Chronological listing of Aboriginal History in Australia 55,000 60,000 bp
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Chronological listing of Aboriginal History in Australia
Chronological listing of Aboriginal
History in Australia
55,000 - 60,000 BP
At a site in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, a rock shelter was used by people about 60,000 years ago.
Rock engravings discovered in South Australia date back 45,000 years.
years ago at Willandra Lakes
, western New South Wales, an Aboriginal family left a midden of mussel shells, charcoal and ash from a dinner camp.
A man from Lake Mungo area was buried in a shallow grave about 30,000 years ago.
The Devil's Lair, a cave in the south-west
of Western Australia
, was first occupied (occupation ceased about 6000 years ago).
The body of a woman from Lake Mungo, Western Australia, provides the earliest evidence of ritual cremation in the world.
Aborigines who lived at Malangangarr in Arnhem Land used ground-edge axes.
Earliest recorded occupation of the central deserts at Puritjarra.
15 - 24,000 BP
Nullabor Plains at Koonalda
, Aborigines mined flint and left grooved designs on cave walls.
At Miriwan in WA and in the Pilbara, ground-edge axes were being used.
Art at Ubirr discovered in Kakadu National Park depicts now extinct animals.
In the post-glacial period, around 12,000
, Tasmania separated from the mainland.
Aborigines at Wyrie Swamp used boomerangs for hunting.
Aboriginal remains discovered at Kow Swamp, northern Victoria, date back 10,000 years.
9000 - 7000 BP
The earliest visible evidence of the Rainbow Serpent in Aboriginal belief.
Human remains found at Lake Nitchie date back 6800 years.
Small tool technology had spread as far as Cape York.
Dugout canoes were being used by Aborigines along Australia's northern coast.
1400 - 1810
Possible landings on Australian shores by merchants and explorers from India.
Chinese traders may have reached the nothern shores of Australia in the first half of the 15th century.
Macassan journeys to the north eastern coast of the Northern Territory started tradings with the Aborigines.
Spanish explorer Pedro Fernando de Quiros named a small island along the northern coast 'Australis del Espiritu Santo', mistaking it for Australia.
Dutch ship 'Duyfken' captained by William Jansz made contact with Aborigines on the west of Cape York Peninsula.
Luis Vaez de
Torres sailed past Cape York
, where the Strait now bears his name.
Dutchman Dirk Hartog landed on an island off the Western Australian coast, now named after him.
The south-westerly tip of Australia was sighted by the ship 'Leeuwin', which the cape is named after.
Englishman William Dampier landed in Australia.
James Cook claimed possession of the east coast of Australia, raising the British
flag at Possession Island
, at the tip of Cape York.
European colonisation of Australia.
The Aboriginal population was more than 750,000.
The first Crown Land Grants were made.
First free immigrants settled at Liberty Plains.
Bass and Flinders circumnavigated Van Dieman's Land (Tasmania).
Aboriginal resistance flared in the Parramatta and Hawkesbury regions.
Van Dieman's Land was settled.
Settlers in Van Dieman's Land were authorised to shoot Aborigines.
First celebration by European settlers of 26th January as the foundation of the colony.
1810 - 1900
Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson crossed the Blue Mountains.
In official correspondence Governor Macquarie adopted the name 'Australia', meaning Southland (Terra Australis).
Van Dieman's Land (Tasmania) became a separate colony from New South Wales.
European population 36,595.
Settlement of Perth founded.
The 'Black Line' formed in Van Dieman's Land to capture Aborigines.
South Australia became a province.
Settlement of what became Melbourne.
John Batman entered a treaty to validate his land claim.
First Aboriginal Protectorate established for Port Phillip.
In south-western Victoria, Gunditjmara's resistance to their lands being occupied was strong.
New South Wales native police troopers were brought to Queensland to kill the Aborigines and open up the land for settlement.
Port Phillip District (Victoria) separated from New South Wales.
Population (non-indigenous) - 1,000,000.
The separate colony of Queensland was established.
Transportation of convicts ended.
The first Aboriginal cricket team left Sydney for England.
150 Aboriginal people were killed for resisting arrest in the Kimberly region.
Ayers Rock named by explorer William Gosse.
Population - 2,000,000.
Western Australia became the last Australian colony to achieve self-government.
Aboriginal resistance fighter
, declared war on European invaders in the West Kimberley.
1900 - 1960
Commonwealth of Australia proclaimed on 1st January.
White Australia policy introduced.
Population - 4,000,000.
Canberra chosen as the site for the capital of Australia.
Introduction of the Invalid & Old Age Pensioner Act which provided Social Security benefits, excluding Aboriginal people.
Introduction of the Maternity Allowance; Aboriginal people were excluded.
World War I.
Population - 5,000,000.
Migration scheme for British ex-servicemen and their families introduced.
Purrkuji massacre of Aboriginal people in SE Kimberley.
The Great Depression.
Population - 6,000,000.
Australian Aborigines Conference held on 26th January.
World War II.
Endowment Act introduced
; no endowment was paid to nomadic or dependent natives.
Pact signed with the International Refugees Organisation to resettle Europeans displaced by war.
Beginning of major immigration program.
Population - 8,000,000.
Commonwealth Electoral Act extended franchise to Aboriginal ex-servicemen.
Northern Territory Legislative Council passed a bill giving citizenship rights to all Territory Aborigines except those in state care.
First tour of Australia by a reigning sovereign, made by Queen Elizabeth II.
'Permanent residence' status created to allow non-European migrants to claim citizenship and bring out their families.
The Federal Council for the Advancement of Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders was established.
Population - 10,000,000.
Commonwealth Electoral Act amended giving franchise to all Aboriginal people.
A bark petition against mining on the Gove Peninsula was presented to Parliament.
Aboriginal leader Charles Perkins leads Freedom Ride through western NSW.
Population, including Aboriginal people - 11,599,498.
Stockmen and women at Wave Hill walk off in protest against intolerable working conditions and inadequate wages.
The referendum proposing amendments to remove constitutional discrimination against Aboriginal people was approved by over 90% of voters.
Gove Land Rights Case - Denial of Aboriginal Property Rights, which affirmed the Fiction of Terra Nullius.
First time the Aboriginal flag was flown.
Aboriginal Tent Embassy was established.
Racial Discrimination Act passed in Federal Parliament.
Aboriginal land Rights (Nothern Territory) Act - 36% of NT land area reverted to Aboriginal ownership under freehold title.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Interim Protection) Act came into force.
of the Bicentennial
, Australia Day protests and first step to Aboriginal recognition.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission Act was established (ATSIC).
Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody presented its Report to the Federal Government.
Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation Act was passed in Parliament.
The High Court handed down the Mabo decision.
International Year for the World's Indigenous People.
Native Title Act 1993 came into effect.
The High Court handed down the Wik decision.
Australian population - 18,311,000.
The Stolen Generation Report.
First National Sorry Day.
Centenary of Federation.
Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation Act 1991 ceases to have force.
Lore of the Land; Reconciling Spirit and place in Australias story.
Accessed via web address: http://www.loreoftheland.com.au/index.html
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