Civil War Stations Documents #1 The Gettysburg Address



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Unit 7: Conflicts & Resolutions Date:___________________Period:______

Civil War Stations Documents
#1 The Gettysburg Address


  1. Who was the president of the US during the Civil War? _________________________

  2. When did he deliver this speech?________________________________

  3. Where did he deliver this speech? _______________________________

  4. (P1) On the foundation of what two ideals was the United States founded?

        1. in ___________________________

        2. dedicated to ___________________________________________

  5. (P2) What is he doing on this particular piece of land in Pennsylvania?




  1. (P3) What is the job of the men who survived the battle and heard this speech?




  1. (P3) What is the task for which the soldiers “shall not have died in vain”?




  1. (P3) What kind of government does he say the US is?


#2 The Unsung Heroes

1. What kind of document is this?_______________________

2. Who wrote the document?_____________________________________

3. Who is the picture of? ______________________________________________________


4. (stanza 1) What did the heroes do when the “life of the land was threatened by the slaver’s cruel greed”?
5. (stanza 2) What did the heroes do such that “God looked down” and called them “men”?
6. (stanza 3)

a. What does the author mean by “blue lines”?


b. What does the author mean by “grey lines”?
7. (stanza 4) What or who do you think Wagner and Pillow were?
8. (stanza 5) What happened to the heroes such that they were “laid down”?
9. (stanza 7) What did these heroes have to fear before they went to fight?


  1. THINK: What is the purpose of this song/poem?


#3THE FIGHTING 54th: ACT-style Reading (Answer the multiple choice questions on this paper.)

  1. a._____b. _____ c.______ 2. a. _____ b. _____ c._____ 3. a. ____ b. _____ c._____

4. a. _____ b. ______ c._______ 5. a. _____ b.______ c._______



#4Civil War Photographs

  1. Who was Matthew Brady?




  1. Why were his photographs so significant?



  1. Select any two photographs & fill in the chart below.




Photo 1

Photo2

What is the title of the photo?





What is the subject of the photo? What do you see in the photo?







What does this photo tell you about the Civil War? OR What does this photo tell you about the methods or conditions in the 19th century?





#5Battle Hymn of the Republic

  1. Who wrote the song?___________________________When?___________

  2. Why did she write the song?

3. Read the lyrics to the song.



a. What kinds of references are made in the song? Are they political? Religious? Other?
b. What do you believe the message of the song is?
c. How did hearing the song make you feel?
#6“To Colored Men”

  1. What do you think Frederick Douglas means in the opening quote?




  1. Why were blacks initially told they could not serve in the military during the Civil War?



  1. What proclamation issued by President Lincoln meant that slaves were freed in the Confederate states? ______________________________




  1. What were blacks able to do after this proclamation? _____________________________




  1. By the end of the Civil War, how many blacks had served in the army and navy combined? ___________________(army) + _____________________(navy) =___________________




  1. How were black soldiers still discriminated against?



  1. Look at the advertisement. What is the message of this advertisement? What response is it meant to create among blacks?


Station #1

The Gettysburg Address
A. Lincoln

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

November 19, 1863
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Station #2
The Unsung Heroes

By: Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906)


Arlington, Virginia Band of 107th

U.S. Colored Infantry at Fort Corcoran

(November 1865) Library of Congress, LC-B817- 7861
A song for the unsung heroes who rose in the country’s need,

When the life of the land was threatened by the slaver’s cruel greed,

For the men who came from the cornfield, who came from the plough and the flail,

Who rallied round when they heard the sound of the mighty man of the rail.


They laid them down in the valleys, they laid them down in the wood,

And the world looked on at the work they did, and whispered, “It is good.”

They fought their way on the hillside, they fought their way in the glen,

And God looked down on their sinews brown, and said, “I have made them men.”


They went to the blue lines gladly, and the blue lines took them in,

And the men who saw their muskets’ fire thought not of their dusky skin.

The gray lines rose and melted beneath their scathing showers,

And they said, “‘T is true, they have force to do, these old slave boys of ours.”


Ah, Wagner saw their glory, and Pillow knew their blood,

That poured on a nation’s altar, a sacrificial flood.

Port Hudson heard their war-cry that smote its smoke-filled air,

And the old free fires of their savage sires again were kindled there.


