|It is tempting to interpret these recent differences between Ukraine and Russia as evidence of the two countries showing diverging trends. We would argue, however, that it is still too early to state this conclusion with certainty. The political situation in the post-Soviet world is still volatile, as witnessed by the recent revolutions in Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, and policies may change abruptly when a new regime comes to power. Until now these turbulent developments have all been moving in the direction of democracy and the rule of law, but there is no guarantee that these trends are irreversible. Seen in this light, the recent relaxation of the nation-building project in Ukraine may well be only a temporary phenomenon.
Interestingly, a report commissioned by the Council of Europe expresses doubts about the willingness of the post-Soviet states to support education for democratic citizenship (EDC), noting that most of them do not have explicit EDC policies. It further observes that EDC is challenged by “patriotic forces, which criticise democratic citizenship education for promoting simplistic universal values” (Froumin 2004b, p. 76). These forces, it argues, are more compatible with the traditional culture of an authoritarian society than the ideas promoted by EDC, and as a result EDC is relegated to the margins of citizenship education. The Council of Europe thus realizes that its EDC recommendations are not welcomed in all regional contexts, particularly when they conflict with nation-building projects.
In sum an education agenda promoting active citizenship and independent thinking faces considerable obstacles in new states emerging from totalitarianism such as Ukraine and Russia. In these states the adoption or rejection of the democratic citizenship principles is very much dictated by the whims of domestic political events and will depend in large measure on the confidence of the authorities in the national loyalties of their citizenries. In times of instability and challenges to central state authority a discourse stressing pluralism, democracy and autonomy is easily exchanged for a programme sanctioning conformity, loyalty and patriotism in the broad area of citizenship education.
Arel, D. (1995) Language politics and in independent Ukraine: towards one or two state languages? Nationalities Papers, 3, 597-622.
Bogolubov, L., Klokova, G., Kovalyova G. & Poltorak D. (1999) The challenge of civic education in the new Russia, in J. Torney-Purta, J. Schwille & J-A. Amadeo (Eds.) Civic education across countries, twenty-four national case studies from the IEA civic education project (Amsterdam: IEA), 523-543.
Canovan, M. (1998) Nationhood and political theory (Cheltenham, Edward Elgar).
Coulby, D. (1997) Educational Responses to diversity within the state, in: D. Coulby et al. (Eds) The World Yearbook of Education 1997: Intercultural Education (London, Kogan Page), 7-17.
Council of Europe (2004) Information note on the European Year of Citizenship through Education (Strasbourg, Council of Europe).
Cowen, R. (2000) Comparing futures or comparing pasts? Comparative Education, 36 (3), 333-342.
Dneprov, E. (1998) Sovremennaya shkol’naya reforma v Rossii [The contemporary educational reform in Russia] (Moskva, Nauka).
Duerr, K. (1999). Edes 1998-1999: Education for Democracy and European Studies in Ukraine (Council of Europe Report DECS/EDU/CIT (99) 17 prov.).
Forrester, K. (2003) Leaving the academic towers: the Council of Europe and the education for democratic citizenship project, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22 (3), 221–234.
Froumin, I. D. (2004a) Citizenship education and ethnic issues in Russia, in: J. A. Banks (Ed) Diversity and citizenship education. Global perspectives (San Francisco, Jossey-Bass), 273-298.
Froumin, I. D. (2004b) Eastern Europe regional synthesis, in: All-European Study on Education for Democratic Citizenship Policies (Strasbourg, Council of Europe), 101-110.
Goncharenko, S. (1991) Obov’iazkovist’ – Shche ne Vseobuch [Meeting the standards of education – still not common practice], Osvita, 7 May, 2.
Green, A. (1997) Education, globalization and the nation state (New York, St. Martin’s
Heater, D. (1990) Citizenship. The civic ideal in world history, politics and education (London/New York, Longman).
Heater, D. (2002) What is citizenship? (Cambridge, Polity Press).
Hrycak, A. (2004) Schooling, Language and the Policy-Making Power of State Bureaucrats in Ukraine (unpublished paper).
