Civil War Study Guide Name Date Chapters 16 : The Civil War Begins Period Learning Goal: Students will independently be able to identify and understand the events, leaders

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Civil War Study Guide Name__________________


Chapters 16 : The Civil War Begins Period________________

Learning Goal: Students will independently be able to identify and understand the events, leaders, and strategies which shaped the Civil War and transformed the nation.

Ch. 16 Section 1 - Use page 510 to define:

Confederacy –

Robert E. Lee –

Fort Sumter –

First Battle of Bull Run –

Thomas J. Jackson –

border states –

Anaconda Plan –

Ch 16 Section 2- Use Page 517 to define
The Monitor
The Merrimack

Ch. 16. Section 3 – Use page 522 to define:
George McClellan –
Ulysses S. Grant –

William Tecumseh Sherman –

Battle of Antietam -

Learning Goal: Students will independently be able to identify and understand the events, leaders, and strategies which shaped the Civil War and transformed the nation.
Chapter 16: On a separate sheet of paper answer the following questions in complete sentences.
Section 1 pp.511-515

  1. How did the Civil War erupt (begin)?

The Civil War started over Fort Sumter a Union Fort in confederate territory. Lincoln was faced with two choices: 1. Send supplies and risk war or 2. Give in to the Confederates and surrender the fort. Lincoln decided to send supplies. He notified the Confederate leaders of his decision, and the Confederates attacked the fort before the supplies arrived. Lincoln made the Confederates take the first shot.

  1. Describe the North’s strategy for winning the war.

The Union’s strategy for winning the war was called the Anaconda Plan. Its purpose was to squeeze or strangle the Confederate economy. To do this the Union had to do 3 things:

  1. Set up a naval blockade along the Confederate coastline to prevent supplies from coming in.

  2. Take control of the Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy in two.

  3. Capture the capitol of Richmond Virginia.

  1. Explain the South’s strategy for winning the war.

The Confederate plan was to fight a defensive war. This would hopefully lengthen the war and the Union would lose support for its war effort. They were also hoping for foreign support, mostly from England and France, for trading cotton for supplies, but both countries had enough cotton. The Confederates ended up with a mixture of offensive (on the attack) and defensive (holding off attacks) strategy.

  1. List the strengths and weaknesses of the Union.

Strengths of the Union:

Weaknesses of the Union

  1. Large population (22 mill)

Larger army

  1. 85% of nations factories

Make more supplies for the war.

  1. 70% of nations railroad lines.

Be able to transport supplies and troops faster.

  1. Large navy:

Better able to blockade the Confederacy

  1. Long supply lines:

Takes longer to get supplies and supplies could be stolen or destroyed by Confederacy

  1. Fewer good military leaders.

Poor battle plans, fewer victories, more casualties.

  1. Soldiers fighting an offensive war. Use up supplies and lose more soldiers

  1. List the strengths and weaknesses of the Confederacy.

Strengths of the Confederacy

Weaknesses of the Confederacy

  1. Large geographical area: more are to hide

  2. Good generals: better battle plans, more victories

  3. Soldiers fighting a defensive war to protect their homeland: fight more fiercely.

  1. Smaller population (5.5 mil): smaller army

  2. Few factories: less able to make supplies for war effort

  3. Fewer railroads: couldn’t get supplies and troops moved as quickly.

  4. No naval power: could not break through blockade to get supplies

  1. What were the three lessons learned from the First Battle of Bull Run?

The three lessons learned at the 1st Battle of Bull Run were

  1. The fighting would be bloody

  2. The war would not be over quickly

  3. Confederate soldiers would fight fiercely to defend the Confederacy.

Thomas J. Jackson’s nickname was “Stonewall”

The 1st Battle of Bull Run was the 1st major battle of the Civil War.
Section 2 pp.520-521

  1. Explain three ways technology caused the Civil War to differ from previous conflicts.

There were many new technologies that changed the way war was fought. Improvements in weapons due to the use of the rifle and Minie ball allowed soldiers to shoot farther and more accurately resulting in more casualties. Ironclads also changed naval warfare. They were faster and better protected than wooden ships. Railroads helped move supplies and soldiers faster. Trench warfare and grenades helped soldiers to protect themselves and inflict damage on the enemy without a formal assault (attack).
Section 3 p.527

  1. Why did Lee take the war to the North?

Lee took the war to the North because he was on a winning streak and the Union was at a low point. He hoped a victory would force Lincoln into peace talks, the invasion would give Virginia farmers a rest during harvest season, the Confederate soldiers would be able to steal food from the North, and the victory would convince Britain and France to side and support the South.

Unfortunately, the plans for the Battle of Antietam in Maryland were accidently left at a campsite by a Confederate soldier and discovered by the Union. The plans were delivered to Union General George McClellan and the battle was the bloodiest day in American history – 23,000 men were dead or wounded with ¼ of Lee’s army lost. (Sept. 1862) Lee retreated, and the cautious McClellan failed to follow, which frustrated Lincoln who fired him.

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