|COLONIAL AMERICA – TEST REVIEW
Make sure that you are able to understand each term. As a suggestion create flash cards, and place them in order. This will help you visualize the process of colonization in America.
John Smith: Introduced work ethic (no work, no food) to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks. Known as founder of Virginia and founded for Economic Opportunities.
Mayflower Compact The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony. It was a compact between the settlers to look out for one another.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (F. O. C) 1st written constitution (plan of government to follow don't have to be church official to have a vote, people should have a voice in government.
Maryland Toleration Act law that promoted religious tolerance, granted freedom of worship if you believed in Jesus Christ. Important step to freedom of religion
Virginia House of Burgesses 1st law making body in Jamestown, representatives were elected- 2 from each district, 1st step to representative government in colonies
Pilgrims 1st Protestant colonists, wanted a break with the Anglican church. Low social status compared to puritans
Charter A document that gives the holder the right to organize settlements in an area.
Puritan A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay. More social status than Pilgrims
Settlers people who travel to a little known area and make a home
John Winthrop (Puritan) – Founded Massachusetts. Based on the bible, believed people were educated by reading the Bible and educated people can govern themselves. Founded Massachusetts for Religious Freedom. A puritan minister. Felt only Puritans should have power. Very Authoritative and controlled all power.
Roger Williams - Founded Rhode Island. A dissenter, Roger Williams clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state and tolerance of religion. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious tolerance to its inhabitants. Rhode Island founded for Religious and political opportunities.
Thomas Hooker - Founded Connecticut. F. O. C (Fundamental Orders of Connecticut) - all men who owned land could vote and non-church officials could vote. Have limits on the power of governor. Founded Connecticut for Religious and political reasons.
William Penn - Founded Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania- believed in non-violence and religious tolerance for all. Founded for religious and political freedom for Quakers.
James Ogelthorpe Founded Georgia. For economic reasons. Give an opportunity to poor immigrants who were in debt to have a second chance at a comfortable life. Founded for economic opportunities and as a defensive buffer between colonies and Spanish Florida
Lord Baltimore Founded Maryland. A colony which offered religious freedom and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
Lord Proprietors Founded the Carolinas. A group of eight of Charles II's men who were given a charter by the king to settle new land in Carolinas for economic opportunities
English Debt Law People who owed money are put in jail until the debt was repaid. Doesn't make sense as how can you work if you’re in jail. Why Georgia was founded so they could work off their debt
Rhode Island didn't agree with the Pilgrims
Connecticut didn't agree with the Puritans
Pennsylvania haven for the Quakers
Maryland haven for Catholics
Georgia place for debtors/poor, also served as a buffer b/w English owned 13 and Spanish owned Florida
Massachusetts suffered religious persecution by King for disagreeing with Church of England. Founded by Pilgrims and Puritans
Indentured Servants signed contract, agreed to work for 3-7 years in exchange for passage to North America
Slaves used in plantations to harvest cash crops, traded on the Transatlantic Slave Trade aka- Triangular Trade.
New England Colonies: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island & New Hampshire
-Settled mostly by white Puritans seeking religious freedom.
-Mostly intolerant of other religions.
-strong work ethic
-lands were not good for farming. Colonists living in this area had fish and plenty of timber (wood). Harsh winters.
-Economy: fishing, ship building, crafts, manufacturing
-high population density & large urban areas (ports & waterways)
Middle Colonies: New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey & Delaware
-Settled mostly by white Protestants of different religions.
-good farm land, fur resources, and cool climate
-"bread basket" colonies
-Economy: farming, furs, grew wheat, herding animals
-high population density & large urban areas (ports & waterways)
Southern Colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
-Settled mostly for economic reasons
-Some very wealthy settlers (nobles) lived in this area. They owned large PLANTATIONS or farms.
-slave population grew due to good farm land
-Economy: mostly farming, small farms and plantations exported cash crops (tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton)
-low population density
Swedish Swedish Settlers: founder of Delaware for Economic Opportunities
William Bradford: A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks. Believed in religious freedom of the Pilgrims
Henry Hudson: An English explorer who explored for the Dutch. He claimed the Hudson River around present day New York and called it New Netherland. He also had the Hudson Bay named for him
Duke of York: 1644 Charles II gave new york (Dutch occupied) to his brother, the Duke of York . British troops push Dutch out. New Amsterdam renamed New York.
Nathanial Bacon: Leader that took over when Berkley wouldn't attack the Indians; Was willing to lead not only against Indians but the governor too; This time was known as Bacon's Rebellion.
Quakers: A group of religious pacifists who were persecuted in Europe. William Penn established Pennsylvania as a safe haven for Quakers. They believed all people were equal and opposed war.
Frame of Government of Pennsylvania: written by William Penn; government plan that gave citizens freedom of speech, religion & right to fair trial by jury; set up General Assembly = make laws for colony
Why Europeans thought they were entitled to colonies? They believed they had a right to land, charter from King and Native Americans were not using it all. They took Bully position
Why Native American thought they were entitled to land? They were there first and spent many generations there.
Act of Toleration: a Maryland law that provided religious freedom for all Christians
North Carolina colony: This colony lacked good coastal harbors and was populated mainly by small settlements of tobacco farmers with little government involvement.
South Carolina colony: Planters became very rich very quickly. By late 1600s, it was just as wealthy as VA, and were worried that the Spanish were going to invade. Developed quickly and grew sugar and rice, They had slaves and had the biggest city in the southern colonies.
Religious Groups that came to Colonies
-Quakers /-Puritans (New England) /-Catholics (Maryland) /-Separatists (Pilgrims)
Reasons for Exploration
-God, Gold, Glory /-New Trade Routes /-Religious Freedom
Slavery in Colonial America: Slaves were brought to Jamestown to grow tobacco. Southern colonies had fertile farm land and more slaves were used in the South than North in order to grow crops. Slaves worked in PLANTATIONS, or large southern farms.