Janmaat, J.G. (1999) Language politics in education and the response of the Russian in Ukraine, Nationalities Papers, 3, 475-501.
Janmaat, J.G. (2000a) Nation-Building in Post-Soviet Ukraine: educational policy and the response of the Russian-speaking population, Utrecht, Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap (KNAG), (PhD thesis).
Janmaat, J.G. (2000b). Educational Reform and Nation-Building in Post-Soviet Ukraine. Analysis of Current Events (published by the Association for the Study of Nationalities), 12 (1-2), 16-19.
Kissane, C. (2005). History Education in Transit: Where to for Kazakhstan? Comparative Education, 41 (1), 45-69.
Kolstoe, P. (2000) Political construction sites: nation-building in Russia and the post-Soviet states (Boulder Colorado, Westview Press).
Koshmanova, T. (2006). National Identity and Cultural Coherence in Educational Reform for Democratic Citizenship: The Case of Ukraine. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 1 (1), 105-118.
Krasna, L., Shevel’ov, A. & Biloshyts’kyi, A. (1991) Zupynit’ zakon! [Stop the law!], Osvita, 26.
Kremen’, V. (2004) Stvoriuemo osvitu maibutn’noho [Let’s build the education of the future], Osvita, 27.
Kremen’ (2006) Ukraine, Vasyl Kremen’, Minister of Education and Science. www.ibe .unesco.org/international/ICE/ministers/Ukraine.pdf (accessed on 23 March 2006).
Kuzio, T. (2002) The nation-building project in Ukraine and identity: towards a consensus, in: T. Kuzio & P. D’Anieri (Eds) Dilemmas of state-led nation building in Ukraine (London, Praeger), 9-28.
Kuzio, T. (2005) The opposition’s road to success, Journal of Democracy, 16 (2), 118-130.
Lapidus, G. (1992) From decentralization to disintegration: the impact of perestroika on the national question, in: G. W. Lapidus, V. Zaslavsky & P. Goldman (Eds) From union to common wealth. Nationalism and separatism in the Soviet Republics (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press), 45-70.
Long, D. H. & Long, R. A. (1999) Education of teachers in Russia (London, Greenwood).
Lucas, M.R. (2001) Supranational organizations, in: A.J. Motyl (Ed) Encyclopedia of nationalism. Findamental themes. Volume 1 (London & San Diego: Academic Press), 805-848.
McCowan, T. (2004) Conformity and the questioning of authority in the citizenship education debates, Educate, 4 (2), 19-32.
Ministry of Education (2004) Pro Zatverdzhennia Typovykh Planiv Zahal’noosvitnikh Navchal’nykh Zakladiv 12-richnoi Shkoly [About the adoption of the central curriculum for 12 year comprehensive schools], Informatsiinyi Zbirnyk Ministerstva Osvity i Nauky Ukrainy, 6, 3-31.
Morozova, S.A. (2000) Grazhdanskoe obrazovanie v demokraticheskoi Rossii [Citizenship education in democratic Russia], in: G.A. Bordovskii et al. Grazhdanskoe obrazovanie: materialy mezhdunarodnogo proekta [Citizenship education: materials of the international project] (St. Petersburg: Herzen State Pedagogical University), 27-36.
NSPU (2002) Zayava Plenumu Rady NSPU Ukrainy [Statement of the plenary assembly of the NSPU], Literaturna Ukraina, 4 July, 1.
Osler, A. & Starkey, H. (2001) Citizenship education and national identities in France and England: inclusive or exclusive? Oxford Review of Education, 27 (2), 287-305.
Ossipov, A. (1999) Official and academic discourse on ethnicity and nationalism in post-Soviet Russia, in: K. Cordell (Ed) Ethnicity and democratization in the new Europe (London and New York: Routledge), 183-196.
Piattoeva, N. (2005) Citizenship education as an expression of democratization and nation-building processes in Russia. European Education, 37 (3), 38-52.
Poliansky, P. (1998). The Secretary General’s New Initiative Seminars on “The Reform of History Teaching in Ukraine” (Council of Europe Report DECS/EDU/HIST (98) 54).
