Colonial 1971 “Between 1607 and 1763, Americans gained control of their political and economic institutions.”



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Colonial

1971 “Between 1607 and 1763, Americans gained control of their political and economic institutions.”

To what extent and in what ways do you agree or disagree with this statement?



1972 What role did unfree labor play in colonial American society?
1973 From 1600 to 1763, several European nations vied for control of the North American continent.

Why did England win the struggle?


1974 “Puritanism bore within itself the seeds of its own destruction.” Apply this generalization to colonial

New England.


1975 “Although many Northerners and Southerners later came to think of themselves as having separate civilizations, the Northern and Southern colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were in fact more similar than different.” Asses the validity of this generalization.
1979 “During the seventeenth century and increasingly in the eighteenth century, British colonists in America charged Great Britain with violating the ideals of rule of law, self-government, and, ultimately, equality of rights. Yet the colonists themselves violated these ideals in their treatment of blacks, American Indians (Native Americans), and even poorer classes of white settlers.” Asses the validity of this view.
1981 To what extent and why did religious toleration increase in the American colonies during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Answer with reference to THREE individuals, events, or movements in American religion during the seventeen and eighteenth centuries.
1984 In the seventeenth century, New England Puritans tried to create a model society. What were their aspirations, and to what extent were those aspirations fulfilled during the seventeenth century?
1995 For the period before 1750, analyze the ways in which Britain’s policy of salutary neglect influenced the development of American society as illustrated in the following.

Legislative assemblies

Commerce

Religion
1998 Analyze the extent to which religious freedom existed in the British North American colonies prior to 1700.


2000 Analyze the cultural and economic responses of TWO of the following groups to the Indians of North America before 1750.

British


French

Spanish
2001 How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of the southern colonies between 1607 and 1775?


2005 Compare and contrast the ways in which economic development affected politics in Massachusetts and Virginia in the period 1607 to 1750.
2005b “Geography was the primary factor in shaping the development of the British colonies in North America.” Assess the validity of this statement for the 1600s.
2006 Analyze the differences between the Spanish settlements in the Southwest and the English colonies in New England in the seventeenth century in terms of TWO of the following:

Politics


Religion

Economic development



2007b The French and Indian War (1754–1763) altered the relationship between Britain and its North American colonies. Assess this change with regard to TWO of the following in the period between 1763 and 1775.

Land acquisition

Politics

Economics



2008 Early encounters between American Indians and European colonists led to a variety of relationships among the different cultures. Analyze how the actions taken by BOTH American Indians and European colonists shaped those relationships in TWO of the following regions. Confine your answer to the 1600s.

New England

Chesapeake

Spanish Southwest

New York and New France

American Revolution


1974 To what extent did economic issues provoke the American Revolution?
1975 “The Declaration of Independence has been variously interpreted as a bid for French support, an attempt to swing uncommitted Americans to the Revolutionary cause, a statement of universal principles, and an affirmation of the traditional rights of Englishmen.” To what extent , if any, are these interpretations in conflict?
1978 “Although the thirteen American colonies were founded at different times by people with different motives and with different forms of colonial charters and political organization, by the Revolution the thirteen colonies had become remarkably similar.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1982 “The American Revolution should really be called ‘The British Revolution,’ because marked changes in British colonial policy were more responsible for the final political division than were American actions.”

Assess the validity of this statement for the period 1763-1776.


1986 “Despite the view of some historians that the conflict between Great Britain and its thirteen North American colonies was economic in origin, in fact the American Revolution had its roots in politics and other areas of American life.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1987 “ Britain’s wars for empire, far more than its mercantilist policies, dictated the economic fortunes of Britain’s North American colonies in the eighteenth century.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1988 “This history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpation, all having, in direct object, the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States.” Evaluate this accusation made against George III in the Declaration of Independence.
1989 “In the two decades before the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, a profound shift occurred in the way many Americans thought and felt about the British government and their colonial governments.” Assess the validity of this statement in view of the political and constitutional debates of these decades.
1992 Evaluate the relative importance of the following as factors prompting Americans to rebel in 1776:

parliamentary taxation

restriction of civil liberties

British military measures

the legacy of colonial religious and political ideas
1994 Evaluate the relative importance of domestic and foreign affairs in shaping the politics of the 1790s.
1997 Analyze the extent to which the American Revolution represented a radical alteration in American political ideas and institutions. Confine your answer to the period 1775 to 1800.
2004 Analyze the impact of the American Revolution on both slavery and the status of women in the from 1775-1800.

Constitutional Issues


1970 “The Constitutional Convention of 1787 had no need to invent a new form of government. All it did was to codify the imperial and provincial systems under which America had been ruled, minus the formal subservience to Great Britain.” To what extent do you agree or disagree with the above statement?

1975 “The history of the United States shows that none of the three branches of the federal government is immune from the temptation to upset the system of checks and balances established by the Constitution.” Assess the validity of this generalization in regard to BOTH Congress verses the President, 1865-1868, and the President versus the Supreme Court, 1935-1937.
1981 “ At various times between 1789 and 1861, Americans changed their positions on the constitutional question of loose construction and strict construction as best suited their economic or political interests.” Discuss this statement with reference to any TWO individuals or groups who took positions on this constitutional question.
1983 What evidence is there for the assertion that the basic principles of the Constitution were firmly grounded in the political and religious experience of America’s colonial and revolutionary periods?
1991 “The Bill of Rights did not come from a desire to protect the liberties won in the American Revolution, but rather from a fear of powers of the new federal government.” Assess the validity of the statement.
1996 Analyze the degree to which the Articles of Confederation provided an effective form of government with respect to any TWO of the following.

