bunker Hill

3. ___ Benedict Arnold

4. ___ Thomas Paine

5. ___ Richard Henry Lee

6. ___ Thomas Jefferson

7. ___ Nathanael Greene

8. ___ General Burgoyne

9. ___ General Howe

10. ___ Benjamin Franklin

11. ___ George Rogers Clark

12. ___ John Paul Jones

13. ___ Saratoga

14. ___ Yorktown

15. ___ Joseph Brant


a. British general who chose to enjoy himself in New York and Philadelphia rather than vigorously pursue the American enemy

b. Brilliant American general who invaded Canada, foiled Burgoyne’s invasion, and then betrayed his country in 1780

c. American naval commander who successfully harassed British shipping

d. Author of an explanatory indictment, signed on July 4, 1776, that accused George III of establishing a military dictatorship

e. Shrewd and calculatingly homespun American diplomat who forged the alliance with France and later secured a generous peace treaty

f. Mohawk chief who led many Iroquois to fight with Britain against American revolutionaries

g. The decisive early battle of the American Revolution that led to the alliance with France

h. Military engagement that led King George III officially to declare the colonists in revolt

i. Brilliant “Fighting Quaker” whose strategy of retreat and delay finally defeated the British in the Carolinas

j. A wealthy Virginian of great character and leadership abilities who served his country without pay

k. The British defeat that led to the fall of North’s government and the end of the war

l. Leader whose small force conquered key British forts in the West

m. A radical British immigrant who put an end to American toasts to King George

n. Fiery Virginian and author of the official resolution of July 2, 1776, formally authorizing the colonies’ independence

o. Blundering British general whose slow progress south from Canada ended in disaster at Saratoga

E. Putting Things in Order


Put the following events in correct order by numbering them from 1 to 6.

. __________ Lord North’s military collapses, and Britain’s Whigs take power, ready to make peace.

. __________ Thomas Jefferson writes an eloquent justification of Richard Henry Lee’s resolution.

. __________ Burgoyne and Howe are defeated both by the generalship of Washington and Arnold and by their own blundering.

. __________ The Treaty of Paris is signed, guaranteeing American independence.

. __________ The British launch a frontal attack on entrenched American forces near Boston and suffer drastic losses in their victory.

. __________ Washington’s army and the French navy trap General Cornwallis, spelling the end for the British.

F. Matching Cause and Effect


Match the historical cause in the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line.

Cause

Effect

. ___ The Battle of Bunker Hill

. ___ Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

. ___ Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence

. ___ The Patriot militia’s political education and recruitment

. ___ The blundering of Burgoyne and Howe and the superb military strategy of Arnold and Washington

. ___ The Battle of Saratoga

. ___ Clark’s military conquests and Jay’s diplomacy

. ___ The trapping of Cornwallis between Washington’s army and de Grasse’s navy

. ___ The collapse of the North ministry and the Whi g takeover of the British government

. ___ Jay’s secret and separate negotiations with Britain




a. Led to American acquisition of the West up to the Mississippi River

b. Caused King George to proclaim the colonies in revolt and import Hessian troops to crush them

c. Led to a favorable peace treaty for the United States and the end of French schemes for a smaller, weaker America

d. Caused the British to begin peace negotiations in Paris

e. Inspired universal awareness of the American Revolution as a fight for the belief that “all men are created equal”

f. Caused the British defeat at Yorktown and the collapse of North’s Tory government

g. Led to the failure of Britain’s grand strategy and the crucial American victory at Saratoga

h. Made France willing to become an ally of the United States

i. Stirred growing colonial support for declaring independence from Britain

j. Won neutral or apathetic Americans over to the Patriot cause




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