Poverty, wage earning, affluent salaries, & inherited wealth create different material advantages, differences in the amount of control over others, and class differences in how families are shaped & how they operate
Ethnicity identifies distinctive national origin, language, religion, culture (social differences)
Racial-ethnic groups are socially subordinated & remain culturally distinct within the U.S.
Macro Structural Inequalities and Racial-Ethnic Families
Racial stratification produces different opportunity structures that shape families in a variety of ways.
Segregation, employment problems, poverty are barriers to family well-being & family formation which result in racial-ethnic family arrangements (& even their definitions of what families are) which differ from the idealized family
Extended kinship systems, “fictive kin”, & informal support networks spread across multiple households are produced by racial & economic conditions that fail to meet family needs
Racism results in limited economic resources and inferior living conditions for many racial-ethnic families.
Great disparity in income level have persisted over time
Even wider gap in wealth
Poverty rate for African American & Latino families 3x that of White families
Over the last 40 years, increases in female-headed households, marital disruptions, out-of-wedlock births, & % of children living in poverty have resulted in African American families being less conventional & more diverse in their structure & composition than White families
Social, demographic, and economic factors underlie the lower marriage rates and higher divorce rates of blacks.
Gender ratio: women outnumber men in the 20-49 age range
High unemployment, low wages & little job security for men
Economic conditions make marriage less important than kinship
Blacks are more likely than whites to reside in extended family households.
Single parent families are the cause of poverty vs. single parent families are the consequence of economic deprivation
Two parent family is no guarantee against poverty for minorities
Poverty rates for Hispanics have risen in the past decade.
Highest among Mexicans and Puerto Ricans
Causes of poverty across Latino communities differ
Extended kinship systems in Chicano families
Familism refers to an obligation to, and an orientation toward, one’s nuclear and extended families.