COLONIAL TRADE WITH ENGLAND, 1756- 1759
New England New York Pennsylvania
imports exports imports exports imports exports
1756 384,371 47,359 250,425 24,073 200,169 20,095
1757 363,404 27,556 353,311 19,168 268,426 14,190
1758 465,694 30,204 356,555 14,260 260,953 21,383
1759 525,067 25,985 630,785 23,684 494,161 22,404
imports exports imports exports
1756 337,759 200,169 181,780 222,915
1757 426,687 418,881 213,949 130,889
1758 438,471 454,362 181,002 150,511
1759 459,007 357,228 215,255 206,534
97. Based on the table above, the least valuable of England’s American colonies in terms of exports was (A) New England (B) New York (C) Pennsylvania (D) Virginia and Maryland (E) Carolina.
98. The Pilgrims were also known as separatists because they (A) wanted to separate Plymouth from the Massachusetts Bay Colony (B) believed in the complete separation of Church and state (C) broke all ties with the Church of England (D) were the first to declare their independence from Great Britain (E) tried to isolate the Native Americans from White settlers.
99. Which of the following statements about colonial politics in the eighteenth century is true?
(A) The right to vote for representatives to the colonial assemblies was severely restricted by high property qualifications (B) The colonial assemblies controlled taxes and expenditures (C) The colonial assemblies had the right to elect the governors (D) The governors had unlimited authority as agents of the king (E) The requirements for office holding were the same as those for voting.
100. One of the consequences of the Great Awakening was (A) a closer sense of unity between England and its colonies (B) that the church of England was adopted by the colonies as an officially established church (C) the discussion of new ideas in religion (D) a challenge to traditional beliefs (E) a growing awareness of the people in the colonies of their rights as Englishmen.
101. Which of the following is properly considered the main purpose of the Navigation Acts? (A) The promotion of trade among the colonies (B) The protection of American manufacturing from foreign competition (C) To guarantee that England alone would profit with the colonies (D) to raise revenue for maintaining the British Empire (E) The regulation of the slave trade in the colonies.
102. The principle of freedom of the press in colonial America was established by the (A) Articles of Confederation (B) Bill of Rights (C) Virginia House of Burgesses (D) trial of Peter Zenger (E) The Mayflower Compact.
103. Which of the following statements is not true about the Coercive Acts? (A) They were directed against all of the colonies (B) They were called the Intolerable Acts by the colonists (C) They significantly strengthened colonial unity (D) They led to a boycott of British goods in the colonies (E) They were the British response to the Boston Tea Party.
104. The individual who best represented the Enlightenment in colonial America was (A) Anne Hutchinson (B) George Whitefield (C) Alexander Hamilton (D) William Bradford (E) Benjamin Franklin.
105. The British response to the American claim of “No taxation without Representation” was that (A) Colonial assemblies would be permitted to vote on all new taxes (B) Money raised through Taxes would be used for improvements in the colonies (C) American approval was necessary for internal taxes (D) members of Parliament represented the interests of all people in the British empire (E) Parliament agreed it had no authority to impose taxes on the colonies.
106. In the Seventeenth Century, The Great migration refers to the (A) settlement of the puritans in Massachusetts Bay (B) Trade in slaves between west Africa and the West Indies (C) Immigration of the Irish to the colonies (D) expansion of the White settlement across the Appalachian Mountains (E) settlement of French speaking Canadians in Louisiana.
107. The purpose of the New England Confederation was to (A) unite all the English colonies in a common bond (B) organize colonial defense in New England (C) ease parliament’s burden in administrating colonial government (D) prevent the smuggling of enumerated articles (E) join with the area to promote tolerance and coexistence.
108. Under the Navigation Acts, the enumerated articles were (A) goods that could be shipped to any country (B) goods needed but not produced in England (C) taxed more heavily than other products (D) primarily produced in the West Indies (E) regulated by Boards of Trade in the colonies.
109. According to the Olive Branch Petition, the colonies (A) were ready to declare their independence from Great Britain (B) remained loyal to King George III (C) demanded that British troops immediately leave the colonies (D) agreed to raise a common army to defend themselves (E) accepted the Stamp Act if they were allowed to elect members of Parliament.
110. The Declaration of Independence was based on the political philosophy of (A) Edmund Burke (B) Thomas Paine (C) Thomas Hobbes (D) John Locke (E) Thomas Jefferson.
111. Which of the following colonies was founded as a haven for Catholics? (A) Plymouth (B) New Amsterdam (C) Pennsylvania (D) Rhode island (E) Maryland.
112. Which of the following English acts or documents was issued first? (A) Iron Act (B) Proprietary grant to William Penn (C) Charter of the Dominion of New England (D) Molasses Act
(E) Massachusetts Bay Company Charter.
“It being one chief project of Satan to keep man from the knowledge of the scriptures...it is therefore ordered by this court (Assembly)... that every township within this jurisdiction that the Lord hath increased them to the number of fifty householders, shall then forthwith appoint one within their towns to teach all such children as shall resort (apply) to him to write and read, whose wages shall be paid either by parents of masters of such children, or by the inhabitants in general... provided that those who send be not oppressed by paying much more than they can have them taught for in other towns.”
113. This passage sets forth basic American attitudes concerning the (A) separation of church and state (B) power of the state over the power of Satan (C) political power of townships (D) importance of education (E) value of fair and equal taxation.
114. Which of the following is not correctly paired?: (A) Williamsburg/Virginia (B) Annapolis/Maryland (C) Salem/Rhode Island (D) Charleston/South Carolina (E) New London/Connecticut.
115. Which of the following events occurred first? (A) Bacon’s Rebellion (B) Glorious Revolution in England (C) War of Spanish Succession (D) Formation of the New England Confederation (E) French and Indian War.
116. Which of the following was not the leader of the settlement paired with his name? (A) John Smith/Jamestown (B) General Oglethorpe/Savannah (C) William Penn/Pennsylvania (D) Roger Williams/Hartford (E) William Bradford/Plymouth.
117. All of the following acts were part of the British mercantile system except: (A) Act of Toleration (B) Hatters Act (C) Iron Act (D) Sugar or Molasses Act (E) Woolens Act.
118. The chief significance of the Great Awakening was that it (A) led to the foundation of colleges (B) provided Jonathan Edwards with an opportunity to preach (C) was the first genuine unified movement of the American colonists (D) revived intolerance (E) created new interest in the churches.
119. The most significant difference between the Pilgrims and the Puritans is that the Pilgrims (A) arrived in New England first (B) obtained a grant of settlement from the London Company (C) wished to separate from the Church of England (D) had a strong leader (E) celebrated the first Thanksgiving.
120. The first permanent settlement on the mainland of North America was at (A) St. Augustine (B) Plymouth (C) Quebec (D) Jamestown (E) Raleigh.