Ryabchuk, M. (2002) Culture and cultural politics in Ukraine: a postcolonial perspective, in: T. Kuzio & P. D’Anieri (Eds) Dilemmas of state-led nation building in Ukraine (London, Praeger), 47-70.
Schöpflin, G. (2000) Nations, identity, power (London, Hurst & Company).
Simonsen, S. G. (2001) Nationalism and the Russian political spectrum: locating and evaluating the extremes, Journal of Political Ideologies, 6 (3), 263-288.
Stepanenko, V. (1999) The construction of identity and school policy in Ukraine (New York, Nova Science Publishers).
Stepanyshyn, B. (1997) Demokratyzatsia ukrains’koho shkil’nytstva [The democratization of the Ukrainian school system], Osvita, 5-12 February.
Tishkov, V. (1997) Ethnicity, nationalism and conflict in and after the Soviet Union. The mind aflame (Oslo, International Peace Research Institute).
Tolz, V. (1998) Conflicting “homeland myths” and nation-state building in postcommunist Russia, Slavic Review, 57 (2), 267-294.
Tolz, V. (2001) Inventing the nation. Russia (London, Arnold).
Vaillant, J.G. (2001) Civic education for Russia: an outsider’s view, in: S. Webber & I. Liikanen (Eds) Education and civic culture in post-communist countries (Basingstoke, Palgrave), 260-272.
Wanner, C. (1995) Educational practices and the making of national identity in post-Soviet Ukraine, Anthropology of East European Review, 13 (2). Available online at http://condor.depaul.edu/~rrotenbe/aeer13_2/Wanner.html (accessed 25 May 2005).
Wanner, C. (1998) Burden of Dreams: History and Identity in Post-Soviet Ukraine. Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
Webber, S. (1999) School, reform and society in the new Russia (Wiltshire, Anthony Rowe, Chippenham).
Wilson, A. (2002) The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Yakymenko, A. (1991) Yakomu Bohovi molytysia [Which God to pray to], Osvita, 16 April.
Zhovta, I. (2005) Stanislav Nikolaenko: Priorytenymy ye Pytannia Evropeic’koi Yakosti i Dostupnosti Osvity [Stanislav Nikolaenko: a key priority is the issue of European quality and accessibility of education], Osvita Ukrainy, 22 February, 2.
Documentory sources (in chronological order)
O konsepciyi natsional’noi shkoli RSFSR, nauchnyh i organizatsionnyh mehanizmah eye realizatsiyi [The conception of the national school of the RSFSR and the scientific and organisational mechanisms of its implementation]. Collegium’s decision 29 December 1990.
O demokratizatsii vospitatel’noy deyatel’nosti v obcheobrazovatel’nih uchrezhdeniyah RSFSR [On the democratization of the up-bringing work of the comprehensive educational institutions of the RSFSR]. Collegium’s decision 24 January 1991
Zakon ob obrazovanii [Education Law], adopted 1992.
Bazisnyi uchebniy plan obcheobrazovatel’nyh uchrezhdeniy Rossiyskoi Federacii [The basis curricula for the comprehensive schools of the Russia Federation]. The Ministry of Education decree dated 7 June 1993, no. 237.
Strategiya razvitiya istoricheskogo i obchestvovedcheskogo obrazovaniya v obcheobrazovatel’nyh uchrezhdeniyah [The development strategy of historical and social science education in comprehensive schools] Collegium’s decision 28 December 1994, no. 24/1.
O grazhdanskom obrazovanii i izuchenii Konstitucii Rossiyskoi Federacii [On citizenship education and the study of the Constitution of the Russian Federation]. The Ministry of Education letter dated 6 February 1995, no. 151/11
Gosudarstvennyi obrazovatel’nyi standart vysshego obrazovaniya. Special’nost’ 031200 – pedagogika i metodika nachal’nogo obrazovaniya [The state education standard of higher education. Specialisation no. 031200 – pedagogy and methodology of primary education]. Adopted 14 July 1995.
O grazhdansko-pravovom obrazovanii uchashchikhsia v obcheobrazovatel’nikh uchrezhdeniiakh Rossiiskoi Federatsii [On Citizenship and Legal Education of Students in Comprehensive Schools of the Russian Federation). The Ministry of Education letter dated 19 March 1996, no. 391/11.
