Civil Rights Quick Reference Sheet



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Civil Rights Quick Reference Sheet

I usually don't like to use Wikipedia as a reliable source, but I found almost all of the information below on this website. Check it out. They have an amazing timeline with links to all of the important people, legislation, events, etc….

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_African-American_Civil_Rights_Movement

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  • Abolition movements began in 18th century, but gained strength in North during the Reform Movements of early 19th century. (Often led by middle class women and churches)

  • Emancipation Proclamation 1863 (Lincoln - only freed slaves in seceding states (Not border states))

  • Post Civil War (Reconstruction)

    • 1865 - Freedmen's Bureau

    • 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments provide Constitutional voting and citizenship rights to blacks (not women)

    • Civil Rights Act 1866 (Passed over Johnson veto.)

    • Civil Rights Act of 1871 (Klan Act)

    • Civil Rights Act 1875 (Found unconstitutional in 1886)

    • Military reconstruction ends in 1877

      • KKK, Black Codes, and Jim Crow Laws prevent enfranchisement of blacks in South

    • 1880: Strauder v. West Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that African Americans could not be excluded from juries.

    • 1895 Booker T Washington - Atlanta Compromise - Blacks should become economically independent and build up black culture via education.

    • 1895 W.E.B. DuBois received PhD from Harvard. First African American

    • 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson (Separate but Equal)

  • Early 20th Century

    • 1905 Niagara Movement (first meeting) Bi-racial Civil Rights group.

    • 1914 Newly elected president Woodrow Wilson orders physical re-segregation of federal workplaces and employment after nearly 50 years of integrated facilities.

    • 1916 Great Migration of blacks to northern industrial cities begins and lasts until 1940. (Support war effort.)

    • 1919 Race Riots throughout the US. (Chicago, Washington D.C., Indianapolis, Knoxville, Omaha, Arkansas)

    • 1921 Tulsa, Ok Race riots

    • 1923 Rosewood Massacre - 6 blacks and 2 whites murdered after allegedly raping white women.

    • 1925 African American Labor Congress and Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters are formed. (Unions)

    • 1925 35,000 KKK members march on Washington D.C.

    • 1925 Harlem Renaissance = Rising African American fields of literary, music, academic, entertainment, etc…

    • 1929 The League of United Latin American Citizens, the first organization to fight for the civil rights of Hispanic Americans, is founded in Corpus Christi, Texas.

    • Highlighted by the dichotomy of African American soldiers fighting the racial superiority and ethnic cleansing dictators across the globe, but receiving second class citizenship in America.

    • 1939 Little League Baseball becomes America's first desegregated youth sports organization.

    • 1939 Jesse Owens wins gold medals in front of Adolf Hitler at Germany's Olympics

    • 1940-1970 Second Great Migration- more than 5 million African Americans leave the violence and segregation of the South for jobs, education, and the chance to vote in northern, Midwestern and California cities. They found jobs in the war industries.

    • 1941 Tuskegee Airmen are created as an all African American air combat unit.

    • 1942 Congress of Racial Equality is formed by James Farmer Jr. (The Great Debaters)

    • 1944 Smith vs. Allwright, the Supreme Court rules that the whites-only Democratic Party primary in Texas was unconstitutional

    • 1944 Miami, Fl hired first black police officers

  • Modern Civil Rights Movement (Second Reconstruction)

    • 1946 Black police officers are hired in Florida, Daytona Beach, DeLand, Sanford, Fort Myers, Tampa, and Gainesville all have black police officers. So does Little Rock, Arkansas; Louisville, Kentucky; Charlotte, North Carolina; Austin, Houston, Dallas, San Antonio in Texas; Richmond, Virginia; Chattanooga and Knoxville in Tennessee.

    • 1946 Paul Robeson founds American Crusade Against Lynching

    • 1947 Jackie Robinson joins Brooklyn Dodgers. First black in MLB

    • 1948 President Harry S. Truman issues Executive Order 9981 ordering the end of segregation in the Armed Forces.