121. Which of the following was accomplished by William Pitt? (A) A superlative leader, he was able to lead the English to victory in a few short months (B) A tall and imposing figure, the "Great Commoner" made quick strategic decisions that backfired in the French victory at Quebec (C) In 1757, Pitt became a foremost leader in the London government and focused British naval efforts against the French West Indies (D) Pitt’s decision to concentrate on the vitals of Canada, the Quebec-Montreal area led to British victories at Louisbourg (1758) and Quebec (1759) (E) Pitt also picked old and cautious generals, thus missing the chance to invigorate the British military.
122. The Treaty of Tordesillas (A) divided the New World between the Spaniards and the Portuguese (B) established Spanish as the official language of South America (C) resolved the French and English claims to Martinique (D) determined the border between Georgia and Florida (E) proclaimed the Papacy’s desire to prevent warfare between colonists and Native Americans.
123. The Native Americans did all of the following except: (A) aid the Pilgrims of Plymouth (B) split in their support of the French and English in the 18th Century colonial wars (C) felt their way of life was threatened by the territorial expansion of the colonies (E) organized effectively to block English expansion west of the Appalachian.
124. Which of the following men explored in North America for the French? (A) Magellan (B) Coronado (C) Hudson (D) Frobisher (E) Champlain.
125. The trial of John Peter Zenger has often been considered an important step in the development of (A) religious toleration (B) freedom of the press (C) trial by jury (D) the right to bear arms (E) concepts of privacy.
126. The Albany Plan was (A) the first plan for city development (B) a scheme to make money (C) a plan for colonial union (D) a plan of attack in King William’s War (E) a plan to build a canal connecting Albany with the West.
127. The English colony first settled by the Dutch was (A) New York (B) Jamaica (C) Canada (D) Pennsylvania (E) Delaware.
128. The principal motivation for the settlement of the Plymouth Bay Colony was (A) economic (B) political (C) religious (D) social (E) cultural.
129. The Sovereignty and Goodness of God or Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson was (A) an account of the Salem Witch Trials (B) a sermon by Jonathan Edwards, which precipitated the Great Awakening (C) an argument used by the abolitionists in attacking slavery (D) the most popular story about native Americans written in the English colonies (E) a statement in favor of temperance.
130. All of the following are characteristics of the African slave trade in the 18th century except: (A) Kings of African nations along the coast sold slaves to white traders (B) during the “middle passage” slaves were chained and kept below deck most of the time (C) Degradation and psychological damage occurred to all those involved, according to scholars today (D) The colonists relied on the English traders to supply slaves (E) Most of the slaves sold in the Southern Colonies were imported directly from Africa
131. All of the following explorers are correctly paired with the country for which they sailed except:
(A) Ferdinand Magellan-Spain
(B) Samuel de Champlain-France
(C) Henry Hudson-Portugal
(D) John Cabot-England
(E) Francis Drake-England
132. The early Virginia colony began to grow and prosper when (A) the Native Americans (Indians) were removed to reservations west of the Appalachian Mountains (B) the defeat of the Spanish Armada ended the threat of foreign intervention the settlers found they could export tobacco on a profitable basis (D) quinine was introduced to combat malaria (E) royalists fled to Virginia following their defeat in the English Civil War.
“... be it enacted [that henceforth]... no goods or commodities whatsoever shall be imported into or exported out of any lands, islands, plantations or territories to his Majesty belonging ... but in such ships or vessels whereof the master and three fourths of the mariners at least are English.”
133. The passage above is from a series of enactments known as the (A) Townshend Acts (B) Coercive Acts (C) Navigation Acts (D) Embargo (E) American System.
134. Which of the following best describes the religious policies of the Massachusetts Bay colony before 1689? (A) Discrimination against anyone who practiced a religion other than the established religion (B) Discrimination against Catholics and Jews only (C) Discrimination against atheists and agnostics only (D) Toleration of all Protestant religious practices except those of the Church of England (E) Permission for all men to worship as they pleased.
135. The colony of Georgia was founded to (A) provide a have for religious dissenters (B) provide land for the favorites of George II (C) provide a refuge for privateers harassing Spanish Florida (D) rehabilitate thieves and beggars through hard work (E) establish a trading post close to the Native Americans (Indians).
“Goaded to desperation by the tactics of the frontier trappers and traders, affronted by the refusal of the English to continue the French practice of annual gifts, and foreseeing the crowding of the territory by English settlers, the Indians of Ohio Valley formed a grand confederacy under the leadership of the chief of the Ottawa.”
136. The quotation above describes (A) King Philip’s War (1675) (B) the French and Indian War (1754) (C) Pontiac’s Confederacy (1763) (D) the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768) (E) the Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794).
137. Which of the following characterized New England Protestants in the first half of the nineteenth century? (A) It reversed the eighteenth century tendency of Protestantism to divide into separate and competing sects (B) It remained the established state religion (C) It came to insist on strict predestination (D) It remained unaffected by the various reform movements of the time, such as temperance and abolitionism (E) It softened its theology so as to enhance the power of individuals to effect their own conversion.
138. During the Colonial period the term “freeman” generally came to mean any (A) white male over 21 who paid enough taxes to vote (B) male aged sixteen to sixty who served in the militia (C) freed slave (D) member of a Protestant church (E) member of a colony’s legislative body.
139. The people who settled New England in the seventeenth century were known as Puritans from their attempt to purify the (A) Roman Catholic church (B) Parliament of England (C) Church of England (D) Methodist Church (E) morals of the English court.
140. European settlers in the Americans adopted all of the following from Native Americans (Indians) except: (A) log cabins (B) maize (C) snowshoes (D) canoes (E) tobacco.
141. A distinguishing feature of a royal colony was the (A) appointment of the governor by the king (B) election of the governor by the colonists, with approval by the king (C) appointment of the assembly by the king (D) appointment of the assembly by the king and Parliament (E) appointment of the governor and the assembly by the king.
142. The Great Awakening of the 1740’s was (A) a political movement in which Americans debated the dangers posed by the increasing British presence in the colonies (B) a religious revival that brought new harmony to colonial society and reversed the trend towards religious pluralism (C) a popular expression of pride in the rising wealth and power of the American colonies (D) a religious movement that aroused masses of ordinary people to intense, emotional concern about the state of their souls (E) an extension of the Enlightenment that philosophers such as Voltaire and Condorcet were promoting in Europe.
143. The majority of Europeans who settled in the British colonies of North America before 1776 are most accurately characterized as (A) younger sons and daughters of the upper classes who came seeking their fortunes (B) ambitious men and women of the lower middle classes (C) criminals and bankrupt debtors (D) religious dissidents seeking refuge from persecution (E) political refugees from resolutions on the continent.
“For the work we have in hand, it is by a mutual consent though a special overruling providence, and a more than ordinary approbation of the churches of Christ to seek out a place of cohabitation and consortship under a due form of government both civil and ecclesiastical. In such cases as this the case of the public must oversway all private respects, by which not only conscience, by mere civil policy doth bind us; for it is a true rule that particular estates cannot subsist in the ruin of the public.”