Foreign relations

Economic conditions

Western lands


2003 Evaluate the extent to which the Articles of Confederation were effective in solving the problems that confronted the new nation.

2004b To what extent was the election of 1800 aptly named the “Revolution of 1800?” Respond with reference to TWO of the following areas:

Economics

Foreign Policy

Judiciary

Politics
2005b To what extent was the American Constitution a radical departure from the Articles of Confederation?
2006b “The United States Constitution of 1787 represented an economic and ideological victory for the traditional American political elite.” Assess the validity of that statement for the period 1781 to 1789.
2007 Settlers in the eighteenth-century American backcountry sometimes resorted to violent protest to express their grievances. Analyze the causes and significance of TWO of the following:

March of the Paxton Boys

Regulator Movement

Shays’ Rebellion


Whiskey Rebellion


2008 Analyze the reasons for the Anti-Federalists’ opposition to ratifying the Constitution.

New Republic


1971 “Our prevailing passions are ambition and interest and it will be the duty of a wise government to avail itself of those passions, in order to make them subservient to the public good.” (Alexander Hamilton, 1787) How is this viewpoint manifested in Hamilton’s financial program as Secretary of the Treasury?
1971 “Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828 was the consequence of the rise of democracy rather than the start of a new democratic age.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1972 “There is no American history separate from the history of Europe.” Test this generalization by examining the impact of European events on the domestic politics of the United States from 1789 to 1815.

1975 “The Era of Good Feeling (1816-1824) marked the appearance of issues that transformed American politics in the next twenty years.” Assess the validity of this generalization.



1980 “Between 1783 and 1800 the new government of the United States faced the same political, economic and constitutional issues that troubles the British government’s relations with the colonies prior to the Revolution.” Assess the validity of this generalization.
1991 “Although historically represented as distinct political parties, the Federalists and the Whigs in fact shared a common political ideology, represented many of the same interest groups, and proposed similar programs and policies.” Assess the validity of the statement.
1996 Analyze the extent to which TWO of the following influenced the development of democracy between 1820 and 1840.

Jacksonian economic policy

Changes in electoral politics

Second Great Awakening

Westward movement
1999 How did TWO of the following contribute to the reemergence of a two party system in the period 1820 to 1840?

Major political personalities

States’ rights

Economic issues


2001 The Jacksonian Period (1824-1848) has been celebrated as the era of the “common man.” To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider TWO of the following in your response.

Economic development

Politics

Reform Movements


Antebellum America

1972 “Supreme Court decisions reinforce state and federal legislation.” Assess the validity of this generalization for THREE decisions of the Supreme Court prior to the Civil War.
1973 “From the American Revolution to the Civil War, American writers (both fiction and non fiction) and artists sought to express a uniquely national culture.” Analyze this statement for any period of approximately thirty years between 1775 and 1860.
1973 Discuss the impact of the “Transportation Revolution,” 1820-1860, on the United States.
1974 Account for the emergence of Utopian communities from the mid-1820s through the 1840s, and evaluate their success or failure.
1979 “American social reform movements from 1820 to 1860 were characterized by unyielding perfectionism, impatience with compromise, and distrust of established social institutions. These qualities explain the degree of success or failure of these movements in achieving their objectives.” Discuss with reference to BOTH antislavery and ONE other reform movement of the period 1820-1860 (for example, temperance, women’s rights, communitariansim, prison reform, or educational reform).
1983 “Throughout our history, the Supreme Court has acted as a partisan political body rather than a neutral arbiter of constitutional principles.” Assess the validity of this generalization for the period 1800-1860.
1986 In the first half of the nineteenth century, the American cultural and intellectual community contributed to the development of a distinctive American national consciousness. Assess the validity of this statement.
1989 “Developments in transportation, rather than in manufacturing and agriculture, sparked American economic growth in the first half of the nineteenth century.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1993 In what ways did the early nineteenth century reform movements for abolition and women’s rights illustrate both the strengths and weaknesses of democracy in the early American republic?
1994 Analyze the way in which two of the following influenced the development of American society:

Puritanism during the seventeenth century

The Great Awakening during the eighteenth century

The Second Great Awakening during the nineteenth century


2003 In what ways did developments in transportation bring about economic and social change in the U.S. from 1820-1860?
2004b To what extent and in what ways did the roles of women change in American society between 1790-1860? Respond with reference to TWO of the following areas:

Domestic


Economic

Political

Social
2006b In what ways and to what extent was industrial development from 1800 to 1860 a factor in the relationship between northern and southern states?
2007 In what ways did the Second Great Awakening in the North influence TWO of the following?

Abolitionism

Temperance

The cult of domesticity

Utopian communities
2007b Compare the experiences of TWO of the following groups of immigrants during the period 1830 to 1860.

