Colonial Empires 1870-1914
European imperialism in China
Chinese fears of partition. The Boxer Rebellion
1898 Fashoda in southern Sudan – France vs Britain 1905 and 1911 in Morocco – France and Britain vs Germany
The Battle of Manila Bay 1898 The campaign to re-elect McKinley and Roosevelt Postcard from the US election campaign in 1900.
1903 Delhi Durbar
The German-British connection
Kaiser Wilhelm II, cousin of King George V of Britain and grandson of Queen Victoria
1905 Kaiser Wilhelm was also a cousin of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
A Royal Funeral
Nine Kings at Buckingham Palace 1910 - Most of the crowned heads of Europe, many closely interrelated by birth or marriage, attended the funeral of Edward VII.
The Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy
The 1879 Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary became the Triple Alliance when Italy joined in 1882.
Military alliance between France and Russia
Until 1890 France was isolated in Europe. The alliance between Republican France and Tsarist Russia was negotiated from 1891 and signed in 1894.This alliance was a danger to Germany because any future war against France might now become a two-front war.
The End of Britain’s ‘Splendid Isolation’
The 1902 treaty between Britain and Japan showed recognition of the modernisation and rising power of Japan; and Britain’s change of policy from ‘splendid isolation’ to seeking allies. This cartoon shows British popular approval of the renewal of the treaty in 1905. In 1906, the Meiji Emperor of Japan was awarded the Order of the Garter as a mark of honour from Britain.
The ‘Entente Cordiale’
Britain moved further out of isolation by the Entente Cordiale (‘friendly agreement’) with France, negotiated in 1903-1904. A contemporary cartoon satirizes the German view of the French-British ‘rapprochement’, showing disdain for ‘John Bull’ and ‘Marianne’ sneaking off together: In 1908 a Franco-British exhibition demonstrated the close new relationship.
The Great Seaports
The Great Liners
Pioneering new routes
The Panama Canal was opened in 1914.
Map of the Eastern Telegraph The first transatlantic radio communication, 1901
Gold-rushers climbing Chilkoot Pass The Uitlander cemetery at Pilgrim’s Rest
Ellis Island, New York, 1902. Immigrants landing at Buenos Airesc1910
The Growth of Cities
The population of Greater Budapest more than trebled in the years between 1880 and 1910, from 300 000 to 1.1 million. Like many other cities I Europe and across the world, the new Budapest attracted foreign investment and became part of the wider global economy.
The Paris Metro under construction Rio de Janeiro c1900
The rise of Banking
The Rothschild mansion Cartoon of JP Morgan rescuing the US economy 1907
1905 Bank of Madras
Bank of Madras (Chennai, India) 1905. Bank of Indochina 1900
The Bund, Shanghai.c1910 Imperial Bank of China, Beijing 1900
Paris Exposition of 1900 World Fair at St Louis, Missouri in 1904
Leon Trotsky and members of the St Petersburg Soviet, 1905
Revolutionaries in St Petersburg 1905.
Anti-Semitism and Zionism
Antisemitism was promoted by radical political groups and by journalists such as Edouard Drumont through his magazine Jewish France. In Russia there were frequent outbreaks of violence against Jews, such as the pogrom in Kishinev in 1903.
Theodor Herzl, author of the 1896 book The Jewish State, with his children in Austria c1900
Zionism (wanting a Jewish state) was a response to the widespread antisemitism prevalent in much of Europe.
Birth of the Cinema
Cinemarographe Lumiere in France in 1905 1910 ‘nickelodeon’ cinemas like the Comique in Toronto, Canada
Emmeline Pankhurst, leader of the British ‘suffragettes’, addressing a public meeting in New York city in 1913.