144. The statement above, made by John Winthrop in 1630, illustrates the Puritan commitment to (A) democracy (B) authoritarianism (C) community (D) individualism (E) capitalism.
145. Which of the following statements best describes the temperance movement in the mid-seventeenth century? (A) Its public appeal reflected middle-class suspicion about the excesses of both rich and poor (B) It appealed to the lower classes because it hurt merchants and farmers (C) It was an effort of the upper classes to repress the lower and middle classes (D) It was primarily a Southern counterattack against Northern abolitionists (E) It received strong support among immigrants in Northern cities.
“... It seems most agreeable with the light of nature that if there be any of the regular government settled in the church of God, it must needs be a democracy ....(Christ] must needs be presumed to have made choice of that government as should least expose his people to hazard, either from the fraud or arbitrary measures of particular men.”
146. This statement by an early eighteenth-century Puritan minister provides evidence that (A) only the Anglican churches were loyal to England (B) the organization and beliefs of the Congregational churches had the potential to weaken the English imperial political structure (C) democracy was dependent on Christianity for its justification (D) ministers in Massachusetts held too much political influence (E) only a clear separation of church and state could preserve English control over the New England colonies.
147. All but one of the following statements about the trade and navigation acts of the colonial period are true. Identify the exception. (A) The regulations concerning the tobacco trade practically assured the British Isles as a market for Virginia and Maryland tobacco. (B) The beaver trade centered in the Hudson valley resulted in scores of small establishments in Connecticut and New York coastal towns that were well known for the manufacture of fine beaver hats and cloaks. (C) No real trouble between England and the American colonies developed over trade and navigation acts until after the French and Indian War. (D) The rival colonial powers had similar trade and navigation laws to control the trade of their respective colonies. (E) Had the sugar and molasses acts passed by the British Parliament been enforced they would have had a substantial adverse effect on the New England rum trade.
148. All but one of the following statements about mercantilism are true. Identify the exception. (A) Lord Granville in England advocated mercantilism. (B) Colonial trade was to be regulated in a manner that would create a favorable balance of trade for the mother country. (C) While England was following the mercantile theory of trade, she was also treating the American colonies with salutary neglect in regard to the trade and navigation acts. (D) Laissez-faire was a basic concept of mercantilism. (E) An assumption inherent in mercantilism was that in business deals one party got the better of the other.
149. “Resolved that the fixing of the Proclamation Line of 1763 was justified.” All but one of the statements below supports this resolution. Identify the exception. (A) British troops could not provide effective protection west of the Alleghenies. (B) The destruction of several English forts in the Ohio region by Indians under Chief Pontiac could have been only the beginning of a serious military problem. (C) The area east of the Alleghenies to the Atlantic coast left plenty of land for the settlers of the 1700’s. (D) Settlers who had already gone west of the mountains could not be expected to give up their land claims and their livelihood. (E) Keeping Indians in a designated area by military force was impractical and necessitated an agreement they would willingly accept.
150. Which of the following was not associated with the Massachusetts Bay Colony? (A) Ann Hutchinson (B) Theocratic government (C) John Winthrop (D) Edmund Andros (E) James Oglethorpe.
151. In all but one of the pairs below, the words or phrase in parenthesis helps to bring into effect, to support, or to make more effective the item with which it is paired. Identify the exception to that relationship.
(A) Proclamation line of 1763 (Chief Pontiac’s War)
(B) Mercantilism(Laws forbidding trades and crafts in the colonies)
(C) Favorable balance of trade for England(Trade and Navigation Acts)
(D) Dependence of the American colonies on England(Expulsion of the French from America)
(E) American colonial boycott against England(Sons of Liberty)
152. In the 18th century, a major objection of the American colonists to the Navigation and Trade Acts passed by the English Parliament was that the colonists were (A) required to maintain a favorable balance of trade between their exports and imports (B) required to export tobacco, indigo, and cotton only to England (C) forbidden to engage in the fur trade west of the Appalachians (D) forbidden to buy sugar and molasses from any source except the British West Indies (E) forbidden to build oceangoing ships.
153. The early Virginia colony began to grow and prosper when (A) the Native Americans (Indians) were removed to reservations west of the Appalachian Mountains (B) the defeat of the Spanish Armada ended the threat of foreign intervention the settlers found they could export tobacco on a profitable basis (D) quinine was introduced to combat malaria (E) royalists fled to Virginia following their defeat in the English Civil War.
154. Which quotation would most likely be attributed to a frontiersman in the 1760’s waging a losing fight against depression, unfair taxes, corrupt officials, and an Assembly controlled by eastern planters? (A) “As a poor Piedmont farmer from South Carolina, I finally decided to join the Regulators Association in their fight against these public grievances.” (B) “.... and we the excise tax on our liquor. . . .” (C) “.... as a result, I joined up with Nathaniel Bacon and though the Governor hanged some twenty of our men, we finally got some relief from the Assembly.” (D) “in order to get the Quaker-controlled Assembly to do anything for us, we Paxton Boys had to take action into our own hands. . . .” (E) “Finally the Congress adopted the Continental Association, which, I think, will get us redress from the Crown.”
155. The purpose of the New England Confederation was to (A) unite all the English colonies in a common bond (B) organize colonial defense in New England (C) ease parliament’s burden in administrating colonial government (D) prevent the smuggling of enumerated articles (E) join with the area to promote tolerance and coexistence.
156. Under the Navigation Acts, the enumerated articles were (A) goods that could be shipped to any country (B) goods needed but not produced in England (C) taxed more heavily than other products (D) primarily produced in the West Indies (E) regulated by Boards of Trade in the colonies.
157. The Sovereignty and Goodness of God or Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson was (A) an account of the Salem Witch Trials (B) a sermon by Jonathan Edwards, which precipitated the Great Awakening (C) an argument used by the abolitionists in attacking slavery (D) the most popular story about native Americans written in the English colonies (E) a statement in favor of temperance.
158. Which of the following best describes the religious policies of the Massachusetts Bay colony before 1689? (A) Discrimination against anyone who practiced a religion other than the established religion (B) Discrimination against Catholics and Jews only (C) Discrimination against atheists and agnostics only (D) Toleration of all Protestant religious practices except those of the Church of England (E) Permission for all men to worship as they pleased.
“...Whereas...[the colonies] have freely declared... that a most flourishing civil state may stand and best be maintained... with a full liberty in religious concernments and that true piety rightly grounded upon gospel principles will give the best and greatest security to sovereignty and will lay in the hearts of men the strongest obligations to true loyalty:
“... we, being willing to... secure them [the people] in the free exercise and enjoyment of all their civil and religious rights... and to preserve unto them that liberty, in the true Christian faith and worship of God, which they have sought... to enjoy... do hereby publish, grant, ordain, and declare... that no person with the said colony, at any time hereafter, shall be any wise molested, punished, disquieted, or called in question for any differences in opinion in matters of religion.”
