Cloth Paper & Wood
Name: _______________________________ Hour: ________________
Plant fibers are one of the most useful plant materials. The composition of the fiber cell wall is chiefly ___________________. The most valuable fibers are those that a nearly pure cellulose with high strength. The _________________ strength measures the resistance of the fiber to tearing. Most fibers are classified according to their use. _________________ fibers make up cloth, __________________ fibers make up rope, and ___________________ fibers are used for stuffing upholstery. Plant fibers can also be classified according to where they are found on a plant. _________________ fibers are found covering seeds. Linen & ramie are made from ______________ fibers consisting of phloem found in the inner bark. Hard fibers or ________________ are found in vascular bundles or leaf veins.
The extraction process varies to the fiber source. Surface fibers are extracted though _______________, soft fibers are obtained through ________________, and hard fibers must be scrapped away from by hand by __________________________ . Once fibers are extracted, they must be _________________ of plant materials. Next, the fibers are __________________ and laid parallel to form a strand which must be _________________ by fingers or spindle. The strands must be _________________ together to form yarn or thread.
The Cotton Plant
Today, cotton is the most popular natural fiber accounting for __________ of the world’s textiles. It is a member of the Malvaceae or ____________________ family and thrives in tropical and temperate areas. Cotton is a shrubby plant with __________________ lobed leaves. Flower color ranges from ___________________ to _________________. The fruit forms a capsule or _____________ that splits along ____________ seams to release it’s seeds and masses of fibers. Two types of seed hairs cover the seed surface: the long slender ____________ or staples and the short fuzzy ______________. Generally, the ________________ the lint, the higher the quality of the cotton.
Cotton bolls mature in ______ to _______ days. Picking cotton is a labor intensive process, but today most cotton is picked by _____________________ . Harvested bolls are sent to a _________ where the lint is removed from the seed. Originally, this was done by hand, but in 1793, _________________________ invented the saw gin. The cotton gin made growing and processing cotton easier and expanded cotton planting. Sadly, the need for ____________ labor had been decreasing, but cotton triggered a resurgence. Cotton seed can be used to make _________________ feed and ____________________ oil.
Ginned fibers are packed into large ____________ and graded and shipped to manufacturers where the lint is straightened or _______________ and then sorted into bundles of similar size or __________________. Most plants fibers are ____________________ to remove the natural color. In eighteenth century England, cotton was soaked in sour milk & cow dung and then steeped in a bath of ___________. A bath of ______________________ followed, then the cloth was washed, spread out in the grass and allowed the ___________ to bleach it white. A breakthrough in the process came in 1774 with the discovery of _________________.
John Mercer introduced the process of _________________________ which finishes cotton and increases the fibers strength, luster, & its affinity for dye. By passing the cloth through a bath of _________________ ___________, the flat cotton fibers swell into a _________________ shape. ____________________________ _________________ is also an example of a shape-retentive finish produced by applying chemicals that cross-link the ____________________ fibers. The application of ________________ to materials or yarn produces stiffness or firmness. Cotton is usually sized with ____________ , ______________ , or ______________.
The oldest plant fiber used to make cloth may be _____________. The stem of the plant has been used for at least _____________ years. Linen was known to ancient civilizations, but it was _________________ that was the land of linen. Today, linen accounts for _____% of the world’s textiles.
Flax is a delicate plant with bell-shaped flowers. The fruit is a ___________ or capsule containing _____ brown seeds. Flax is harvested in ________ days when the stalks are a golden brown. Two types of flax are grown, one for it’s _____________ oil and one for its ____________. Linseed is used to manufacture ____________ , ______________ , ______________ , and _____________ . The __________________ varieties of flax are grown for linen production. Flax is a ____________ fiber composed of phloem fiber cells. The length of the fiber is preserved by ____________ the flax up by the __________. The flax is gathered into ______________ and stood upright in the field to dry. Next, the seed ___________ are removed by pulling a _____________ or special type of threshing machine. The fibers are extracted from the stem by ______________ or allowing microbial breakdown. Dew retting can take up to 4 to 6 weeks, but immersing the flax in a ______________ can speed the process to only 1 to 2 weeks. Once the fibers are retted, they must be dried by the sun or in a ___________. The next stage in the process is the use of a flax _____________ which pounds the fiber free from the stem. These devices have been replaced with machines that press the flax through rollers. Any ___________ or stem particles that remain are scraped off during ______________. The freed fibers are _______________ or combed to separate the short fibers or __________ from the long fibers or _______________. The flax fibers, which are normally _______________ are bleached in the sun. The flax fibers are _____________ either wet or dry into _____________. Linen is durable and used in clothing and home furnishings but the fibers lack of __________________ and causes the fabric to be prone to ________________ .
