Class Participation Grade Maasai Reading Assignment Due on:
Student’s Name: Period:
1._________It was turned in on time. If not, it is 10% off for each school day until five days late.
2._________The student read and Talked to the Text throughout the entire article. Worth 20 Points.
Highlighting key points.
Make notes in margins that: summarized, made connections, posed questions, expressed an opinion or reaction, etc… on every page.
3._________The student wrote a well-developed paragraph summary of the entire article below in the space provided on this sheet. Worth 20 Points.
The paragraph consisted of a minimum of five to six well-developed sentences.
It covered the main points about the Maasai Tribe.
Total: /40 Points
Space for Paragraph: If you run out, go onto loose-leaf paper or type up and attach.
About the Maasai
Kenya recognizes over fifty tribes of native people. The Maasai were the dominating tribe at the beginning of the 20th century. Maasai (not Masai) is the correct spelling of this noble tribe. It means people speaking maa. Masai was an incorrect spelling of the British imperialists/colonists and has remained in current use. The Maasai are known for their bright read robes or clothing that visually set them apart from other tribes.
They are one of the very few tribes who have retained most of their traditions, lifestyle, and lore. In common with the wildlife with which they co-exist, the Maasai need a lot of land. Unlike many other tribes in Keynya, the Maasai are semi-nomadic and pastoral; they live by herding cattle and goats. The Maasai’s god is Engai. They believe Engai created the Maasai, and gave the tribe all the cattle in the world and later made other human beings. In the past, the Maasai and the wildlife of the savanna simply lived together in balance. But since European Imperialism and decolonization, this balance has become upset. And the Maasai way of life is endangered like many of the animals of the savanna.
The Maasai refer to the neighboring tribes of farmers and hunter-gatherers as “Ndorobo,” meaning poor folk. Maasai measure wealth by the number of cattle, so people without cattle are considered poor. Maasai did not have villages with permanent buildings. Instead, they constructed a “enkang” (corral) for a group of families. The enkang is a circle of huts, one per family, enclosed by a circular fence of thorn bushes. The woman of each household constructs the hut from cattle dung and clay. Periodically, the groups would abandon their enkang and construct a new one in an area with better water and grazing. This old way of nomadism is almost gone, there is no more land where to roam to.
“The Maasai have not fared well in modern Africa. Until the European settlers arrived, fierce Maasai tribes occupied the most fertile lands. The Maasai struggled to preserve their territory, but their spears were no match for armed British troops, and their lawyers never had a fair chance in British courtrooms. In 1904, the Maasai signed a first agreement, losing the best of their land to the European settlers. Seven years later, in 1911, a very controversial agreement was signed by a small group of Maasai, where their best Northern land (Laikipia) was given up to white settlers. Surely they did not fully understand what the consequences of such a treaty were, and anyway the signatories did not represent the entire tribe. With these two treaties, the Maasai lost about two-thirds of their lands and were relocated to less fertile parts of Kenya and Tanzania.
Other tribes of Kenya have adapted more readily to the “progress” of modern times. In contrast, the Maasai have persisted in their traditional ways, so as Kenya takes more land for growing tribes and agriculture, they suffer. One positive trend for the Maasai in recent years has been the development of a specific form of eco-tourism. Although other tribes in Kenya regard wildlife as food or a menace to their crops, the Maasai have proven to be able to co-exist with wildlife.
But less land for an ever growing Kenyan population means less land for the Maasai, their livestock, and wildlife. More and more, a lion will take a cow or some goats and get killed in retaliation. While in the past the retaliatory killing by poisoning was unheard of, and lions were bravely hunted on foot by warriors simply armed with spears, nowadays poisoning has become a common and very effective method. Carcasses of livestock get poisoned with a chip pesticide, easily available in the market.
THE MAASAI PEOPLE
The Maasai people of East Africa live in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania along the Great Rift Valley on semi-arid and arid lands. The Maasai occupy a total land area of 160,000 square kilometers with a population of approximately one half million people. However, many Maasai see the national census as government meddling and often miscount their numbers to census takers.
The Maasai society is comprised of sixteen sections (known in Maasai as Iloshon): Ildamat, Ilpurko, Ilkeekonyokie, Iloitai, Ilkaputiei, Ilkankere, Isiria, Ilmoitanik, Iloodokilani, Iloitokitoki, Ilarusa, Ilmatatapato, Ilwuasinkishu, Kore, Parakuyu, and Ilkisonko, also known as Isikirari (Tanzania's Maasai). There was also once Iltorobo section but was assimilated by other sections. A majority of the Maasai population lives in Kenya. Sections such as Isikirari, Parakuyu, Kore and Ilarusa lives in Tanganyika.
Homestead and labor
The Maasai live in Kraals arranged in a circular fashion. The fence around the kraal is made of acacia thorns, which prevent lions from attacking the cattle. It is a man's responsibility to fence the kraal. While women construct the houses. Traditionally, kraals are shared by an extended family. However, due to the new land management system in the Maasai region, it is not uncommon to see a kraal occupied by a single family.