159. The above quotation is most likely taken from (A) the Mayflower Compact (B) the Rhode Island colonial charter (C) a speech to Parliament by King James I (D) the Albany Plan of Union (E) the transcript of the trial of Peter Zenger.
160. Liberty of conscience was defended by Roger Williams on the ground that (A) all religions were equal in the eyes of God (B) the signers of the Mayflower Compact had guaranteed it (C) Puritan ideas about sin and salvation were outmoded (D) theological truths would emerge from the clash of ideas (E) the state was an improper and ineffectual agency in matters of the spirit.
161. The colony of Georgia was founded to (A) provide a have for religious dissenters (B) provide land for the favorites of George II (C) provide a refuge for privateers harassing Spanish Florida (D) rehabilitate thieves and beggars through hard work (E) establish a trading post close to the Native Americans (Indians).
162. The primary aim of British mercantilism policies in the American colonies during the eighteenth century was to (A) encourage the British East India Company (B) make the colonies profitable to the mother country (C) hasten the development of industrialization (D) increase the production of gold and sliver bullion (E) counter Spanish capitalism in the New World.
163. The people who settled New England in the seventeenth century were known as Puritans from their attempt to purify the (A) Roman Catholic church (B) Parliament of England (C) Church of England (D) Methodist Church (E) morals of the English court.
164. European settlers in the Americans adopted all of the following from Native Americans (Indians) except: (A) log cabins (B) maize (C) snowshoes (D) canoes (E) tobacco.
165. A distinguishing feature of a royal colony was the (A) appointment of the governor by the king (B) election of the governor by the colonists, with approval by the king (C) appointment of the assembly by the king (D) appointment of the assembly by the king and Parliament (E) appointment of the governor and the assembly by the king.
166. The Great Awakening of the 1740’s was (A) a political movement in which Americans debated the dangers posed by the increasing British presence in the colonies (B) a religious revival that brought new harmony to colonial society and reversed the trend towards religious pluralism (C) a popular expression of pride in the rising wealth and power of the American colonies (D) a religious movement that aroused masses of ordinary people to intense, emotional concern about the state of their souls (E) an extension of the Enlightenment that philosophers such as Voltaire and Condorcet were promoting in Europe.
167. The majority of Europeans who settled in the British colonies of North America before 1776 are most accurately characterized as (A) younger sons and daughters of the upper classes who came seeking their fortunes (B) ambitious men and women of the lower middle classes (C) criminals and bankrupt debtors (D) religious dissidents seeking refuge from persecution (E) political refugees from resolutions on the continent.
168. Which of the following colonies required each community of 50 or more families to provide a teacher of reading and writing? (A) Pennsylvania (B) Massachusetts (C) Virginia (D) Maryland (E) Rhode Island.
169. Which of the following statements best describes the temperance movement in the mid-seventeenth century? (A) Its public appeal reflected middle-class suspicion about the excesses of both rich and poor (B) It appealed to the lower classes because it hurt merchants and farmers (C) It was an effort of the upper classes to repress the lower and middle classes (D) It was primarily a Southern counterattack against Northern abolitionists (E) It received strong support among immigrants in Northern cities.
170. All of the following statements about the trade of the English colonies in North America are correct except: (A) The New England and middle colonies had an unfavorable balance of trade with Great Britain (B) The New England and middle colonies depended on complex trade routes (C) The New England and middle colonies owned shipping from which they derived significant earnings (D) The southern colonies imported mostly slaves and run from Great Britain (E) The southern colonies specialized in the production of agricultural staples for export to Great Britain.
171. French, Spanish, and English colonies in North America were most similar in that they all (A) were founded and developed by private enterprise (B) were permitted representative legislative assemblies (C) were subjected to mercantilistic policies (D) provided a haven for victims of religious persecution (E) discouraged the introduction of feudalistic landholding systems.
“The productive methods and facilities of modern industry have been completely transformed ....Skilled artisans make up only a small proportion of the workers. Obviously the bargaining strength of employees, under these conditions, no longer rests in organizations of skilled craftsmen. It is dependent upon a national union representing all employees- whether skilled or unskilled, or whether working by brain or brawn - in each basic industry.”
172. This statement best represents the views of (A) Samuel Gompers (B) John L. Lewis (C) William Green (D) Bernard M. Baruch (E) Henry Ford.
173 Which of the following statements is not true about the Demarcation Line of 1493? (A) The Pope had very limited knowledge of the geography of the New World. (B) The New World west of the Demarcation Line was given to Spain. (C) Portugal received only a portion of what is now Brazil. (D) Balboa, Cortez, and Sebastian Cabot explored for Spain. (E) Spain and Portugal were more vigorous and earlier in exploring the New World than were either England or France.
174. Liberty of conscience was defended by Roger Williams on the ground that (A) all religions were equal in the eyes of God (B) the signers of the Mayflower Compact had guaranteed it (C) Puritan ideas about sin and salvation were outmoded (D) theological truths would emerge from the clash of ideas (E) the state was an improper and ineffectual agency in matters of the spirit.
175. By the end of the seventeenth century, which of the following was true of women in New England? (A) They had begun to challenge their subordinate role in society (B) They were a majority in many church congregations (C) They voted in local elections (D) They frequently divorced their husbands (E) They could lead town meetings.
176. The First Great Awakening led to all of the following except: (A) separatism and secession from established churches (B) the renewed persecution of witches (C) the growth of institutions of higher learning (D) a flourishing of the missionary spirit (E) a greater appreciation for the emotional experiences of faith.
177. The 1649 Maryland Toleration Act did which of the following? (A) Removed all restrictions on the practice of religion. (B) Provided for the separation of church and state (C) Granted religious freedom to all Christians who accepted the Trinity (D) Led immediately to the persecution of Protestant colonists (E) Led immediately to the persecution of Catholic colonists.
178. Between 1688 and 1763 which of the following was a consequence of Europe’s wars for empire? (A) Armed struggles spread to North America (B) The French made themselves the dominant power in North America (C) The British taxed their American colonies heavily to finance the wars (D) The Spanish lost all their territory in North America (E) The European powers relied on colonial recruits to staff their European forces.
179. Which of the following colonies required each community of 50 or more families to provide a teacher of reading and writing? (A) Pennsylvania (B) Massachusetts (C) Virginia (D) Maryland (E) Rhode Island.
“The Southern colonies have so many inherent causes of weakness that they never can possess any real strength. The climate operates very powerfully upon them, and renders them indolent, inactive, and unenterprising; this is visible in every line of their character. I myself have been a spectator--and it is not an uncommon sight--of a man in the vigor of life, lying upon a couch, and a female slave standing over him, wafting off the flies, and fanning him, while he took his repose... The mode of cultivation by slavery is another insurmountable cause of weakness. The number of Negroes in the Southern colonies is upon the whole nearly equal, if not superior, to that of the white men; and they propagate and increase even faster.”
180. The passage above must have been written in the___________ by___________. (A) 1760s; an Englishman (B) 1860s; a Southerner (C) 1790s; a Frenchman (D) 1760s; a Colonist (E) 1800s; a Westerner.