    • 1950 Supreme Court (in 3 separate cases) supports desegregating institutions of higher learning and railroad dining cars.

    • 1951 The home of NAACP activists Harry and Harriette Moore in Mims, Florida, is bombed by KKK group; both die of injuries.

    • 1951 The Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL) is founded in Cleveland, Mississippi. They distributed more than 50,000 bumper stickers bearing the slogan, "Don't Buy Gas Where you Can't Use the Restroom." This campaign successfully pressured many Mississippi service stations to provide restrooms for blacks.

    • 1952 Eleven black students attend the first day of school at Claymont High School, Delaware, becoming the first black students in the 17 segregated states to integrate a white public school. The day occurs without incident or notice by the community.

    • 1952 Ralph Ellison authors the novel Invisible Man which wins the National Book Award.

    • 1953 Executive Order 10479 signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower establishes the anti-discrimination Committee on Government Contracts.

    • 1954

      • May 3 – In Hernandez v. Texas, the Supreme Court of the United States rules that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the United States are entitled to equal protection under the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

      • May 17 – The Supreme Court rules against the "separate but equal" doctrine in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans. and in Bolling v. Sharpe, thus overturning Plessy v. Ferguson.

    • 1955

      • The NAACP wins a Supreme Court decision, ordering the University of Alabama to admit Autherine Lucy.

      • Teenager Emmett Till is killed for whistling at a white woman in Money, Mississippi.

      • Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus, starting the Montgomery Bus Boycott. This occurs nine months after 15-year-old high school student Claudette Colvin became the first to refuse to give up her seat. Colvin's was the legal case which eventually ended the practice in Montgomery.

    • 1956

      • February/March- The Southern Manifesto, opposing integration of schools, is created and signed by members of the Congressional delegations of Southern states, including 19 senators and 81 members of the House of Representatives, notably the entire delegations of the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Virginia.

      • April 10 – Singer Nat King Cole is assaulted during a segregated performance at Municipal Auditorium in Birmingham, Alabama.

      • May 28 – The Tallahassee, Florida bus boycott begins

      • Director J. Edgar Hoover orders the FBI to begin the COINTELPRO program to investigate and disrupt "dissident" groups within the United States.

    • 1957

      • January – Southern Christian Leadership Conference formed. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is named chairman of the organization.

      • September 4 – Orval Faubus, governor of Arkansas, calls out the National Guard to block integration of Little Rock Central High School.

      • September – President Dwight Eisenhower federalizes the National Guard and also orders US Army troops to ensure Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas is integrated. Federal and National Guard troops escort the Little Rock Nine.

      • September 27 – Civil Rights Act of 1957 signed by President Eisenhower.

    • 1958

      • January 18 - Willie O'Ree breaks the color barrier in the National Hockey League, in his first game playing for the Boston Bruins.

      • June 29 – Bethel Baptist Church (Birmingham, Alabama) is bombed by Ku Klux Klan members.

      • August – Clara Luper and the NAACP Youth Council conduct the largest successful sit-in to date, on drug store lunch-counters in Oklahoma City. This starts a successful six-year campaign by Luper and the Council to desegregate businesses and related institutions in Oklahoma City.

    • 1959

      • January 12 – Motown Records is founded by Berry Gordy.

      • A Raisin in the Sun, a play by Lorraine Hansberry, debuts on Broadway.

    • 1960

      • February 1 – Four black students sit at the Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, sparking six months of the Greensboro Sit-Ins. Nashville and Virginia Union University sit-ins start soon after.

      • March 19 – San Antonio becomes first city to integrate lunch counters

      • April 15–17 – The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is formed in Raleigh, North Carolina.

      • May 6 – Civil Rights Act of 1960 signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

      • June 24 – MLK meets Senator John F. Kennedy (JFK).

      • July 11 – To Kill a Mockingbird published.

      • October 19 – MLK and fifty others arrested at sit-in at Atlanta’s Rich’s Department Store. A week later. RFK helped get MLK out on bond.