Ob izuchenii prav cheloveka v obcheobrazovatel’nih uchrezhdeniyah Rossiiskoi Federacii v 1998/99 uchebnom godu [On the study of human rights in the comprehensive schools of the Russian Federation in the academic year 1998-9]. 1998.
Programma razvitiia vospitaniia v sisteme obrazovaniia Rossii na 1999–2001 gody [The Upbringing Development Program in the Russian System of Education for 1999–2001], Ministry of Education decree dated 18 October 1999, no.574.
Natsional_’naia doktrina obrazovaniia v Rossiiskoi Federatsii [The National Doctrine of Education of the Russian Federation]. 2000.
Gosudarstvennyi obrazovatel’nyi standart vysshego obrazovaniya. Special’nost’ 031200 – pedagogika i metodika nachal’nogo obrazovaniya [The state education standard of higher education. Specialisation no. 031200 – pedagogy and methodology of primary education]. Adopted 14 April 2000.
Gosudarstvennaia programma “Patrioticheskoe vospitanie grazhdan Rossiiskoi Federatsii na 2001–2005 gody” [State Program “Patriotic Upbringing of the Citizens of the Russian Federation for 2001–2005”). 16 February 2001, no. 122.
Ob ofitsial_’nikh ritualakh v obcheobrazovatel_’nikh uchrezhdeniiakh, sviazannikh s primeneniem gosudarstvennih simvolov Rossiiskoi Federatsii [On Official Rituals Related to the Use of State Symbols in Comprehensive Schools]. Ministry of Education letter dated 10 May 2001, no. 22-06-626.
Programma razvitiia vospitaniia v sisteme obrazovaniia Rossii na 2002–2004 gody [The Upbringing Development Program for the Russian System of Education for 2002–2004]. Ministry of Education decree dated 25 January 2002, no. 193.
Ob rekomendatsiiakh “Ob organizatsii vospitatel_’noi deiatel_’nosti po oznakomleniiu s istoriei i znacheniiem ofitsial_’nikh gosudarstvennikh simvolov Rossiiskoi Federatsii i ikh populiarizatsii [On Recommendations “About the Organization of Upbringing Activities Aimed at Familiarization with the History and Implication of Official State Symbols of the Russian Federation and Their Popularization”). Ministry of Education letter dated 1 March 2002, no. 30-51-131/16.
O grazhdanskom obrazovanii uchashchikhsia obcheobrazovatel_’nikh uchrezhdenii Rossiiskoi Federatsii [On the Citizenship Education of Comprehensive School Students of the Russian Federation). Ministry of Education letter dated 15 January 2003, no. 13-51-08/13.
Konseptsiia patrioticheskogo vospitaniia grazhdan Rossiiskoi Federatsii [The Concept of Patriotic Upbringing of the Citizens of the Russian Federation]. 2003.
Federal’niy komponent gosudarstvennogo standarta obchego obrazovaniya [The federal component of the state standard of comprehensive education]. Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation. 2004.
1991 Education Act [Zakon Ukrains’koi RSR “Pro Osvitu]. For the text of the law see Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady, No, 34, 1991.
Government of Ukraine (2004) Derzhavnyi Standart Bazovoi i Povnoi Seredn’oi Osvity [State standards for primary and secondary education], Istoria v shkolakh Ukrainy, No. 9, pp. 1-9.
Constitution of Ukraine (1996) (Kyiv, Vydavnytstvo ‘Pravo’), official translation.
1996 Education Act [Zakon Ukrainy pro Vnesennia Zmin I Dopovnen’ do Zakonu Ukrainskoi RSR “Pro Osvitu”]. For the text of the law see Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, No. 21, 1996.
NDDE (National Doctrine for the Development of Education) [Natsional’na Doktryna Rozvytky Osvity]. This document was published in Osvita, 24 April – 1 May, 2002.
State National Programme ‘Education’, [Derzhavna Natsional’na Prohrama “Osvita” (Ukraїna XXI Stolittia] (1994). Kyїv: Raiduha.