181. The Great Awakening in the American colonies in the mid-eighteenth century had all of the following consequences except (A) separatism and secession from established churches, due to the democratizing effect of more accessible forms of piety (B) the renewed persecution of witches, because of the heightened interest in the supernatural (C) the growth of institutions of higher learning to fulfill the need for more ministers to spread the gospel (D) a flourishing of the missionary spirit as an outgrowth of more intensive religious devotion and assurance (E) the lessening of doctrinal rigor and a concomitant appreciation for the more direct experiences of faith.
182. Prior to successfully colonizing the New World, England defeated a major rival, and just prior to losing many of its New World colonies, England defeated another major rival. The rivals were first (A) France, then the United States (B) Spain, then France (C) France, then Holland (D) France, then Spain (E) Portugal, then Spain.
“For as much as it has pleased Almighty God by the wise disposition of his divine providence so to order and dispose of things that we the inhabitants and residents of Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield are now cohabiting and dwelling in and upon the River.....and the lands thereunto adjoining; and well knowing where a people are gathered together the word of God requires that to maintain the peace and union of such a people there should be an orderly and decent government established according to God, to order and dispose of the affairs of the people at all seasons as occasion shall require; do therefore associate and conjoin ourselves to be as one public State or Commonwealth; and do for ourselves and our successors and such as shall be adjoined to us at any time hereafter, enter into combination and confederation together, to maintain and preserve the liberty and purity of the gospel of our Lord Jesus which we now profess, as also the discipline of the churches, which according to the truth of the said gospel is now practiced among us; as also in our civil affairs to be guided and governed according to such laws, rules, orders and decrees as shall be made, ordered and decreed, as follows:”
183. The above quotation is from the first written constitution in the Americas. That was in the (A) State of Rhode Island (B) Colony of Connecticut (C) Colony of Georgia (D) State of New Hampshire (E) Territory of Ohio.
184. Which of the following is true about the battle of Quebec?
I General Montcalm, the French General, was killed
II General Wolfe, the British general, was killed
III This battle was the opening battle in the French and Indian War
IV Quebec fell to the British
V the open battle was on the Plains of Abraham
(A) I, II, IV & V
(B) I & II
(C) III & IV
(D) IV & V
(E) I, II, III, IV, & V
“They left the land on their larboard, and let the sheet turn toward the land. They sailed for two "doegr" before they saw another land. They asked whether Biarni thought this was Greenland yet. He replied that he did not think this any more like Greenland than the former, "because in Greenland there are said to be many great ice mountains." They soon approached this land, and saw that it was a flat and wooded country. The fair wind failed them then, and the crew took council together, and concluded that it would be wise to land there, but Biarni would not consent to this. “
185. The passage above could only be from (A) Colombus’s Diary (B) The Saga of Eric the Red (C) The Voyage Of The Mayflower by Governor William Bradford (D) Cartier Discovers the St. Lawrence (E) Coronado's Wanderings.
186. Which of the following is true of early Negro slavery in the United States? (A) When once Negro slavery was firmly established, any rival form of industry was doomed. (B) the many attempts to develop varied forms of production in the Southern colonies failed. (C) Maryland and Virginia grew only tobacco. (D) the slave system obtained the mastery so completely that by the beginning of the eighteenth century slave and Negro had become well-nigh synonymous terms.It can only succeed where it is a predominant form of labor. (E) All of these.
187. Which of the following is not true? (A) The Great Ice Age shaped more than the geological history of North America. It also accounted for the origins of the continent's human history. (B) Some 250,000 years ago, much of the water in the world-ocean was congealed into massive ice pack glaciers, lowering the level of the sea. (C) When the sea level dropped, it exposed a land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America in the area of the present-day Bering Sea between Siberia and Alaska. (D) Across that bridge, probably following migrating herds of game, ventured small bands of nomadic Asian hunters--the first "discoverers" of America and the ancestors of the Native Americans. (E) As the Ice Age ended and the glaciers melted, the sea level rose again, inundating the land bridge about 10,000 years ago. Nature thus barred the door to further immigration for many thousands of years.
188. Which of the following were attributed to early Native American civilizations?
I Incas in Peru, Mayans in Central America, and Aztecs in Mexico shaped stunningly sophisticated civilizations.
II Their advanced agricultural practices, based primarily on the cultivation of maize, which is Indian corn, fed large populations, perhaps as many as 25 million in Mexico alone.
III With their large draft animals such as horses and oxen, and the technology of the wheel, these peoples built elaborate cities and carried on far-flung commerce.
IV Although they were talented mathematicians, they failed to see the value of astronomical observations.
V The Aztecs also routinely sought the favor of their gods by offering human sacrifices, cutting the hearts out of the chests of living victims, who were often captives conquered in battle.
(A) I, II and III only (D) I, II, and V
(B) II, III and IV only (E) I, II, III, IV and V
(C) II, IV and V only
189. Which of the following is true?
I Agriculture, especially corn growing, accounted for the size and sophistication of the Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America.
II Everywhere it was planted, squash began to transform nomadic hunting bands into settled agricultural villagers, but this process went forward slowly and unevenly.
III Corn planting reached the present-day American Southwest by about 5000 B.C. and powerfully molded Pueblo culture.
IV Corn cultivation reached other parts of North America considerably later. The timing of its arrival in different localities explains much about the relative rates of development of different Native American peoples.
V No dense concentrations of population or complex nation-states comparable to the Aztec empire existed in North America outside of Mexico at the time of the Europeans' arrival.
(A) I, IV and V (D) I, II, III, and IV
(B) I, III, and V (E) I, II, III, IV and V
(C) II, IV and V
190. Which of the following are true about the French and Indian War? (A) The colonists developed a treasonable trade in foodstuffs. (B) In the final year of the war the British authorities, forced to resort to drastic measures, forbade the export of all supplies from New England and the middle colonies. (C) Other colonials, self-centered and regarding the war as remote, refused to provide troops and money for the conflict. (D) Not until Pitt had offered to reimburse the colonies for a substantial part of their expenditures--some £900,000--did they move with some enthusiasm. (E) All of these.
191. Which of the following helps to explain the huge effort by Europeans that resulted in the discovery of the New World? (A) The luxuries of the East were prohibitively expensive in Europe. They had to be transported enormous distances from the Spice Islands (Indonesia), China, and India, in creaking ships and on swaying camel back. (B) The journey led across the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea or along the tortuous caravan routes of Asia or the Arabian peninsula, ending at the ports of the eastern Mediterranean. (C) Muslim middlemen exacted a heavy toll en route. By the time the strange-smelling goods reached Italian merchants at Venice and Genoa, they were so costly that purchasers and profits alike were narrowly limited. (D) European consumers and distributors were naturally eager to find a less expensive route to the riches of Asia or to develop alternate sources of supply. (E) All of these.
192. Which of the following is true about the European discovery of the New World?
I Two ecosystems commingled in harmony when Columbus landed.