English


Irish

German


2008 Analyze the impact of the market revolution (1815–1860) on the economies of TWO of the following regions.

The Northeast

The Midwest

The South



Slavery


1973 Why did the institution of slavery command the loyalty of the vast majority of antebellum Southern whites, despite the fact that only a small percentage of them owned slaves?
1980 “In the period 1815 to 1860, improvements in transportation and increased interregional trade should have united Americans, but instead produced sectional division and finally disunion.” Discuss with reference to the impact of improved transportation and interregional trade on the Northeast (New England and Middle Atlantic states) , the South, and the West.
1983 “Slavery was the dominating reality of all Southern life.” Assess the validity of this generalization for TWO of the following aspects of Southern life from about 1840 to 1860: political, social, economic, and intellectual life.
1988 “I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races.” How can this 1858 statement of Abraham Lincoln be reconciled with his 1862 Emancipation Proclamation?
1995 Analyze the ways in which supporters of slavery in the nineteenth century used legal, religious, and economic arguments to defend the institution of slavery.
1997 Discuss the impact of territorial expansion on national unity between 1800 and 1850.
2000 Assess the moral arguments and political actions of those opposed to the spread of slavery in the context of TWO of the following.

Missouri Compromise

Mexican War

Compromise of 150

Kansas-Nebraska Act

2008b Use TWO of the following categories to analyze the ways in which African Americans created a distinctive culture in slavery.

Family


Music

Oral traditions

Religions
Sectionalism

1978 “The unpopular ideas and causes of one period often gain popularity and support in another, but the ultimate price of success is usually the alteration or subversion of the original ideas and programs.” For the period 1830-1877, discuss this statement with reference to BOTH a) the ideas and activities of the abolitionism and b) the policies of the Republican party.
1992 Compare the debates that took place over American expansionism in the late 1840s with those that took place in the 1890s, analyzing the similarities and differences in the debates of the two eras.
1993 Compare the expansionist foreign policies of Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James K. Polk. To what extent did their policies strengthen the United States?
2004 Analyze the effectiveness of political compromise in reducing sectional tensions in the period 1820-1861.
2005 To what extent did the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflect the sectional interests of New Englanders, westerners, and southerners in the period of 1845 to 1855?

Civil War & Reconstruction


1970 “When Lincoln’s personal beliefs, public statements, motivations, acts, and actual accomplishments as President are studied objectively, he cannot be called ‘The Great Emancipator.’” Discuss the validity of this statement.
1971 “The South never had a chance to win the Civil War.” To what extent and why do you agree or disagree with this statement?
1984 How do you account for the failure of Reconstruction (1865-1877) to bring social and economic equality of opportunity to the former slaves?
1992 Discuss the political, economic and social reforms introduced in the South between 1864 and 1877. To what extent did these reforms survive the Compromise of 1877?
1997 Analyze the consequences of the Civil War with respect to any TWO of the following in the United States between 1865 and 1880.

Agriculture

Labor

Industrialization



Transportation
2003 Evaluate the impact of the Civil War on political and economic development in TWO of the following regions.

The South

The North

The West


Focus your answer on the time period between 1865-1900.
2006 Explain why and how the role of the federal government changed as a result of the Civil War with respect to TWO of the following during the period 1861-1877:

Race relations

Economic development

Westward expansion


The Gilded Age

1971 “In American politics the most significant battles have occurred within the major parties rather than between them.” Discuss this statement with reference to the periods 1850-1861 and 1900-1912.
1972 Did the Republican party from 1877 to 1896 abandon its earlier principles and succumb to expediency.
1975 “Although many Americans between 1870 and 1915 blamed political corruption at the state and local level on public indifference or greedy politicians, such corruption reflected a serious crisis of traditional institutions in dealing with the social and economic problems of modern America.” Assess the validity of this generalization.
1977 “Presidents who have been notably successful in either foreign affairs or domestic affairs have seldom been notably successful in both.” Assess this statement with reference to TWO presidents, one in the nineteenth century and the other in the twentieth century, giving reasons for success of failure in each case.
1988 “Although the economic growth of the United States between 1860 and 1900 has been attributed to a governmental policy of laissez-faire, it was in fact encouraged and sustained by direct governmental intervention.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1993 Analyze the ways in which state and federal legislation and judicial decisions, including those of the

Supreme Court, affected the efforts of any TWO of the following groups to improve their position in society between 1880 and 1920.

African Americans

Farmers


Workers

Frontier Thesis/Historiography


1971 Describe the thesis advanced by Frederick Jackson Turner about the relationship of the frontier to political democracy, and assess the principal arguments that later historians have made to attack or defend the thesis.

General Religious Issues


1985 Most major religious movements reflect significant shifts in religious beliefs and produce important social changes. Apply this generalization to TWO of the following.

  1. Seventeenth-century Puritanism

  2. The First Great Awakening

  3. The Second Great Awakening

  4. The Social Gospel Movement


Culture - Society late 19th C.

1982 Americans have been highly mobile people. Describe and account for the dominant population movements between 1820 and 1900.
1977 “Paradoxically, Darwinism provided justification for both social conservatism and social reform in the period from 1870 to 1915.” Discuss this statement.
1980 “Although the United States is widely regarded as the home of free enterprise, business values, and materialism, American fiction since 1865 has generally been critical of business behavior and values.” Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to the work of at least TWO writers who have treated the behavior and values of businessmen in their fiction since 1865.
1987 “Popular fascination with the cowboy, the pioneer, and the stories of Horatio Alger in the period from 1870 to 1915 reflected Americans’ uneasiness over the transition from an agrarian to an industrial society.” Assess the validity of this statement.