      • JFK defeats Nixon for Presidency.

    • 1961

      • March 6 – President John F. Kennedy issues Executive Order 10925, which establishes a Presidential committee that later becomes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

      • May 4 – The first group of Freedom Riders, with the intent of integrating interstate buses, leaves Washington, D.C. by Greyhound bus. The group, organized by the Congress for Racial Equality (CORE), leaves shortly after the U.S. Supreme Court has outlawed segregation in interstate transportation terminals

      • Opposition and attacks on Freedom Riders increase throughout the early 1960’s

      • September 25 – Voter registration activist Herbert Lee killed in McComb, Mississippi.

      • December 15 – Dr. King arrives in Albany, Georgia in response to a call from Dr. W. G. Anderson, the leader of the Albany Movement to desegregate public facilities. King was arrested for participation.

      • Black Like Me written by John Howard Griffin, a white southerner who deliberately tanned and dyed his skin to allow him to directly experience the life of the Negro in the Deep South, is published, displaying the brutality of Jim Crow segregation to a national audience.

    • 1962

      • February 26 – Segregated transportation facilities, both interstate and intrastate, ruled unconstitutional by U.S. Supreme Court.

      • March 20 – FBI installs wiretaps on NAACP activist Stanley Levison’s office.

      • June – Leroy Willis becomes first black graduate of the University of Virginia College of Arts and Sciences.

      • September 20 – James Meredith is barred from becoming the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi.

      • October 23 – FBI begins Communist Infiltration (COMINFIL) investigation of SCLC.

      • October 14–28 – Cuban Missile Crisis.

      • November 20 – President John F. Kennedy upholds 1960 campaign promise to eliminate housing segregation by signing Executive Order 11063 banning segregation in federally funded housing.

    • 1963

      • January 18 – Incoming Alabama governor George Wallace calls for "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" in his inaugural address.

      • April 3 – May 10 – The Birmingham campaign, organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights challenges city leaders and business owners in Birmingham, Alabama, with daily mass demonstrations.

      • April 16 – After being arrested in Birmingham, King's Letter from Birmingham Jail is completed.

      • May 9–10 – After images of fire hoses and police dogs turned on protesters are shown on television, the Children's Crusade lays the groundwork for the terms of a negotiated truce on Thursday, May 9 – an end to mass demonstrations in return for rolling back oppressive segregation laws and practices.

      • June 11 – "The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door": Alabama Governor George Wallace stands in front of a schoolhouse door at the University of Alabama in an attempt to stop desegregation by the enrollment of two black students,\

      • June 11 – President John F. Kennedy makes his historic civil rights speech, promising a bill to Congress the next week. About civil rights for "Negroes", in his speech he asks for "the kind of equality of treatment which we would want for ourselves."

      • June 12 – NAACP worker Medgar Evers is murdered in Jackson, Mississippi. (His killer was convicted in 1994.)

      • August 28 – March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom is held. Dr. Martin Luther King gives his I Have a Dream speech.

      • November 22 – President Kennedy is assassinated. The new President, Lyndon B. Johnson, decides that accomplishing JFK's legislative agenda is his best strategy, which he pursues with the results below in 1964–1965.

    • 1964

      • January 23 – Twenty-fourth Amendment abolishes the poll tax for Federal elections.

      • Summer – Mississippi Freedom Summer – voter registration in the state.

      • April 13 - Sidney Poitier wins the Academy Award for Best Actor for role in Lilies of the Field.

      • June 21 – Mississippi Civil Rights Workers Murders, three civil rights workers disappear, later to be found murdered.

      • June 28 – Organization of Afro-American Unity is founded by Malcolm X, lasts until his death.

      • July 2 – Civil Rights Act of 1964 signed.

      • August – Congress passes the Economic Opportunity Act which, among other things, provides federal funds for legal representation of Native Americans in both civil and criminal suits. This allows the ACLU and the American Bar Association to represent Native Americans in cases that later win them additional civil rights.