II The flora and fauna of the Old and New worlds had been separated for thousands of years. European explorers marveled at the strange sights that greeted them. III Native New World plants such as tobacco, maize, beans, tomatoes, and especially the lowly potato eventually revolutionized the international economy as well as the European diet
IV Perhaps three-fifths of the crops cultivated around the globe today originated in the Americas.
V Ironically, the introduction into Africa of New World foodstuffs like maize, manioc, and sweet potatoes may have fed an African population boom that numerically, offset the losses caused by the slave trade.
(A) I, II and III only (D) II, II, IV and V
(B) II, IV and V only (E) I, II, III, IV and V
(C) I, III, and V only
194. Which of the following is true? (A) Several billion years ago that whirling speck of dust known as the earth, fifth in size among the planets, came into being. (B) About six thousand years ago, only a minute ago geologically, recorded history of the Western world began. Certain peoples of the Middle East, developing a primitive culture, gradually emerged from the haze of the past. (C) Five hundred years ago, only a fraction of a second in the past, figuratively speaking, European explorers stumbled on the American continents. (D) The two new American continents eventually brought forth a score of sovereign republics. By far the most influential of this brood, the United States, was born a pygmy and grew to be a giant. (E) All of these.
194. Which of the following is true about the mingling of two ecosystems when Europeans landed in the New World?
I Unwittingly, the Europeans also brought other organisms in the dirt on their boots and the dust on their clothes, such as the seeds of Kentucky bluegrass, dandelions, and daisies.
II Most ominous of all, in their bodies they carried the germs that caused smallpox, yellow fever, and malaria.
III Indeed, Old World diseases would quickly devastate the Native Americans. During the Indians' millennia of isolation in the Americas, most of the Old World's killer maladies had disappeared from among them.
IV But generations of freedom from those illnesses had also wiped out protective antibodies. Devoid of natural resistance to Old World sicknesses, Indians died in droves.
V For example, within fifty years of the Spanish arrival, the population of the Taino natives in Hispaniola dwindled from some 5 million people to about two hundred.”
(A) I, II and III only (D) II, II, IV and V
(B) II, IV and V only (E) I, II, III, IV and V
(C) I, III, and V only
195. Which of the following is true of the world wars of the early 1700s?
I They involved three civilizations: English, French, and Spanish.
II They amounted to a death struggle for domination in Europe as well as in the New World and were fought on the waters and on the soil of two hemispheres.
III The first two wars were known in America as King William's War and Queen Anne's War.
IV French-inspired Indians ravaged with torch and tomahawk the British colonial frontiers, visiting especially horrible violence on the villages of Schenectady, New York, and Deerfield, Massachusetts.
V Peace terms, signed at Utrecht in 1713, revealed how badly France and its Spanish ally had been beaten.
(A) I, II and III only (D) II, III, IV and V
(B) II, IV and V only (E) I, II, III, IV and V
(C) I, III, and V only
196. Which of the following is true of the latter two world wars of the 1700s?
I Ill feeling flared up when the English Captain Jenkins, encountering Spanish revenue authorities, had one ear sliced off by a sword. The Spanish commander reportedly sneered, "Carry this home to the King”
II The War of Jenkins's Ear, curiously but aptly named, broke out in 1739 between the English and the Spaniards. It was fought primarily in the British colonies.
III This small-scale scuffle with Spain in America soon merged with the large-scale War of Austrian Succession in Europe. Once again, France allied itself with Spain. IV Once again, a rustic force of New Englanders captured a reputedly impregnable French fortress at Louisbourg, commanding the approaches to the St. Lawrence River.
V When the peace treaty of 1748 handed Louisbourg back to their French foe, the victorious New Englanders were outraged.
(A) I, II and III only (D) II, II, IV and V only
(B) II, IV and V only (E) I, III, IV and V only
(C) I, III, and V only
197. Which of the following are true about the French and Indian War?
I England's colonials, baptized by fire, emerged with increased confidence in their military strength. They had borne the brunt of battle at first; they had fought bravely beside the crack British regulars; and they had gained valuable experience.
II The French and Indian War, while bolstering colonial self-esteem, simultaneously shattered the myth of British invincibility.
III Ominously, friction had developed during the war because the British refused to recognize any American militia commission above the rank of captain--a demotion humiliating to "Colonel" George Washington.
IV Energetic and hardworking American settlers, on the other hand, sensed that they were the cutting edge of British civilization. They believed that they deserved credit rather than contempt for risking their lives to erect a New World empire.
V British officials were further distressed by the reluctance of the colonials to support the common cause wholeheartedly. American shippers, using fraudulent papers, developed a golden traffic with the enemy ports of the Spanish and French West Indies.
(A) I, II and III only (D) II, II, IV and V only
(B) II, IV and V only (E) I, II, III, IV and V
(C) I, III, and V only
200. The First Great Awakening led to all of the following except (A) separatism and secession from established churches (B) the renewed persecution of witches (C) the growth of institutions of higher learning (D) a flourishing of the missionary spirit (E) a greater appreciation for the emotional experiences of faith.
201. Between 1688 and 1763 which of the following was a consequence of Europe's wars for empire? (A) Armed struggles spread to North America. (B) The French made themselves the dominant' power in North America. (C) The British taxed their American colonies heavily to finance the wars. (D) The Spanish lost all their territory in North America. (E) The European powers relied on colonial recruits to staff their European forces.
202. According to Professors David Kennedy and Thomas A. Bailey, the history of discovery and the earliest colonization raises perhaps the single most fundamental question about all American history. That is (A) Should it be understood as the extension of European civilization into the New World or as the gradual development of a uniquely "American" culture? (B) Why did the Indians fail to cooperate to defeat the invading whites? (C) What were the various means by which the values and institutions of the mother continent were exported to the new lands in the western sea? (D) How did Columbus finds the new world? (E) Why did Africans come to the new world when they were going to be enslaved?
203. Which of the following is true of John Rolfe?
I He was the husband of Pocahontas.
II He became father of the cotton industry.
III He was the economic savior of the Virginia colony because of tobacco.
IV Because of Rolfe, a rush to plant rice and indigo swept over Virginia, as crops were planted in the streets of Jamestown and even between the numerous graves.
V Agricultural success led the Virginia colonists to hunger for land, and they pressed the frontier of settlement up the river valleys to the west, further crowding the Indians.
(A) I & II (D) III & IV
(B) II and IV (E) I, II, III, IV, & V
(C) I, III, & V
204. Representative self-government was born in the House of Burgesses in primitive (A) Virginia (B) Georgia (C) Carolina (D) Florida (E) Maine.
205. Religious toleration developed in Maryland because (A) Like Virginia, it blossomed forth in acres of tobacco. (B) It depended for labor in its early years mainly on white indentured servants (C) Black slaves began to be imported in large numbers.(D) The heavy tide of Protestants threatened to submerge the Catholics and place severe restrictions on them, as in England.(E) All of these.