They laid them down where the rivers the greening valleys gem.

And the song of the thund’rous cannon was their sole requiem,

And the great smoke wreath that mingled its hue with the dusky cloud,

Was the flag that furled o’er a saddened world, and the sheet that made their shroud.


Oh, Mighty God of the Battles Who held them in Thy hand,

Who gave them strength through the whole day’s length, to fight for their native land,

They are lying dead on the hillsides, they are lying dead on the plain,

And we have not fire to smite the lyre and sing them one brief strain.


Give, Thou, some seer the power to sing them in their might,

The men who feared the master’s whip, but did not fear the fight;

That he may tell of their virtues as minstrels did of old,

Till the pride of face and the hate of race grow obsolete and cold.


A song for the unsung heroes who stood the awful test,

When the humblest host that the land could boast went forth to meet the best;

A song for the unsung heroes who fell on the bloody sod,

Who fought their way from night to day and struggled up to God.




Station #4
Mathew B. Brady

Mathew Brady arrived in New York City at the age of sixteen. Soon after taking a job as a department store clerk, he started his own small business manufacturing jewelry cases. In his spare time, Brady studied photography under a number of teachers, including Samuel F. B. Morse, the man who had recently introduced photography to America. Brady quickly discovered a natural gift. By 1844, he had his own photography studio in New York.


Brady soon acquired a reputation as one of America's greatest photographers -- producer of portraits of the famous. In 1856, he opened a studio in Washington, D.C., the better to photograph the nation's leaders and foreign dignitaries. As he himself said, "From the first, I regarded myself as under obligation to my country to preserve the faces of its historic men and mothers." He became one of the first photographers to use photography to chronicle national history.
At the peak of his success as a portrait photographer, Brady turned his attention to the Civil War. Planning to document the war on a grand scale, he organized a corps of photographers to follow the troops in the field. Friends tried to discourage him, citing battlefield dangers and financial risks, but Brady persisted. He later said, "I had to go. A spirit in my feet said 'Go,' and I went."
Mathew Brady did not actually shoot many of the Civil War photographs attributed to him. More of a project manager, he spent most of his time supervising his corps of traveling photographers, preserving their negatives and buying others from private photographers freshly returned from the battlefield, so that his collection would be as comprehensive as possible. When photographs from his collection were published, whether printed by Brady or adapted as engravings in publications, they were credited "Photograph by Brady," although they were actually the work of many people.
In 1862, Brady shocked America by displaying his photographs of battlefield corpses from Antietam, posting a sign on the door of his New York gallery that read, "The Dead of Antietam." This exhibition marked the first time most people witnessed the carnage of war. The New York Times said that Brady had brought "home to us the terrible reality and earnestness of war."
After the Civil War, Brady found that war-weary Americans were no longer interested in purchasing photographs of the recent bloody conflict. Having risked his fortune on his Civil War enterprise, Brady lost the gamble and fell into bankruptcy. His negatives were neglected until 1875, when Congress purchased the entire archive for $25,000. Brady's debts swallowed the entire sum. He died in 1896, penniless and unappreciated. In his final years, Brady said, "No one will ever know what I went through to secure those negatives. The world can never appreciate it. It changed the whole course of my life."
Despite his financial failure, Mathew Brady had a great and lasting effect on the art of photography. His war scenes demonstrated that photographs could be more than posed portraits, and his efforts represent the first instance of the comprehensive photo-documentation of a war.
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/cwbrady.html
PHOTO #1

Confederate dead behind a stone wall at Fredericksburg, VA

The 6th. Maine Infantry penetrated the Confederate lines at this point

National Archives ARC Identifier: 524930

Photo by Matthew Brady


PHOTO #2

Battery D, 2nd U.S. Artillery, at Fredericksburg, VA

ARC Identifier: 533305

Photo by Matthew Brady




PHOTO #3

A company of the 6th Maine Infantry on parade after the battle of Fredericksburg

ARC Identifier: 524587

At time of the charge across the stone wall at foot of Marye's Heights, General Joseph Hooker was in command of the Federals and General Fitzhugh Lee in command of the Confederates.

Photo by Matthew Brady




PHOTO #4

[Appomattox Court House, Va. Federal soldiers at the courthouse].


O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer.