2008 Following Reconstruction, many southern leaders promoted the idea of a “New South.” To what extent was this “New South” a reality by the time of the First World War? In your answer be sure to address TWO of the following.

Economic development

Politics

Race relations



Urban Growth


1971 Account for the growth of ONE of the following major urban centers during the period indicated:

  1. Boston, 1630-1700

  2. New York, 1790-1860

  3. New Orleans, 1790-1860

  4. Cincinnati, 1790-1860

  5. Chicago, 1830-1900

  6. Salt Lake City, 1845-1900

  7. Atlanta, 1870-1940

  8. Los Angeles, 1890-1960


1974 “The 1920s witnessed an assault by rural and small-town America on urban America.” Assess the validity of this generalization.
2004b Analyze the primary causes of the population shift from a rural to an urban environment in the United States between 1875 and 1925.

Black Americans


1970 “Despite the agony and violence of war, each of America’s major military conflicts resulted in improved opportunities for black Americans.” Test this generalization concerning black Americans for TWO of the following periods:

  1. 1776 to 1789

  2. 1860 to 1876

  3. 1914 to 1928

  4. 1941 to 1954


1974 Assess the changing status of blacks between emancipation and the end of the nineteenth century.

1971 Analyze and evaluate Booker T. Washington’s program for American blacks and W.E.B. Du Bois’s challenge to that program.
1972 Account for the increased urbanization of black Americans in the period 1914 to 1945.
1973 Controversy between integrationist and separatist viewpoints has long been a dominant theme within the black community. Analyze the controversy among blacks for the period 1920 –1970.
1985 What accounted for the growth between 1940 and 1965 of popular and governmental concern for the position of blacks in American society?
1982 Compare the goals of and strategies of Black reform movements in the period 1890-1910 to the goals and strategies of Black reform movements during the period of 1950-1970.
1991 “Although the 1960s are usually considered the decade of greatest achievement for Black civil rights, the 1940s and 1950s were periods of equally important gains.” Assess the validity of this statement.

Native American Issues post Civil War


1999 How were the lives of the Plains Indians in the second half of the nineteenth century affected by technological developments and governmental actions?

Ethnicity/ Immigration


1975 “Greater similarities than differences have characterized the experiences of all ethnic and racial groups who have migrated to American cities.” Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to the Irish and Germans from the 1840s to the 1890s AND black Americans form 1915-1970.

1977 “What immigrants from Europe wanted in coming to America, and what America gave them, both changed during the period 1607-1915.” Discuss changes BOTH in what these immigrants wanted and what they found, giving about equal attention to the periods 1607-1790 and 1820-1915.
1987 “Throughout its history, the United States has been a land of refuge and opportunity for immigrants.”

Assess the validity of this statement in view of the experiences of TWO of the following.

The Scotch-Irish on the eighteenth century American frontier

The Irish in the nineteenth century urban Northeast

The Chinese in the nineteenth century Northwest

Economic - General


1970 To what extent and in what ways has the economy of the United States been affected by international economic developments? Respond to this question by analyzing ONE of the following periods:

  1. 1789 to 1840

  2. 1919 to 1933

  3. 1945 to the present


1977 “From 1790 to the 1870s, state and national governments intervened in the American economy mainly to aid private economic interests and promote economic growth. Between 1890 and 1929, however, government intervention was designed primarily to curb and regulate private economic activity in the public interest.”

Assess the validity of this statement, discussing for EACH of these periods at least TWO major areas of public economic policy.


1975 “Although often defended and attacked on purely economic grounds, the federal tariff policies of the United States have been more important politically than economically.” Asses the validity of the generalization in regard to TWO tariffs in United States history.

Economic Post Civil War


1970 Explain the recurring demand for currency reform and the policies it produced in the period of 1860-1914.
1972 “The depression of the 1890s delayed reform; the depression of the 1930s stimulated it.” To what extent and in what ways do you agree or disagree with this statement?
1978 “Ironically, popular belief in the ‘self-sufficient farmer’ and the ‘self-made man’ increased during the nineteenth century as the reality behind these beliefs faded.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1983 A number of writers and reformers in the period 1865-1914 discussed the growing gap between wealth and poverty in the United States. Compare and contrast THREE of the following authors’ explanations for this condition and their proposals for dealing with it.

  1. Henry George, Progress and Poverty

  2. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward

  3. Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth

  4. William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other

  5. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle


1988 “Although the economic growth of the United States between 1860 and 1900 has been attributed to a governmental policy of laissez-faire, it was in fact encouraged and sustained by direct governmental intervention.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1991 “Although the economic development of the Trans-Mississippi West is popularly associated with hardy individualism, it was in fact largely dependent on the federal government.” Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to western economic activities in the nineteenth century.
1998 Analyze the impact of any TWO of the following on the American industrial worker between 1865 and 1900.

Government actions

Immigration

Labor unions

Technological changes
2001 How and why did transportation developments spark economic growth during the period from 1860 to 1900

in the United States?