206. After much experimentation, ________ emerged as the principal export crop in Carolina. (A) Rice (B) Tobacco (C) Cotton (D) Indigo (E) Refried Beans.
207. The Papal Line of Demarcation was drawn by the Pope to (A) divide the New World between the Spanish and the Portuguese (B) divide Catholicism and Protestantism in Europe (C) divide the land between Christians and Moslems in the Holy Land (D) divide the New World between the French and the British (E) divide Catholicism and Protestantism in the New World.
208. The defeat of the Spanish Armada was especially important to America because it (A) gave England control of the seas and secured for her freedom to colonize (B) demonstrated the superiority of English seamanship (C) gave Drake and other sea dogs a free hand to seize and capture Spanish treasure ships (D) ended the Spanish empire in America (E) gave England military control over Europe.
209. The Puritans in England had wanted to (A) separate from the Church of England (B) purify the Church of England(C) persecute the Pilgrims for disagreeing with the Church of England (D) restrict all Englishmen from immigrating to any country (E) unite with the Roman Catholic Church.
210. Which one of the following is not a motive for early English colonists to come to America? (A) patriotism (B) love of adventure (C) land hungry (D) to join the Church of England (E) to make a fortune.
211. Which of the following was least important in finding riches in the East? (A) Martin Luther's Reformation (B) Christian Crusades (C) Marco Polo's excursion (D) increased interest in commerce (E) development of new nautical instruments.
212. The Renaissance meant (A) a new birth in learning (B) the Middle Ages (C) part of the Roman Empire (D) recreating the fight between the Arabs and the Christians (E) Christian reform.
213. The flagship of Columbus was the (A) Nina (B)Seorta (C) Half Moon (D) Pinta (E) Santa Maria.
214. Which explorer did not sail for Spanish rulers? (A) Balboa (B) De Soto (C) Joliet (D) Magellan (E) Columbus.
215. Which of the following statements does not apply to Sir Francis Drake? (A) He sailed for England (B) he harassed Spanish traders (C) he explored the east coast of North America (D) he sailed along the west coast of what is now the United States (E) he was first English commander to circumnavigate the globe.
216. The Elizabethan "Sea Dogs" were from (A) Portugal (B) Spain (C) Holland (D) France (F) England.
217. The Aztec civilization existed in (A) Florida (B) Canada (C) Peru (D) Brazil (E) Mexico.
218. Which of the following men discovered the Pacific ocean by crossing the Isthmus of Panama? (A) Cabot (B) Da Gama (C) Balboa (D) Dias (F) De Soto.
219. Which of the following men headed the first successful voyage around the world? (A) Cabot (B) Da Gama (C) Balboa (D) Drake (E) Magellan.
220. Which of the following explorers discovered the Mississippi? (A) Champlain (B) Cortes (C) Pizarro (D) De Soto (E) Cabot.
221. The Mississippi River was explored for France by Louis Joliet, a fur trader, and Jacques Marquette, who was a (A) fur trader also (B) sailor (C) soldier (D) conquistadore (E) priest.
222. The first permanent English settlement was at (A) Plymouth (B) Jamestown (C) Florida (D) Mexico (E) Georgia.
223. The first permanent French settlement was at (A) Montreal (B) Quebec (C) Jamestown (D) St. Augustine (E) New Orleans.
224. Some of the settlers in the Massachusetts Bay Colony became dissatisfied with the strict union between church and state, consequently, broke off and founded which of the following colonies? (A) Rhode Island (B) New Jersey (C) Delaware (D) Pennsylvania (E) Georgia.
225. Which of the thirteen original colonies was settled by the Swedish? (A) New York (B) Maryland (C) Georgia (D) Connecticut (E) Delaware.
226. The chief reason why so many Europeans came to William Penn's colony was that (A) there was no Indian trouble in that colony (B) climate soil, and general conditions were similar to what they had experienced in Europe (C) Europe was in a chaotic condition resulting from frequent wars (D) the colony offered them political freedom, cheap land, and religious toleration (E) more precious metals were found there.
227. If you had been seeking religious freedom above all else, to which of these colonies would you have gone? (A) Massachusetts (B) Virginia (C) South Carolina (D) Rhode Island (E) Plymouth.
228. Which of the following colonies was founded last? (A) Massachusetts (B) Georgia (C) Maryland (D) Pennsylvania (E) Connecticut.
229. The colony founded for a refuge for persecuted Quakers was (A) Pennsylvania (B) Rhode Island (C) Connecticut (D) Maryland (E) Georgia.
230. In 1662, Charles II granted to eight noblemen the area south of Virginia which was formed mainly for trade purposes. Which colony developed from this? (A) Georgia (B) Carolinas (C) Florida (D) Maryland (E) Virginia.
231. Which of the following sets were the types (methods of rule) of the English colonies in the colonial period? (A) kingships, commonship and nobleship (B) Catholic, Anglicans, and Separatists (C) democratic, monarchy, and experimental (D) patroonship, joint-stock, and constitutional (E) royal, proprietary, and charter.
232. The first slaves in the United States were introduced by the Dutch at (A) Jamestown (B) Plymouth (C) Massachusetts Bay Colony (D) South Carolina (E) Savannah.
233. For which colony did the English philosopher John Locke draft a constitution, called the "Grand Model"? (A) Delaware (B) Maryland (C) Virginia (D) Connecticut (E) Carolina.
234. Which of the following was not an industrial activity of the northern colonies? (A) farming (B) cotton growing (C) shipbuilding (D) fishing (F) manufacture of linen.
235. The House of Burgesses was recognized as the first (A) Constitution in the United States (B) legislature in the United States (C) King's government in the colonies (D) Spanish inquisition court (E) attempt to unite the colonies.
233. The most important occupation in which the English colonists were engaged was (A) farming (B) the fur trade (C) fishing (D) manufacturing (E) hunting.
237. The American Indians before the Spanish conquest were not acquainted with (A) deer (B) turkeys (C) rabbits (D) horses (E) dogs.
238. Which colonial leader called his undertaking in the New World a "holy experiment"? (A) William Penn (B) James Oglethorpe (C) Lord Baltimore (D) Roger William (E) Roger Williams.
239. Which of the following persons played no important part in promoting democracy in America? (A) Peter Zenger (B) Roger Williams (C) William Penn (D) Edmund Andros (F) Benjamin Franklin.
240. The Peter Zenger case was connected with (A) being searched without a warrant (B) speaking and writing the truth, (C) being thrown in jail without a trial (D) passing a law after an act has been committed then accusing a person of committing it (E) taking private property without due process of law.
241. The chief quarrel between France and England in the New World that led to the French and Indian War was a (A) rivalry over the commercial trade of the West Indies (B) failure to come to agreement over the fisheries off the Newfoundland Banks (C) conflicting claims in the Ohio Valley (D) failure to maintain the balance of power among the Indian tribes of the New World (E) rivalry over control of the Northwest Passage.