1865 April.




PHOTO #5

[Gettysburg, Pa. Four dead soldiers in the woods near Little Round Top].


Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer.

1863 July.






PHOTO #6 [Antietam, Md. President Lincoln and Gen. George B. McClellan in the general's tent; another view].

Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer.

1862 October 3.

PHOTO #7

[Antietam, Md. President Lincoln with Gen. George B. McClellan and group of officers].


Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer.

1862 October 3.



Station #5  The Battle Hymn of the Republic

Lyrics: As originally published 1862 in The Atlantic Monthly



Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord:

He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored;

He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword:

His truth is marching on.


(Chorus)

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

His truth is marching on.
I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred circling camps,

They have builded Him an altar in the evening dews and damps;

I can read His righteous sentence by the dim and flaring lamps:

His day is marching on.


(Chorus)

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

His day is marching on.
I have read a fiery gospel writ in burnished rows of steel:

"As ye deal with my contemners, so with you my grace shall deal;

Let the Hero, born of woman, crush the serpent with his heel,

Since God is marching on."


(Chorus)

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Since God is marching on.
He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat;

He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment-seat:

Oh, be swift, my soul, to answer Him! be jubilant, my feet!

Our God is marching on.


(Chorus)

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Our God is marching on.
In the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across the sea,

With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me:

As He died to make men holy, let us die to make men free,

While God is marching on.


(Chorus)

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

While God is marching on.
He is coming like the glory of the morning on the wave,

He is Wisdom to the mighty, He is Succour to the brave,

So the world shall be His footstool, and the soul of Time His slave,

Our God is marching on.


(Chorus)

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Glory, glory, hallelujah!

Our God is marching on.



Station #5  The Battle Hymn of the Republic
"The Battle Hymn of the Republic" has buoyed Americans in conflict since it first appeared in The Atlantic Monthly in February, 1862, during the Civil War. Julia Ward Howe, the wife of a prominent Boston abolitionist, had visited a Union Army camp in Virginia where she heard soldiers singing a tribute to the abolitionist John Brown (who had been hanged in 1859 for leading an attempted slave insurrection at Harper's Ferry). A clergyman at the camp, aware that Howe occasionally wrote poetry, suggested that she craft new verses more appropriate to the Civil War effort, to be set to the same rousing tune.
As Howe later explained it, the verses came to her in a single night:
I went to bed and slept as usual, but awoke the next morning in the gray of the early dawn, and to my astonishment found that the wished-for lines were arranging themselves in my brain. I lay quite still until the last verse had completed itself in my thoughts, then hastily arose, saying to myself, I shall lose this if I don't write it down immediately. I searched for an old sheet of paper and an old stub of a pen which I had had the night before, and began to scrawl the lines almost without looking, as I learned to do by often scratching down verses in the darkened room when my little children were sleeping. Having completed this, I lay down again and fell asleep, but not before feeling that something of importance had happened to me.


Soon afterwards, she submitted the poem to The Atlantic Monthly, which accepted it and paid her a fee of four dollars. After the verses appeared on the first page of the February, 1862, issue, they quickly caught on as the rallying anthem of the Union troops, and were sung frequently throughout the rest of the Civil War. Howe's words later inspired American soldiers during World War II, and civil-rights activists during the sixties. Now it seems, as the United States girds itself for what President Bush has referred to as "the first war of the twenty-first century," Americans are once again drawing encouragement from Howe's resolute words.


—Sage Stossel
http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/battlehymn.htm


Station #6  “To Colored Men”
"Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letter, U.S., let him get an eagle on his button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pocket, there is no power on earth that can deny that he has earned the right to citizenship." -Frederick Douglass

The issues of emancipation and military service were intertwined from the onset of the Civil War. News from Fort Sumter set off a rush by free black men to enlist in U.S. military units. They were turned away, however, because a Federal law dating from 1792 barred Negroes from bearing arms for the U.S. army (although they had served in the American Revolution and in the War of 1812). In Boston disappointed would-be volunteers met and passed a resolution requesting that the Government modify its laws to permit their enlistment.