2006b For whom and to what extent was the American West a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890?

Industrialists


1986 Andrew Carnegie has been viewed by some historians as the “prime representative of the industrial age” and by others as “an industrial leader atypical of the period.” Assess the validity of each of these views.
1994 Compare and contrast the attitudes of THREE of the following toward the wealth that was created in the United States during the late nineteenth century.

Andrew Carnegie

Eugene V. Debs

Horatio Alger

Booker T. Washington

Ida M. Tarbell


2007b Explain how TWO of the following individuals responded to the economic and social problems created by industrialization during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Jane Addams

Andrew Carnegie

Samuel Gompers

Upton Sinclair

Literary/Culture Questions


1973 “From the American Revolution to the Civil War, American writers (both fiction and nonfiction) and artists sought to express a uniquely national culture.” Analyze this statement for any period of approximately thirty years between 1775 and 1860.
1975 “Major American writers have been indifferent to the social problems of their day.” State whether you agree or disagree with this generalization and defend your position with reference to THREE novelists and or poets.
1971 “The United States in the Gilded Age (1865-1900) was a materialistic society, sterile in all forms of artistic expression.” Assess the validity of this statement by discussing literature and the arts (include architecture if you wish.)
1980 “Although the United States is widely regarded as the home of free enterprise, business values, and materialism, American fiction since 1865 has generally been critical of business behavior and values.” Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to the work of at least TWO writers who have treated the behavior and values of businessmen in their fiction since 1865.
1983 A number of writers and reformers in the period 1865-1914 discussed the growing gap between wealth and poverty in the United States. Compare and contrast THREE of the following authors’ explanations for this condition and their proposals for dealing with it.

  1. Henry George, Progress and Poverty

  2. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward

  3. Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth

  4. William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other

  5. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle


1970 Choose and TWO of the following works and explain how each illuminates the period in which it was written.

The Sun Also Rises, Ernest Hemingway

Leaves of Grass, Walt Whitman

Autobiography, Malcolm X

The Grapes of Wrath, John Steinbeck

Looking Backward, Edward Bellamy

The film The Birth of a Nation



The Confessions of Nat Turner, William Styron

Civil Disobedience, Henry David Thoreau

Up From Slavery, Booker T. Washington
1972 “Alienation from American society is a dominant theme of the literature of the 1920s.” Discuss this statement with reference to TWO writers (novelists, poets, playwrights, journalists, etc.) citing evidence from their works.
1976 “In the work of American writers from the 1820s through the 1920s, the city mirrored America’s darkest fears, whereas the wilderness, the country, and the farm reflected its fondest hopes.” Assess the validity of this generalization. You may draw upon your evidence from fiction and or nonfiction.
2006b How did TWO of the following shape American national culture in the 1920’s?

Advertising

Entertainment

Mass production



Foreign Policy


1974 “The achievements of diplomats are in the long run more decisive than the achievements of generals.”

Assess the validity of this generalization for the period 1800-1825.


1985 How and why did the Monroe Doctrine become a cornerstone of United States foreign policy by the late nineteenth century?
1984 “Early United States foreign policy was primarily a defensive reaction to perceived or actual threats form Europe.” Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to United States foreign policy on TWO major issues during the period from 1789 to 1835.
1980 “United States foreign policy between 1815 and 1910 was determined less by economic than by strategic, moral, or political interests.” Asses the validity of this generalization with reference to at least TWO major episodes (for example, treaties, proclamations, annexations, wars, etc.) in the foreign policy of the United states between 1815 and 1910.
1970 Alexis de Tocqueville observed in 1835 that “almost all the defects inherent in democratic institutions are brought to light in the conduct of foreign affairs.” Evaluate this statement by comparing the conduct of United States foreign affairs in the 1960s and its conduct in ONE of the following periods.

  1. the 1970s

  2. the 1890s

  3. 1931 to 1941


1974 “The United States in the period 1898-1919 failed to recognize that it had vital interests at stake in Europe, where it tried to stay aloof. At the same time, it had few or no such interests in Asia, where it eagerly became involved.” Assess the validity of this generalization.
1979 “Between 1776 and 1823 a young and weak United States achieved considerable success in foreign policy when confronted with the two principle European powers, Great Britain and France. Between 1914 and 1950, however, a far more powerful United States was far less successful in achieving its foreign policy objectives in Europe.” Discuss by comparing United States foreign policy in Europe during the period 1776-1823, with United States policy in Europe during ONE of the following periods: 1914-1932 OR 1933-1950.
1981 Why did United States foreign policy after the Second World War (1945-1960) take a different direction from that after the First World War (1918-1939)? Give approximately equal attention to both periods.
1982 Prior to American involvement in both the First and Second World Wars, the United States adopted an official policy of neutrality. Compare the policy and its modifications during the period 1914-1917 to the policy and its modification during the period 1939-1941.
1971 “President Franklin D. Roosevelt was naïve and ineffective in his conduct of foreign policy from 1933 to 1941.” To what extent and in what ways do you agree or disagree with this statement?
1976 “The term ‘isolationism’ does not adequately describe the reality of either United States foreign policy or America’s relationship with other nations during the period from Washington’s farewell address (1796) to 1940.” Assess the validity of this generalization.
1983 “Harry S Truman was a realistic, pragmatic President who skillfully led the American people against the menace posed by the Soviet Union.” Assess the validity of this generalization for President Truman’s foreign policy from 1945 to 1953.