      • December 10 – Dr. Martin Luther King is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the youngest person so honored.

    • 1965

      • February 21 – Malcolm X is shot to death in Manhattan, New York, probably by three members of the Nation of Islam.

      • March 7 – Bloody Sunday: Civil rights workers in Selma, Alabama, begin a march to Montgomery but are stopped by a massive police blockade as they cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. Many marchers are severely injured and one killed. This action, initiated and organized by James Bevel, becomes the visual symbol of the Selma Voting Rights Movement.

      • March 15 – President Lyndon Johnson uses the phrase "We shall overcome" in a speech before Congress on the voting rights bill

      • July 2 – Equal Employment Opportunity Commission opens.

      • August 6 – Voting Rights Act of 1965 signed by President Johnson

      • August 11 – Watts Riots erupt in south Los Angeles.

      • September 15 – Bill Cosby co-stars in I Spy, becoming the first black person to appear in a starring role on American television.

      • September 24 – President Johnson signs Executive Order 11246 requiring Equal Employment Opportunity by federal contractors.

    • 1966

      • Stokely Carmichael first using the slogan Black power in a speech.

      • September – Nichelle Nichols is cast as a female black officer on television's Star Trek. She briefly considers leaving the role, but is encouraged by Dr. Martin Luther King to continue as an example for their community.

      • October – Black Panthers founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California.

      • November – Edward Brooke is elected to the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts. He is the first black senator since 1881.

    • 1967

      • June 12 – In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional.

      • June 13 – Thurgood Marshall is the first African American appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court.

      • Sidney Poitier stars in In the Heat of the Night and Guess Who's Coming to Dinner.

      • In the trial of accused killers in the Mississippi civil rights worker murders, the jury convicts 7 of 18 accused men. Conspirator Edgar Ray Killen is later convicted in 2005.

      • James Earl Jones stars in Great White Hope.

    • 1968

      • February 8 – The Orangeburg Massacre occurs during university protest in South Carolina

      • April 4 – Dr. Martin Luther King is shot and killed in Memphis, Tennessee by James Earl Ray.

      • April 11 – Civil Rights Act of 1968 is signed. The Fair Housing Act is Title VIII of this Civil Rights Act – it bans discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.

      • May 12- Poor People's Campaign marches on Washington, DC.

      • June 6 – Robert F. Kennedy, a Civil Rights advocate, is assassinated after winning the California presidential primary. His appeal to minorities helped him secure the victory.

      • October – Tommie Smith and John Carlos raise their fists to symbolize black power and unity after winning the gold and bronze medals, respectively, at the 1968 Summer Olympic Games.

      • November 22 – First interracial kiss on American television, between Nichelle Nichols and William Shatner on Star Trek.

      • Shirley Chisholm becomes the first African-American woman elected to Congress

    • 1969

      • December – Fred Hampton, chairman of the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party, is shot and killed while asleep in bed during a police raid on his home

      • W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research founded at Harvard University.

    • 1971

      • July 14 - Mr. Gorr was born.

    • 1972

      • January 25 – Shirley Chisholm becomes the first major-party African-American candidate for President of the United States and the first woman to run for the Democratic presidential nomination.

      • In Baton Rouge, two Southern University students are killed by white sheriff deputies during a school protest over lack of funding from the state.

    • 1973

      • February 27 – Start of 71-day standoff at Wounded Knee between federal authorities and members of the American Indian Movement.

    • 1974

      • July 25 – In Milliken v. Bradley, the Supreme Court in a 5–4 decision holds that outlying districts could only be forced into a desegregation busing plan if there was a pattern of violation on their part. This decision reinforces the trend of white flight.

      • Salsa Soul Sisters, Third World Wimmin Inc Collective, the first "out" organization for lesbians, womanists and women of color formed in New York City

    • 1975

      • April 30 – In the pilot episode of Starsky and Hutch, Richard Ward plays an African-American boss of white Americans for the first time on TV.

