Civil War April 1861-April 1865 Causes: Economics, Sectionalism, Kansas-Nebraska Act Goals



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Civil War April 1861-April 1865
Causes:

Economics, Sectionalism, Kansas-Nebraska Act


Goals:

North – Preserve the Union and later, end slavery

South – Defend Homeland and later, preserve slavery
First Total War: Air/Navy/Army
War began with Confederacy firing upon Ft. Sumter, SC
Originally 7 states made up the Confederacy:

South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Alabama


April 17, 1861 Virginia became 8th state


North-

  • Committed to saving the Union, not freeing the slaves

  • Larger population than South

  • Greater industrial capacity

  • Gold Reserves

  • Better railroad system than South

  • Canal system

  • Control of merchant marine and navy

  • Diverse Agriculture

  • Recruiting left to states and enlistees had little knowledge of soldiering

South-


  • Occupied enormous territory

  • Dozens of ports and harbors connected by rivers

  • Adequate railroads

  • Long borders with Mexico = difficult to seal off outside supplies

  • Defensive war = could move troops internally from one point to another, whereas Union had to move around perimeter

  • Country roads of the South known only to locals = surprise attacks or strategic retreats (looked to American Revolution for model)

  • Thought Northerners would not support the war because of business interests that were closely tied to the South

  • Expected economic and military aid from Europe

  • Cotton

  • Thought they had superior military leadership and the advantage of defensive war

  • States rights hindered unified Confederate war effort

  • Had to create a government, design flags, stamps, $$



Strategies:

North – General Winfield Scott’s ‘Anaconda Plan’



Control railroads, Capture Richmond, VA (industrial, commercial, and administrative center of the South)
South – Defensive war

  • Wait for North to attack, fight long enough for the North’s political, economic, regional, and ethnic divisions to overwhelm its temporary unity

  • Seize Washington, DC, then European powers would recognize the Confederacy as sovereign and legitimate


Leadership

Jefferson Davis – fought in Mexican War, Secretary of War under Franklin Pierce, Served in US Senate, mediocre military thinker, meddled in details, and would not delegate


Lincoln – bold leader, but had only briefly served in public office, and state militia
Prisons

Early in war both sides exchanged prisoners rather than maintain prisons.



  • Changed in 1863 when Confederates decreed that any former slave captured would be executed or re-enslaved, not taken prisoner.

  • The Union refused to participate in any exchanges so long as this policy remained in effect.

Andersonville, Georgia Confederate prison camp built in 1864



  • Built for 10,000 men, eventually held 45,000

  • 13,000 men died at the camp

Northern Camps

Prisoners better supplied, but death reached 24% with rations short

Civil War Significant Battles

1. Battle of Bull Run (Battle of Manassas): July 1861—

2. McClellan would attack Richmond (March and April 1862) –fails
Total War was instituted by General John Pope of the Union
3. Second Battle of Bull Run (August 1862) - General Pope and Lee (of the South)


  • Lee wanted to show major world powers the strength of the South in the hope they would send aid

  • Pushed Pope to DC

4. Battle of Antietam, Maryland (Sept 1862) – McClellan and Lee



  • More men were killed on this one day than on any other in the Civil War: 13,000 for the South and 12,000 for the North.

  • Lee lost 1/3 of his army and withdrew from Maryland.

  • Considered a turning point in the war.

September 1862 – Lincoln give ultimatum to South… unless they return to the Union by January 01, 1863, he would declare their slaves “forever free”.


January 01, 1863 Lincoln issue “Emancipation Proclamation”…freed slaves in areas of rebellion, exempted slaves in border states and in former Confederate area conquered by the Union.
5. Battle of Chancellorsville, VA (May 1863) – Jackson’s troops assaulted Hooker’s troops

  • Rebs were outnumbered, but the surprise attack was a success!

6. Battle of Gettysburg, PA (July 1863) – Union troops led by General George G. Meade and South led by Lee – Union victory, but Lee and his troops allowed to escape.



  • Lincoln would give Gettysburg address at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg on Nov. 19, 1863

7. Battle of Vicksburg, MS (ended 4 July 1863) –Union troops were led by Ulysses S. Grant and defeated General John C. Pemberton’s Confederates



  • Divided South

  • Union gained control of the Mississippi River

Late in 1863 Britain and France had decided NOT to intervene in the American war.


8. Sherman’s march to the sea from Chattanooga to Savannah (1864-1865)—Grant and Lincoln planned to have Sherman cut off Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia from the rest of the Confederacy and inflict maximum damage…make war so bad for civilians they beg for the war to be over (total war).

  • Shock and awe tactics…troops lived off the land to move faster

  • Burned Atlanta

  • Sherman arrived in Savannah on Dec. 21, 1865

Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery, January 31, 1865.


March 4, 1865 Lincoln is sworn in for the second time as President of the US
9. On 2 April, 1865 Richmond fell to the Union
10. April 9, 1865 Lee is met by Grant at Appomattox Court House and surrendered.
April 14, Lincoln assassinated at Ford’s Theatre.

The Civil War as a Turning Point in American History

Civil War and Aftermath = Second American Revolution


I. Political consequences:

  1. North

    1. Established supremacy of the national government

    2. Without Southern Democrats, Congress passed four business-oriented planks in Lincoln’s platform

      1. Morrill Tariff

      2. Aid for transcontinental railroad

      3. National Banking Act

      4. Contract Labor Law

    3. Republican Party = the party of big business

  2. South

    1. Southerners associated Lincoln and freeing of slaves with Republican Party

    2. Therefore … led to their voting for Democratic Party—Solid South

II. Economic consequences:



  1. North

    1. The wartime expansion of agriculture met the demand, but contributed to overproduction and falling prices in the postwar years

    2. New laws set the foundation for large scale industrialization in this country and served to link the interests of the North and West

  2. South

    1. The freeing of slaves caused a breakdown of the plantation system. Two replacements were tenant farming and share cropping

    2. Crop liens kept many freedmen almost permanently in debt and tied them to a particular plantation

    3. Other Southerners had a vision of industrialization—the New South

III. Social consequences:



  1. North

    1. War polarized northern views on racial issues. Radical Republicans believed in equality of the races but most whites not accept this view

    2. Materialism became a dominant postwar value

    3. Congress took steps to add 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

      1. 13th—Freedom to slaves

      2. 14th—Ex-slaves made citizens, abolished 3/5th rule for slaves, disqualifies anyone who has taken part in insurrection or rebellion against the government from holding a government office

      3. 15th—Gave black men the right to vote

  1. South

    1. The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments had the effect of ending slavery, and guaranteeing citizenship to blacks along with black male suffrage

    2. Although these amendments were violated by the Black Codes and Jim Crow laws, they provided the basis for legal equality of blacks




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