2008b Analyze the extent to which the Spanish-American War was a turning point in American foreign policy.

Labor Movement


1974 “The path to labor organization was marked by false starts and wrong turns.” Assess the validity of this generalization for the period 1865-1914.
1982 “Despite often brutal clashes between labor and capital in the United States during the period 1865-1940, collective working class protest did not constitute a basic attack on the capitalist system.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1985 The size, character, and effectiveness of the organized labor movement changed significantly during the late nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. Apply this statement to TWO of the following periods.

1870-1915

1915-1935

1935-1950



Women’s Movement


1993 In what ways did the early nineteenth century reform movements for abolition and women’s rights illustrate both the strengths and weaknesses of democracy in the early American republic?
1979 “American social reform movements from 1820 to 1860 were characterized by unyielding perfectionism, impatience with compromise, and distrust of established social institutions. These qualities explain the degree of success or failure of these movements in achieving their objectives.” Discuss with reference to BOTH antislavery and ONE other reform movement of the period 1820-1860 (for example, temperance, women’s rights, communitariansim, prison reform, or educational reform).
1972 Discuss the development of the women’s suffrage movement and account for its success.
1991 “From the 1840s through the 1890s, women’s activities in the intellectual, social, economic, and political spheres effectively challenged traditional attitudes about women’s place in society.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1993 Describe THREE of the following and analyze the ways in which each of the three has affected the status of women in American society since 1940.

Changing economic conditions

The rebirth of an organized women’s movement

Advances in reproductive technology

The persistence of traditional definitions of women’s roles
2005b Analyze the ways in which TWO of the following contributed to the changes in women’s lives in the United States in the middle of the twentieth century.

Wars


Literature and/or popular culture

Medical and/or technological advances



Topic: Third Parties/Political movements


1970 “Since the Civil War no third party has won a presidential election; however, third party programs have often found their way into federal law.”

For TWO of the following, discuss the validity of this generalization about third party programs.



  1. The Populist Party

  2. The Bull Moose Party

  3. The Socialist Party

  4. The States’ Rights (Dixiecrat) Party


1973 “Political movements in the United States often reflect a yearning for the past.” Assess the validity of this generalization by applying it to both the Jacksonians and the Populists.
1976 “Both the Jacksonian Democrats during 1824-1840 and the Populists during 1890-1896 attacked and sought to root out special privilege in American life. The Jacksonian Democrats attained power and succeeded; the Populists failed.” Assess the validity of this view. Give roughly equal attention to the Jacksonian Democrats and the Populists.
1987 “The Progressive movement of 1901-1917 was a triumph of conservatism rather than a victory for liberalism.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1982 “Despite often brutal clashes between labor and capital in the United States during the period 1865-1940, collective working class protest did not constitute a basic attack on the capitalist system.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1989 In what ways were the late nineteenth century populists the heirs of the Jacksonian democrats with respect to overall objectives AND specific proposals for reform.
1995 Analyze the reasons for the emergence of the Populist movement in the late nineteenth century.

Topic: Comparing Wars


1973 “Hawks” and “doves” have disagreed on United States involvement in wars since the inception of the nation. Compare the “hawk” and “dove” position for both a war of the nineteenth century and a war of the twentieth century.
1978 “War has frequently had unexpected consequences for United States foreign policy but has seldom resulted in major reorientations of policy.” Discuss with reference to the First and Second World Wars, giving about equal attention to each.
1982 Prior to American involvement in both the First and Second World Wars, the United States adopted an official policy of neutrality. Compare the policy and its modification during the period 1914-1917 to the policy and its modification during the period 1939-1941.
1986 “Both the Mexican War and the Spanish-American War were premeditated affairs resulting from deliberately calculated schemes of robbery on the part of a superior power against weak and defenseless neighbors.” Assess the validity of this statement.

Topic: Reform


1979 “American social reform movements from 1820 to 1860 were characterized by unyielding perfectionism, impatience with compromise, and distrust of established social institutions. These qualities explain the degree of success or failure of these movements in achieving their objectives.” Discuss with reference to BOTH antislavery and ONE other reform movement of the period 1820-1860 (for example, temperance, women’s rights, communitariansim, prison reform, or educational reform).
1979 “Most reform legislation since 1900 has been the work of special interest seeking to advance their own well being, but the adoption of such legislation has required the general support of others who were not directly affected but who perceived it to be in the public interest.” Assess the validity of this statement with reference to THREE examples of reform legislation since 1900. You may draw your examples from reform at any level of government: national, state or municipal.
1983 A number of writers and reformers in the period 1865-1914 discussed the growing gap between wealth and poverty in the United States. Compare and contrast THREE of the following authors’ explanations for this condition and their proposals for dealing with it.

  1. Henry George, Progress and Poverty

  2. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward

  3. Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth

  4. William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other

  5. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle


1986 “Reform movements of the twentieth century have shown continuity in their goals and strategies.” Assess the validity of this statement for ONE of the following pairs of reform movements.