    • 1976

      • February – Black History Month is founded by Professor Carter Woodson's Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History.

      • The novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family by Alex Haley is published

    • 1977

      • President Jimmy Carter appoints Andrew Young to serve as Ambassador to the United Nations, the first African-American to serve in the position

    • 1978

      • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke bars racial quota systems in college admissions but affirms the constitutionality of affirmative action programs giving equal access to minorities.

    • 1979

      • United States Supreme Court holds that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 did not bar employers from favoring women and minorities.

    • 1982

      • Michael Jackson releases Thriller, which becomes the best-selling album of all time

    • 1983

      • May 24 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules that Bob Jones University did not qualify as either a tax-exempt or a charitable organization due to its racially discriminatory practices

      • August 30 – Guion Bluford becomes the first African-American to go into space.

      • November 2 - President Ronald Reagan signs a bill creating a federal holiday to honor Dr. Martin Luther King.

      • Alice Walker receives the Pulitzer Prize for her novel The Color Purple.

    • 1984

      • The Cosby Show begins, and is regarded as one of the defining television shows of the decade.

    • 1985

      • Mr. Gorr started high school.

    • 1988

      • The movie Mississippi Burning is released, regarding the 1964 Mississippi civil rights workers murders.

    • 1989

      • February 10 – Ron Brown is elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee, becoming the first African American to lead a major United States political party.

      • October 1 – Colin Powell becomes Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

      • December 15 – The film Glory is released: it features African-American Civil War soldiers.

      • Mr. Gorr graduated high school.

    • 1990

      • January 13 – Douglas Wilder becomes the first elected African American governor as he takes office in Richmond, Virginia.

    • 1991

      • March 3 – Four white police officers are videotaped beating African-American Rodney King in Los Angeles.

      • October 15 – Senate confirms the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court.

      • November 21 – Civil Rights Act of 1991 enacted.

    • 1992

      • April 29 – 1992 Los Angeles riots erupt after officers accused of beating Rodney King are acquitted.

      • September 12 – Mae Carol Jemison becomes the first African American woman to travel in space when she goes into orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

      • November 3 – Carol Moseley Braun becomes the first African American woman to be elected to the United States Senate.

      • November 18 – Director Spike Lee's film Malcolm X is released.

    • 1995

      • June 30 – In Miller v. Johnson the Supreme Court rules that gerrymandering based on race is unconstitutional.

      • October 16 – Million Man March in Washington, D.C.

    • 1997

      • October 25 – Million Woman March in Philadelphia.

    • 1998

      • June 7 – James Byrd, Jr. is brutally murdered by white supremacists in Jasper, Texas. The scene is reminiscent of earlier lynching.

    • 1999

    • 2000

      • Bob Jones University, a fundamentalist South Carolina private institution, ends its ban on interracial dating

    • 2001

      • Colin Powell becomes first black Secretary of State.

    • 2005

      • Edgar Ray Killen is convicted of participating in the Mississippi civil rights worker murders.

    • 2008

      • June 3 – Barack Obama receives enough delegates by the end of state primaries to be the presumptive Democratic Party of the United States nominee

      • August 28 – At the 2008 Democratic National Convention, in a stadium filled with supporters, Barack Obama accepts the Democratic nomination for President of the United States.

      • November 4 – Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States of America, opening his victory speech with, "If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible; who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time; who still questions the power of our democracy, tonight is your answer

    • 2009

      • January 20 – Barack Obama sworn in as the 44th President of the United States, the first African-American ever to become president.

      • January 30 – Former Maryland Lt. Governor Michael Steele becomes Chairman of the Republican National Committee.

      • October 9 – Barack Obama is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

    • 2010

      • July 19 – Shirley Sherrod first is pressured to resign from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and immediately thereafter receives its apology after she is inaccurately accused of being racist towards white Americans.

Still to come: More timeline information on the civil rights movements involving women, homosexuals, Latin Americans, Native Americans, etc….



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