The Lincoln administration wrestled with the idea of authorizing the recruitment of black troops, concerned that such a move would prompt the border states to secede. When Gen. John C. Frémont in Missouri and Gen. David Hunter in South Carolina issued proclamations that emancipated slaves in their military regions and permitted them to enlist, their superiors sternly revoked their orders. By mid-1862, however, the escalating number of former slaves (contrabands), the declining number of white volunteers, and the increasingly pressing personnel needs of the Union Army pushed the Government into reconsidering the ban.
As a result, on July 17, 1862, Congress passed the Second Confiscation and Militia Act, freeing slaves who had masters in the Confederate Army. Two days later, slavery was abolished in the territories of the United States, and on July 22 President Lincoln presented the preliminary draft of the Emancipation Proclamation to his Cabinet. After the Union Army turned back Lee's first invasion of the North at Antietam, MD, and the Emancipation Proclamation was subsequently announced, black recruitment was pursued in earnest. Volunteers from South Carolina, Tennessee, and Massachusetts filled the first authorized black regiments. Recruitment was slow until black leaders such as Frederick Douglass encouraged black men to become soldiers to ensure eventual full citizenship. (Two of Douglass's own sons contributed to the war effort.) Volunteers began to respond, and in May 1863 the Government established the Bureau of Colored Troops to manage the burgeoning numbers of black soldiers.
By the end of the Civil War, roughly 179,000 black men (10% of the Union Army) served as soldiers in the U.S. Army and another 19,000 served in the Navy. Nearly 40,000 black soldiers died over the course of the war—30,000 of infection or disease. Black soldiers served in artillery and infantry and performed all noncombat support functions that sustain an army, as well. Black carpenters, chaplains, cooks, guards, laborers, nurses, scouts, spies, steamboat pilots, surgeons, and teamsters also contributed to the war cause. There were nearly 80 black commissioned officers. Black women, who could not formally join the Army, nonetheless served as nurses, spies, and scouts, the most famous being Harriet Tubman, who scouted for the 2d South Carolina Volunteers.
Because of prejudice against them, black units were not used in combat as extensively as they might have been. Nevertheless, the soldiers served with distinction in a number of battles. Black infantrymen fought gallantly at Milliken's Bend, LA; Port Hudson, LA; Petersburg, VA; and Nashville, TN. The July 1863 assault on Fort Wagner, SC, in which the 54th Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers lost two-thirds of their officers and half of their troops, was memorably dramatized in the film Glory. By war's end, 16 black soldiers had been awarded the Medal of Honor for their valor.
In addition to the perils of war faced by all Civil War soldiers, black soldiers faced additional problems stemming from racial prejudice. Racial discrimination was prevalent even in the North, and discriminatory practices permeated the U.S. military. Segregated units were formed with black enlisted men and typically commanded by white officers and black noncommissioned officers. The 54th Massachusetts was commanded by Robert Shaw and the 1st South Carolina by Thomas Wentworth Higginson—both white. Black soldiers were initially paid $10 per month from which $3 was automatically deducted for clothing, resulting in a net pay of $7. In contrast, white soldiers received $13 per month from which no clothing allowance was drawn. In June 1864 Congress granted equal pay to the U.S. Colored Troops and made the action retroactive. Black soldiers received the same rations and supplies. In addition, they received comparable medical care.
The black troops, however, faced greater peril than white troops when captured by the Confederate Army. In 1863 the Confederate Congress threatened to punish severely officers of black troops and to enslave black soldiers. As a result, President Lincoln issued General Order 233, threatening reprisal on Confederate prisoners of war (POWs) for any mistreatment of black troops. Although the threat generally restrained the Confederates, black captives were typically treated more harshly than white captives. In perhaps the most heinous known example of abuse, Confederate soldiers shot to death black Union soldiers captured at the Fort Pillow, TN, engagement of 1864. Confederate General Nathan B. Forrest witnessed the massacre and did nothing to stop it.
The document featured with this article is a recruiting poster directed at black men during the Civil War. It refers to efforts by the Lincoln administration to provide equal pay for black soldiers and equal protection for black POWs. The original poster is located in the Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1780's–1917, Record Group 94.
Freeman, Elsie, Wynell Burroughs Schamel, and Jean West. "The Fight for Equal Rights: A Recruiting Poster for Black Soldiers in the Civil War." Social Education 56, 2 (February 1992): 118-120. [Revised and updated in 1999 by Budge Weidman.]




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