Progressivism and the New Deal

Woman’s suffrage and post-Second World War feminism

The New Deal and the Great Society


1988 “American reform movements between 1820 and 1869 reflected both optimistic and pessimistic views of human nature and society.” Assess the validity of this statement in reference to reform movements in THREE of the following areas:

Education

Temperance

Women’s rights

Utopian experiments

Penal institutions


1993 In what ways did the early nineteenth century reform movements for abolition and women’s rights illustrate both the strengths and weaknesses of democracy in the early American republic?
2004 Compare and contrast the programs and policies designed by reformers of the Progressive era to those designed by reformers of the New Deal period. Confine your answer to programs and policies that addressed the needs of those living in poverty.
2005b How successful were Progressive reforms during the period 1890 to 1915 with respect to TWO of the following?

Industrial Conditions

Urban life

Politics
2006 Historians have argued that Progressive reform lost momentum in the 1920’s. Evaluate this statement with respect to TWO of the following:

Regulation of business

Labor


Immigrants

Topic: Minority Groups


1972 Discuss the adjustment of ONE of the following minority groups to American life.

  1. American Indians from 1860 to 1900

  2. Mexican-Americans from 1910 to 1970

  3. Puerto Rican from 1910 to 1970

  4. Japanese-Americans from 1910 to 1970


1976 “The legal, political, and economic rights achieved by minorities and women in the United States have come largely during periods of major reform movements, which both helped the struggles of these groups and set limits to them.” Assess the validity of this generalization for the history on one or more of these groups in the period 1830-1920.
1977 “The leadership, organization, and programs of ethnic and racial minority movements after 1945 represented a fundamental departure from those which had existed from 1900-1945.” Discuss with reference to black Americans or Mexican Americans, giving about equal attention to the periods before and after 1945.
1987 “Social dislocations resulting from wartime conditions frequently bring lasting change within a society.” Evaluate the relevance of this generalization to American society in the twentieth century in view of the experiences of Blacks AND women.
2001 Describe and account for the rise of nativism.
2005 Describe the patterns of immigration in TWO of the periods listed below. Compare and contrast the responses of Americans to immigrants in these time periods.

1820-1860

1880-1924

1965-present




Topic: Comparing Presidents


1985 During the past four decades, historians consistently have rated Washington, Lincoln, and Franklin D. Roosevelt as the greatest presidents. Assess the greatness of and TWO of these three chief executives, making clear the criteria on which you base you judgement.
2007 “Landslide presidential victories do not ensure continued political effectiveness or legislative success.” Assess the validity of this statement by comparing TWO of the following presidential administrations.

Franklin Roosevelt (1936)

Lyndon Johnson (1964)

Richard Nixon (1972)



Ronald Reagan (1984)

2008 Presidential elections between 1928 and 1948 revealed major shifts in political party loyalties. Analyze both the reasons for these changes and their consequences during this period.

Violence


1970 Assess the significance of violence or the threat of violence in TWO of the following:

  1. The coming of the American Revolution

  2. The antislavery crusade

  3. Labor’s struggle for recognition and social justice

  4. The Civil Rights Movement from 1948 to 1965



Twentieth Century: political



1973 “Candidates elected to the presidency in the twentieth century have usually campaigned as middle-of-the-road men without strong commitments.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1975 “In the period since 1945, the Republican party, as represented in the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961) and Richard M. Nixon (1969-1974), virtually abandoned the opposition to the New Deal it expressed during the 1930s. Assess the validity of this generalization.
1976 “The principle cause of the expansion of American presidential power in the twentieth century has been war and diplomacy rather than domestic growth and crisis.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1978 “From 1914 to the present, the main trend in the relationship between the central government and the states had been toward concentration of power in the federal government.” Discuss with reference to such areas of governmental power as regulation of business, social welfare, and civil rights.
1979 “During the twentieth century, American ‘progressives’ or ‘liberals’ at some times advocated a strong presidency and expanded presidential power, while ‘conservatives’ opposed the expansion of these powers. At other times the ‘liberal’ and ‘conservative’ positions were reversed.” Assess the validity of this statement with reference to the periods 1900-1940 AND 1965-1974.
1980 “ A presidential election that results in defeat of the party in power usually indicates the failure of the part in power to have dealt effectively with the nation’s problems, rather than indicating the positive appeal of the winning candidate and his party’s platform.” Asses the validity of this generalization with reference to TWO of the following elections in which the party in power was defeated: 1912, 1920, 1932, 1952, 1960, 1968.
1982 “Despite often brutal clashes between labor and capital in the United States during the period 1865-1940, collective working class protest did not constitute a basic attack on the capitalist system.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1984 “Shifts in party control of the presidency during the twentieth century have typically not brought major shifts in domestic policy.” Assess the validity of this statement. Illustrate you argument by discussing the extent to which TWO of the following Presidents adopted the domestic programs of the previous presidential administrations given in parentheses beneath their names.

Woodrow Wilson Franklin D. Roosevelt Dwight D. Eisenhower Richard M. Nixon

(Administrations of (Administration of (Administrations of (Administrations of

William H. Taft and Herbert C. Hoover) Harry S Truman and Lyndon B. Johnson and

Theodore Roosevelt) Franklin D. Roosevelt) John F. Kennedy)
1988 Why did socialism fail to become a major force in American politics between 1900 and 1940 despite widespread dissatisfaction with the social and economic order and significant support for radical movements during that period?
1989 “Vice Presidents who have succeeded to the Presidency on the death of the President have been less effective in their conduct of domestic AND foreign policy than the men they replaced.” Asses the validity of this statement for any TWO of the following pairs.