Other bast fibers like flax include: ___________________, __________________, and _________________. Ramie fibers are a member of the ____________________ family and are some of the longest & strongest fibers, but it is brittle. Ramie is usually blended with cotton to make clothing. Fibers from the Tiliacea or ______________ family are used to make ________________ which is then used to make ___________________ and ropes. Jute is native to __________________ and currently, 90% of the world’s supply comes from _____________________ and _____________________. The ___________________ fibers Cannibus sativa are primarily used to make industrial fabrics like _________________ as well as ropes and twine. Levi Strauss originally make his work clothes from ________________. Hemp cloth imported to France was known as ‘serge de Nimes’ which was later corrupted into the word _______________. Hemp cloth was used in _________________________ and covered wagons.
Manila hemp or _________________is a member of the ___________________ family. In the Phillipines, fibers from the ______________________ plant are used to make gossamer-like fabrics. In Central America, ___________ is a leaf fiber that comes from the Agave. Today, sisal is mainly used to make rope, _______________, and floor mats. Fibers from the __________________ were used in life preservers. Lastly, the coconut is the source for _____________ fibers used to make ropes and door mats.
The first synthetic fiber produced was _________________. Rayon consists of chemically altered cellulose used to produce _______________ fibers. Cotton ____________ and ______________ fibers are commonly used as the source of cellulose used in rayon production. Because rayon is a _____________________ fiber, manufacturers can modify the size and shape. In addition, adding rayon to ____________ has produced a linen-like fabric as a much cheaper cost.
Wood and Wood Products
Wood and wood products rank right behind _____________ plants in overall importance to society. Wood is used for construction, furniture, paper, musical instruments, fuel, and charcoal to name a few products. With that said, forestry scientists estimate that ______ % to _______ % of the world’s forests have already been destroyed or cleared. Only _____ % of the world’s forest are currently managed and only _____% are protected. Most tropical forests have been cleared for _____________________ or _________________. Tropical woods such as ____________________ are used to make fine furniture.
Hardwoods & Softwoods
Wood is _____________________ xylem consisting largely of ____________ cells. The overall value of wood resides in its _________________ and durability of the cell wall materials; primarily ________________ and _________________ . There are two categories for wood. The ____________________ refer to angiosperm trees and ______________________ refers to gymnosperms trees. Generally the harder a wood is, the more ___________________ it is to wear. The hardest and densest wood is _______________ _________ and the lightest is ____________ wood. The centermost xylem called _________________ is best suited for lumber while the outside _____________________ are normally wet and subject to shrinkage and/or decay.
Different woods are suited to certain wood products for example: _________________ is widely used in home construction, _______________________ makes wine barrels, ____________________ is used to create fine musical instruments, ___________________ is used in bowling alleys and pins, ___________________________ is treated and used for railroad ties, _____________________ is used for paper making, ______________________ is used for furniture making, _____________________ is used for sporting equipment, and ____________________ is often used for tool handles.
Other wood products include ____________________ which is a very thin sheet of desired wood that is glued to less expensive lumber. _________________ consists of 3 or 4 layers of veneer that is glued together. Wood can be burned directly or can be converted into ___________________ that burns at much higher temperatures. _____________ include a broad collection of compounds most of which permits wood to resist decay. One product removed from resin is ___________ that is often used by musicians and baseball players. Pine _____________ has been used for waterproofing wooden ships for centuries. Another product is ____________ produced in the cambium. Its unique properties make it a good insulator and very light weight. Wood ___________ is a watery suspension of pulverized wood used in papermaking. Wood pulp is also used to manufacture ___________________ and fiberboard as well as rayon, ___________________, and cellulose acetate.
Paper & Papermaking
Some of the earliest paper was _____________________ made by the Egyptians about 4,500 years ago. _________________ was prepared from the skins of sheep, calves, or goats; vellum was a similar product made from kids, lambs, or younger calves. Modern paper is made from a ___________ or slurry of plant cells. Cells are matted into thin layers and filled with ____________ or ____________ for added body. True papermaking can be traced back to ________________. Today, _____________ pulp is the major source of the world’s paper supply. Alternative materials are being used to produce paper such as recycling ________________ scraps, ___________ straw, bamboo, _______________ from sugarcane, and even _______________ fibers. Another source of pulp is from ____________________ paper.
Bamboo is a tree-like ______________. It grows with a woody stalk or ___________ from an underground ____________________. Unlike trees, it has no ______________ growth. Bamboo has an incredible rate of growth, but even more astounding is that it only flowers every ________ , _________, or _________ years. Within China, the most useful bamboo is the large cane or ______________ bamboo. Tea stick or ___________ bamboo is used for garden stakes, ski poles, and fishing rods.