|Civil War Unit Interactive Notes
Civil War Unit Interactive Notes Table of Contents….69
Illustrations: Differences between Northern and Southern States….70
Notes: Differences between Northern and Southern States….71
Illustrations: Events Leading to Secession and War....72
Notes: Events Leading to Secession and War....73
Illustrations: Creation of West Virginia….74
Notes: Creation of West Virginia….75
Illustrations: Major Civil War Battles Fought in Virginia….76
Notes: Major Civil War Battles Fought in Virginia….77
Illustrations: Whites, Enslaved African Americans, Free African Americans, and American Indians during the Civil War….78
Notes: Whites, Enslaved African Americans, Free African Americans, and American Indians during the Civil War….79
Civil War Unit Dump Your Brain….80
Differences between Northern and Southern States
The economy in the northern part of the United States was more industrialized, meaning they relied more on the making of goods. Northern states did not believe slavery was necessary, so they wanted the new states created out of the western territory to be “free states”.
The economy in the southern part of the United States was agricultural, meaning they relied more on farming and slave labor. Since they needed slaves to work on plantations, the southern states wanted new states to be “slave states”.
Events Leading to Secession and War
There were major events that occurred in Virginia, causing Virginians to become divided and secede from the Union.
Nat Turner, a slave on a plantation in eastern Virginia, led a revolt against plantation owners.
Abolitionists campaigned to end slavery in the United States
Harriet Tubman, a former slave from Maryland, supported a secret route that escaped enslaved African Americans took to free states or Canada. It became known as the “Underground Railroad.”
John Brown, an abolitionist, led a raid on the United States Armory (Arsenal) at Harpers Ferry, VA. He used the weapons stored at the Armory to start a slave rebellion. He was captured and hanged.
After Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States in 1860, some southern states seceded from, or left, the Union because they worried he would end slavery. After they left the Union, they formed the “Confederate States of America.” Later, Virginia joined them.
Creation of West Virginia
Conflict grew between the eastern counties of Virginia that relied on slavery and the western counties that did not favor slavery. The eastern counties of Virginia needed slaves for their agricultural economy while the western counties were not in favor of slavery because they did not need slaves for their industrial economy.
Many disagreements between the two regions of the state led to the formation of West Virginia. West Virginia joined the Union in its fight to abolish slavery, while Virginia remained a slave state, relying on slaves for their agricultural economy.
Major Civil War Battles Fought in Virginia
Virginia became a major battleground between Union and Confederate troops and several Virginians played a significant role in the Civil War.
The first Battle of Bull Run (also called the Battle of Manassas) was the first major land battle of the Civil War. Confederate General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson played a major role in this battle and received his nickname, Stonewall, after a Confederate general yelled: “See, there is Jackson, standing like a stone wall. Rally behind the Virginians.”
General Robert E. Lee, Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, defeated Union troops in the Battle of Fredericksburg, VA.
Another major battle took place in Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy. Richmond fell to Ulysses S. Grant and the Union. It was later burned near the end of the war.
President Lincoln used the Union navy to block many of the southern ports. An important sea battle between the Monitor (Union) and Merrimack (Confederate), two iron-clad ships, took place in Virginia waters near Norfolk and Hampton. The battle was fought to a draw.
The Civil War ended at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, where Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army to Union General Ulysses S. Grant in April 1865.
Whites, Enslaved African Americans, Free African Americans, and American Indians during the Civil War
During the Civil War, most white Virginians supported the Confederacy.
The Confederacy relied on enslaved African Americans to raise crops and provide labor for the army. However, many enslaved African Americans fled to the Union army as it approached and some fought for the Union.
Some free African Americans felt their limited rights could best be protected by supporting the Confederacy.
Most American Indians did not take sides during the Civil War.