William T. McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S Truman

John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson


2007 To what extent did the role of the federal government change under President Theodore Roosevelt in regard to TWO of the following.

Labor


Trusts

Conservation

World affairs

Twentieth Century: general


1987 “Social dislocations resulting from wartime conditions frequently bring lasting change within a society.” Evaluate the relevance of this generalization to American society in the twentieth century in view of the experiences of Blacks AND women.
1989 “The US entered the First World War NOT ‘to make the world safe for democracy’ as President Wilson proclaimed, but to safeguard American economic interests.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1992 In what ways did the Great Society resemble the New Deal in its origins, goals, and social and political legacy? Cite specific programs and policies in support of your arguments.
1993 Describe THREE of the following and analyze the ways in which each of the three has affected the status of women in American society since 1940.

Changing economic conditions

The rebirth of an organized women’s movement

Advances in reproductive technology

The persistence of traditional definitions of women’s roles
1995 Assess the relative influence of THREE of the following in the American decision to declare war on Germany in 1917.

German naval policy

American economic interests

Woodrow Wilson’s idealism

Allied propaganda

America’s claim to world power


1998 To what extent and why did the United States adopt and isolationist policy in the 1920s and 1930s?
1999 In what ways did economic conditions and developments in the arts and entertainment help create the reputation of the 1920s as the Roaring Twenties?
2000 To what extent did the United States achieve the objectives that led it to enter the First World War?

2003 Compare and contrast U.S. society in the 1920’s and the 1950’s with respect to TWO of the following:


race relation

role of women

consumerism

2007b Analyze ways in which the federal government sought support on the home front for the war effort during the First World War.

Depression


1971 How do you account for the onset of the Great Depression of the 1930s?
1996 Analyze the ways in which the Great Depression altered the American social fabric in the 1930s.
1984 “The economic policies of the federal government form 1921 to 1929 were responsible for the nation’s depression of the 1930s.” Assess the validity of this generalization.

New Deal


???? Compare and contrast the first two years of the New Deal with the later New Deal after 1934. Account for the differences.
1973 “The New Deal did not radically alter American business, but conserved and protected it.” Assess the validity of this statement.
1974 “Despite superficial similarities, the domestic programs of the New Deal constituted a fundamental departure from those of the Progressive era.” Assess the validity of this generalization.
1981 “The New Deal secured the support of labor and agriculture after 1932 as the Republican party had secured the support of industry and commerce since 1920 – with special interest programs giving financial aid, legal privileges, and other types of assistance.” Assess the validity of this statement, giving attention to both periods (1920-1932 and 1932-1940).
1993 Identify THREE of the following New Deal measures and analyze the ways in which each of the three attempted to fashion a more stable economy and a more equitable society.
Agricultural Adjustment Act

Securities and Exchange Commission

Wagner National Labor Relations Act

Social Security Act



Cold War


1972 Discuss the changing attitudes of historians toward the origins of the Cold War.
1992 In 1945 Winston Churchill said that the United States stood at the summit of the world. Discuss the developments in the thirty years following Churchill’s speech which called the global preeminence of the United States into question.
1996 Analyze the influence of TWO of the following on American-Soviet relations in the decade following the Second World War.

Yalta Conference

Communist revolution in China

Korean War

McCarthyism
1999 Assess the success of the United States policy of containment in Asia between 1945 and 1975.
2004 Analyze the successes and failures of the United States Cold War policy of containment as it is developed in TWO of the following regions of the world during the period 1945-1975.

East and Southeast Asia

Europe

Latin America



Middle East

The 1950s

1970 What was “McCarthyism” and why did it flourish between 1950 and 1955?
1972 Discuss the changing attitudes of historians toward the origins of the Cold War.
1994 To what extent did the decade of the 1950s deserve its reputation as an age of political, social and cultural conformity?
1997 How do you account for the appeal of McCarthyism in the United States in the era following the Second World War?
2006 While the United States appeared to be dominated by consensus and conformity in the 1950’s, some Americans reacted against the status quo. Analyze the critiques of United States society made by TWO of the following:

Youth


Civil Rights Activists

Intellectuals



2008b Analyze the extent to which the 1920s and 1950s were similar in TWO of the following areas.

Impact of technology

Intolerant attitudes

Literary developments


The 1960s and 1970s

1998 “1968 was a turning point for the United States.” To what extent is this an accurate assessment? In your answer, discuss TWO of the following:

National politics

Vietnam War

Civil Rights


2000 Discuss, with respect to TWO of the following, the view that the 1960’s represented a period of profound cultural change.

Education

Gender Roles

Music


Race Relations
2004b “Between 1960 and 1975, there was great progress in the struggle for political and social equality.” Assess the validity of this statement with respect to TWO of the following groups of people during that period.

African Americans

Asian Americans

Latinos


Native Americans

Women
2005 Analyze the extent to which TWO of the following transformed American society in the period of the 1960s and 1970s.

The Civil Rights movement

The antiwar movement



The women’s rights movement






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