242. The French and Indian War was the American phase of a world struggle between (A) England and Holland (B) France and Spain (C) England and Spain (D) England and France (E) Holland and France.
243. The importance of controlling Quebec is that it was a gateway to (A) the Hudson River (B) the Ohio River (C) the Mississippi River (D) the Hudson Bay (E) the Great Lakes.
244. Which of the following Englishmen led an expedition to defeat the French at Quebec? (A) Montcalm (B) Wolfe (C) Duquesne (D) Pitt (F) Braddock.
245. What fort did the French build at the junction of the Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers? (A) Fort Necessity (B) Fort Duquesne (C) Fort Oswego (D) Fort Ticonderoga (E) Fort Frontenac.
246. The British colony where the House of Burgesses was established was (A) Connecticut (B) Pennsylvania (C) Virginia (D) Georgia (E) North Carolina.
247. The British colony that was first settled by Swedes was (A) Delaware (B) South Carolina (C) New Jersey (D) North Carolina (E) Georgia.
248. One reason for the development of the system of indenture employed in the early colonial period was (A) a desire to reduce the traffic in slaves (B) Parliament's refusal to allow skilled craftspeople to emigrate (C) the lack of trained domestic help on the large estates (D) the desire to assist religious refugees (E) the scarcity of labor in the colonies.
250. French, Spanish, and English colonies in North America were most similar in that they all (A) were founded and developed by private enterprise (B) were permitted representative legislative assemblies (C) were subjected to mercantilist policies (D) provided a haven for victims of religious persecution (E) discouraged the introduction of feudalistic landholding systems.
1. Of the following items, which was probably the most important in making exploration of the New World a practical, working reality? (A) rise of radical Protestant factions in Britain (B) religious intolerance which condemned any contact between Christians and Moslems (C) easy availability of Aztec and Inca gold and silver (D) development of the printing press allowing for the spread of technical nautical knowledge and tools (E) growing animosity between Protestant England and Catholic Spain over Protestant Belgium.
2. In which of the following areas did the Native American make his greatest contribution to the welfare and prosperity of the rest of the population of the globe: (A) material wealth (gold and silver) (B) architecture (C) medicine (D) religion (E) agriculture.
3. Among the motivations which drove the Europeans toward those explorations which ended in the accidental discovery of the New World, the most powerful force was: (A) legends of Aztec and Inca wealth (B) the need of European monarchs for new discoveries and triumphs which would heighten the prestige and status of their thrones and nations (C) desire for the spices and luxury goods of Asia (D) scientific curiosity of European monarchs eager to finance voyages of discovery.
4. Each of the following contributed to successful English settlement of North America, but which was most important in making that effort a practical possibility in terms of the survival of the colonies?(A) development of the joint-stock company to spread the risk of financing settlement (B) defeat of the "Armada" gives rise to English naval dominance over the North Atlantic (C) introduction of tobacco to Europe provided American settlers with a cash crop (D) early English decision that settlers in the New World would possess right equal to Englishmen at home.
5. A Puritan non-conformist might describe his relationship to the Church of England in which of the following ways: (A) I differ in beliefs from the Anglican Church, but I am willing to tolerate and ignore those differences in others (B) I intend to change the Anglican Church by remaining within its membership and rising to dominance over its church organization (C) I consider Anglican teachings to be heresy and I will slaughter everyone who decides to profess those beliefs (D) I can not change the Anglican Church, so it is necessary to separate from the Church of England in order to establish a "purified" church and worship God in His intended way.
6. All of the following phrases would correctly describe the Calvinist concept of "predestination" except: (A) the Christian ritual of baptism will cleanse a sinful soul and assure one's salvation (B) an "elect human soul has been marked by God for salvation from the dawn of creation (C) no man, including members of the Puritan Church, can be absolutely certain of their salvation (D) the "elect" or those given the gift of salvation, have done nothing to earn that gift.
7. All of the following characteristics were true for the middle colonies except: (A) their great agricultural productivity led them to be known as the "bread colonies" (B) possessed a population which was ethnically and religiously more diverse that either the New England or the southern plantation colonies (C) came to depended heavily upon tobacco as a cash crop (D) possessed safe harbors which promoted them as centers of trade and commerce.
8. By the mid-eighteenth century, the thirteen colonies possessed all of the following characteristics except: (A) possessed laws and customs which were basically English in their background (B) offered some opportunities for economic and social self-development to potential settlers (C) practiced democratic systems of government based upon universal manhood suffrage (D) enjoyed some limited degree of religious toleration.
9. Bacon's Rebellion was primarily aimed against the authority of:(A) the King's government in London (B) the tidewater aristocracy of Virginia (C) the Puritan clergy of Boston (D) the Anglican Church.
10. The "headright" system used in both Virginia and Maryland encouraged the development of: (A) landowning status for former indentured servants who had discharges their obligation of service (B) development of a small local class of merchant-planters possessing great wealth and power (C) immigration to the frontier by families seeking the promise of free lands (D) local laws regulating the public and private conduct of citizens.
11. The practice referred to as the "jeremiad" was a: (A) business practice of New England merchant ship captains involving the swapping of New England produced rum on the African Gold Coast for black slaves which were then exported to the British West Indies for sugar and a profit (B) meeting of southern colonial farmers and plantation owners at rural crossroads to be informed of recent laws passed by the local colonial legislature (C) new form of sermon heard in Puritan New England about the 1690s warning New Englanders of their waning piety (D) Quaker religious meeting in which both women and men could stand before the congregation and testify as to the power of God and a personal relationship with Christ.
12. The population of the Chesapeake Bay region was known throughout the seventeenth century for all of the following characteristics except: (A) slow growth rate (B) high death rate (C) immigration by family units (D) male/female population imbalance.
13. When comparing settlers from the Chesapeake Bay region with those of the New England colonies, which of the following characteristics applied only to Chesapeake settlers: (A) developed the town meeting as a political institution (B) organized into plantation economic units (C) experienced a longer life expectancy (D) suffered fewer infectious diseases (E) usually migrated in family units.
14. The "new light" preachers of the Great Awakening: (A) delivered intensely emotional sermons sometimes bordering on the irrational (B) rarely addressed themselves to the matter of individual salvation (C) preached a highly intellectual and rational theology (D) were unsuccessful in appealing to colonial Americans or arousing their religious enthusiasm.
15. Colonial legislatures were often able to bend the power of their respective governor to their own will because: (A) the governors often possessed a stronger sense of loyalty to their colony than to the king(B) the governors were usually chosen by the colonial legislature and could be removed from office at anytime by those legislatures (C) the king generally encouraged his colonial governors to be on good terms with their legislatures (D) the colonial legislatures controlled taxes and thus the expenditures that paid the governor's salaries.
16. ___________ was the most ethnically diverse region of colonial America, while ___________ was the least ethnically diverse.(A) New England, the southern plantation colonies (B) the middle colonies, the southern plantation colonies (C) the southern plantation colonies, New England (D) the middle colonies, New England.