The Inkajijik (maasai word for a house) are loaf-shaped and made of mud, sticks, grass, cow dung and cow's urine. Women are responsible for making the houses as well as supplying water, collecting firewood, milking cattle and cooking for the family. Warriors are in charge security while boys are responsible for herding livestock. During the drought season, both warriors and boys assume the responsibility for herding livestock. The elders are directors and advisors for day-to-day activities. Every morning before livestock leave to graze, an elder who is the head of the inkang sits on his chair and announces the schedule for everyone to follow.
The Maasai are a semi-nomadic people who lived under a communal land management system. The movement of livestock is based on seasonal rotation. Contrary to many claims made by outsiders, particularly the Hardinian school of thought, this communal land management system allows us to utilize resources in a sustainable manner. Each section manages its own territory. Under normal conditions, reserve pastures are fallowed and guarded by the warriors. However, if the dry season becomes especially harsh, sections boundaries are ignored and people graze animals throughout the land until the rainy season arrives. According to Maasai traditional land agreement, no one should be denied access to natural resources such as water and land.
Livestock such as cattle, goats and sheep are the primary source of income for the Maasai. Livestock serves as a social utility and plays an important role in the Maasai economy. Livestock are traded for other livestock, cash or livestock products such as milk and siege. Individual, families, and clans established close ties through giving or exchange of cattle. "Meishoo iyiook enkai inkishu o-nkera"- so goes a Maasai prayer. The English translation of this praye is: "May Creator give us cattle and children. Cattle and children are the most important aspect of the Maasai people.
Maasai economy with outsiders
The Maasai economy is increasingly dependent on the market economy. Livestock products are sold to other groups in Kenya for the purchase of beads, clothing and grains. Cows and goats are also sold for uniform and school fees for children. It is now common to see young Maasai men and women in major towns and cities of Kenya selling, not just goats and cows, but also beads, cell phones, chacoal, grain among other items. The entrepreneurial spirit is something new in our society.
It was not until the early 1980s with the Group Ranch project that we became much more entrenched in a market economy and, hence, more impoverished generally speaking.
Traditionally, the Maasai rely on meat, milk and blood from cattle for protein and caloric needs. People drink blood on special occasions. It is given to a circumcised person (o/esipolioi), a woman who has given birth (entomononi) and the sick (oltamueyiai). Also, on a regular basis drunk elders, ilamerak, use the blood to alleviate intoxication and hangovers. Blood is very rich in protein and is good for the immune system. However, its use in the traditional diet is waning due to the reduction of livestock numbers.
More recently, the Maasai have grown dependent on food produced in other areas such as maize meal (unga wa mahindi), rice, potatoes, cabbage (known to the Maasai as goat leaves), etc. The Maasai who live near crop farmers have engaged in cultivation as their primary mode of subsistence. In these areas, plot sizes are generally not large enough to accommodate herds of animals; thus the Maasai are forced to farm. Our people traditionally frown upon this. Maasai believe that utilizing the land for crop farming is a crime against nature. Once you cultivate the land, it is no longer suitable for grazing.
The concept of private ownership was, until recently, a foreign concept to the Maasai. However, in the 1960s and 1980s, a program of commercializing livestock and land was forced on us initially by the British and later by the government of Kenya. Since then, our land has been subdivided into group and individual ranches. In other parts of Maasailand people subdivided their individual ranches into small plots, which are sold to private developers.
The new land management system of individual ranches has economically polarized our people; some Maasais, as well as outside wealthy individuals, have substantially increased their wealth at the expense of others. The largest loss of land, however, has been to national parks and reserves, in which the Maasai people are restricted from accessing critical water sources, pasture, and salt lick. Subdivision of Maasailand reduced land size for cattle herding, reduced the number of cows per household, and reduced food production. As a result, the Maasai society, which once was a proud and self-sufficient society, is now facing many social-economic and political challenges. The level of poverty among the Maasai people is beyond conceivable height. It is sad to see a society that had a long tradition of pride being a beggar for relief food because of imposed foreign concepts of development.
It is estimated that 1 million Maasai people live in Kenya and Tanzania.
Please note that Most Maasai doubt these numbers. Many Maasai see the national census as government meddling and often miscount their numbers to census takers. Some people want to be counted ten times while others refused to be counted.
Tanzania does not conduct census based on ethnicity, which makes it difficult to estimate Maasai living in Tanzania.
Popular tourists destinations in East Africa such as the Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Maasai Mara, Amboseli, and Tarangire game reserves are located inside the Maasai region. The reserves are now considered protected areas set aside for conservation, wildlife viewing, and tourism. Maasai people are prohibited from accessing water sources and pasture land in game reserves.
With the arrival of formal schooling in the wider Maasai region, herding of livestock is becoming a parents' responsibility. Young boys resume the responsibility of livestock herding only on weekends when schools are out.
As a result of global warming, droughts are becoming severe in East Africa, forcing the Maasai people to seek out alternative livelihoods. Herds are smaller than ever before, and most people are relying on relief food.
Maasai tribal leadership, the council of elders, is losing its power year after year as a result of emerging western forms of leadership and governance.